Search results: Found 14

Listing 1 - 10 of 14 << page
of 2
>>
Sort by
Sugar, Steam and Steel: The Industrial Project in Colonial Java, 1830-1850

Author:
ISBN: 9781922064998 Year: Pages: 322 DOI: 10.20851/steam-and-steel Language: English
Publisher: University of Adelaide Press
Subject: History --- Migration
Added to DOAB on : 2014-12-19 00:53:15
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Sugar, Steam and Steel is about cane sugar and the transformation of an Indonesian island into the â&#128;&#152;Oriental Cubaâ&#128;&#153; during the middle decades of the nineteenth century. Between the 1830s and the 1880s, sweetener manufacture in Dutch-controlled Java â&#128;&#148; the crown jewel of the erstwhile Netherlands Indies â&#128;&#148; drew decisively away in matters of technology and sugar science from other Asian centres of production which had once equaled or, more often, surpassed it in terms of both output and know-how. Along with its larger and altogether more famous Caribbean counterpart, Javaâ&#128;&#153;s industry came to occupy a position at the apex of the trade in what had become by this date a key global commodity.

Impact of Diet on Learning, Memory and Cognition

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452286 Year: Pages: 117 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-228-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Changes in food composition and availability have contributed to the dramatic increase in obesity over the past 30-40 years in developed and, increasingly, in developing countries. The modern diet now contains many foods that are rich in saturated fat and refined sugar. People who eat excessive amounts of this diet are not only likely to become overweight, even obese, develop metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, some forms of cancer, but also undergo a more rapid rate of normal age-related cognitive decline and more rapid progression of neurological diseases such as dementia. A central problem is why people persist in consuming this diet in spite of its adverse health effects and when alternative food choices are available. As high fat / high sugar foods are inherently rewarding, eating for pleasure, like taking psychoactive drugs, can modulate reward neurocircuitry, causing changes in responsiveness to reward-predicting stimuli and incentive motivation. Indeed, the excessive ingestion in modern societies and the resulting obesity epidemic may be viewed as a form of food addiction. Thus, a diet high in palatable foods is proposed to impact upon reward systems in the brain, modulating appetitive learning and altering reward thresholds. Impairments in other forms of cognition have been associated with obesity, and these have a rapid onset. The hippocampus appears to be particularly vulnerable to the detrimental effects of high fat and high sugar diets. Recent research has shown that as little as one week of exposure to a high fat, high sugar diet leads to impairments in place but not object recognition memory in the rat. Excess sugar alone had similar effects, and the detrimental effects of diet consumption was linked to increased inflammatory markers in the hippocampus, a critical region involved in memory. Furthermore, obesity-related inflammatory changes have also been described in the human brain that may lead to memory impairments. These memory deficits may contribute to pathological eating behaviour through changes in the amount consumed and timing of eating. The aim of this eBook is to present up-to-date information about the impact of diet and diet-induced obesity on reward driven learning, memory and cognition, encompassing both animal and human literature, and also potential therapeutic targets to attenuate such deficits.

Keywords

Diet --- Obesity --- Memory --- Cognition --- Famine --- Fat --- Sugar --- Behavior --- Neurodevelopment

Science at the end of empire

Author:
Book Series: Studies in Imperialism ISBN: 9781526131409 Year: Pages: 244 Language: English
Publisher: Manchester University Press Grant: Wellcome Trust
Subject: Science (General) --- History --- Migration --- Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-12 11:01:02
License: Manchester University Press

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This book produces a major rethinking of the history of development after 1940 through an exploration of Britain’s ambitions for industrialisation in its Caribbean colonies. Industrial development is a neglected topic in histories of the British Colonial Empire, and we know very little of plans for Britain’s Caribbean colonies in general in the late colonial period, despite the role played by riots in the region in prompting an increase in development spending. This account shows the importance of knowledge and expertise in the promotion of a model of Caribbean development that is best described as liberal rather than state-centred and authoritarian. It explores how the post-war period saw an attempt by the Colonial Office to revive Caribbean economies by transforming cane sugar from a low-value foodstuff into a lucrative starting compound for making fuels, plastics and medical products. In addition, it shows that as Caribbean territories moved towards independence and America sought to shape the future of the region, scientific and economic advice became a key strategy for the maintenance of British control of the West Indian colonies. Britain needed to counter attempts by American-backed experts to promote a very different approach to industrial development after 1945 informed by the priorities of US foreign policy.

Sago Palm: Multiple Contributions to Food Security and Sustainable Livelihoods

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9789811052682 9789811052699 Year: Pages: 330 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-5269-9 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: Society of Sago Palm Studies
Subject: Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-02 11:43:55
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This book addresses a wide variety of events and technologies concerning the sago palm, ranging from its botanical characteristics, culture and use to social conditions in the places where it is grown, in order to provide a record of research findings and to benefit society. It discusses various subjects, including the sago palm and related species; differentiation of species of starch-producing palm; habitat, morphological, physiological and growth characteristics; culture and management; productivity of carbon dioxide; starch extraction and manufacture; characteristics and utilization of starch; and cultural anthropological and folkloristic aspects.Problems such as food shortages due to increasing populations, global warming and climate change, and decreasing reserves of oil and other underground resources, have become more pressing in recent years. In the context of these problems, the book examines the role of the sago palm in sustainable food production, in the manufacture of other foodstuffs, as a raw material for ethanol and in the manufacture of biodegradable plastics. In addition to academics, this book will be useful to researchers and government officials working for international agencies, national governments, municipalities, and other research organizations; technicians, researchers, managers, entrepreneurs, and others working in industries such as agriculture, plant production, food production, manufacturing, chemical engineering, energy production, and distribution.

Plant Glycobiology - a sweet world of lectins, glycoproteins, glycolipids and glycans

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194216 Year: Pages: 136 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-421-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Plants synthesize a wide variety of unique glycan structures which play essential roles during the life cycle of the plant. Being omnipresent throughout the plant kingdom, ranging from simple green algae to modern flowering plants, glycans contribute to many diverse processes. Glycans can function as structural components in the plant cell wall, assist in the folding of nascent proteins, act as signaling molecules in plant defense responses or (ER) stress pathways, or serve within the energy metabolism of a plant. In most cases, glycans are attached to other macromolecules to form so-called glycoconjugates (e.g. glycoproteins, proteoglycans and glycolipids), but they can also be present as free entities residing in the plant cell. Next to the broad, complex set of glycans, plants also evolved an elaborate collection of lectins or proteins with a lectin-like domain, which can recognize and bind to endogenous (plants-own) or exogenous (foreign) glycans. Though still poorly understood in plants, the dynamic interactions between lectins and carbohydrate structures are suggested to be involved in gene transcription, protein folding, protein transport, cell adhesion, signaling as well as defense responses. As such, a complex and largely undetermined glycan-interactome is established inside plant cells, between cells and their surrounding matrix, inside the extracellular matrix, and even between organisms. Studying the biological roles of plant glycans will enable to better understand plant development and physiology in order to fully exploit plants for food, feed and production of pharmaceutical proteins.In this Research Topic, we want to provide a platform for articles describing the latest research, perspectives and methodologies related to the fascinating world of plant glycobiology, with a focus on following subjects:1. Identification and characterization of plant glycans, their biosynthetic and degradation enzymes 2. Characterization of plant lectins and glycoproteins 3. Plant glycans in the plant’s energy metabolism 4. Role of plant glycans in plant defense signaling 5. Use of plant lectins in pest control 6. Plant lectins as new tools in human medicine 7. Glyco-engineering in plants

The Impact of Beverages on Ingestive Behavior

Author:
ISBN: 9783038978121 9783038978138 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-813-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-13 09:19:27
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Nutrients is planning a Special Issue focusing on beverages and ingestive behavior. This Special Issue will focus on research related to all aspects of beverage consumption and post-ingestive consequences. There continues to be much controversy surrounding the influence of beverage choice on health outcomes. Research investigating the impact of beverage choice has on human health and post-ingestive consequences continue to grow. We know from the growing body of literature that beverage choice has a substantial impact on metabolism, food reinforcement and eating behaviors.

Beverage Sensory Modification

Author:
ISBN: 9783039213931 / 9783039213948 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-394-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This Special Issue on “Beverage Sensory Modification” presents a series of articles that feature the broad sense of sensory modification with regards to beverages, either by improving their flavor, taste, and mouthfeel properties, or through prevention of spoilage. The scope goes further than the usual technological measures that modulate sensory properties and includes psychological and cross-modal influences, where the sensory modification occurs in the subject’s brain rather than as a result of modified physical–chemical properties of objects.

Siloxane-Based Polymers

Author:
ISBN: 9783038971252 / 9783038971269 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-126-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This book, a collection of 12 original contributions and 4 reviews, provides a selection of the most recent advances in the preparation, characterization, and applications of polymeric nanocomposites comprising nanoparticles. The concept of nanoparticle-reinforced polymers came about three decades ago, following the outstanding discovery of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes. One of the main ideas behind this approach is to improve the matrix mechanical performance. The nanoparticles exhibit higher specific surface area, surface energy, and density compared to microparticles and, hence, lower nanofiller concentrations are needed to attain properties comparable to, or even better than, those obtained by conventional microfiller loadings, which facilitates processing and minimizes the increase in composite weight. The addition of nanoparticles into different polymer matrices opens up an important research area in the field of composite materials. Moreover, many different types of inorganic nanoparticles, such as quantum dots, metal oxides, and ceramic and metallic nanoparticles, have been incorporated into polymers for their application in a wide range of fields, ranging from medicine to photovoltaics, packaging, and structural applications.

Keywords

fabrication --- multielectrode array (MEA) --- PDMS --- PDMS etching --- plateau-shaped electrode --- recessed electrode --- spinal cord signal recording --- underexposure --- organosilane --- quartz microcrystal --- encapsulant --- refractive index --- thermal conductivity --- poly(dimethylsiloxanes) --- surface modification --- nanosilica --- diethyl carbonate --- carbon content --- morphology --- coatings --- fillers --- hybrid hydrogel --- MAPOSS --- mechanical properties --- swelling --- drug release --- dental resin --- methacryl POSS --- shrinkage --- hardness --- scratch resistance --- ceramizable silicone rubber --- borate --- halloysite --- composite --- ceramizable mechanism --- polysiloxanes --- mortar --- basalt fibre --- roughness --- surface free energy --- poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) --- hydrophilic --- non-releasable --- polydimethylsiloxane --- coatings --- cross-linking --- surface --- amphiphilic --- anti-bioadhesion --- hyperbranched poly(methylhydrosiloxanes) --- hydrolytic polycondensation --- 29Si-NMR --- topology of polysiloxane chains --- polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes --- high molecular weight --- nanoparticles --- PDMS --- sugar templating process --- 3D porous network --- thermal stability --- TG-FTIR --- X-ray (Micro-CT) microtomography --- sol-gel --- hybrids --- chlorogenic acid --- bioactivity --- FTIR --- TG --- polysiloxanes --- theranostics --- drug delivery --- nanomedicine --- PDMS --- silicon --- ultraviolet (UV) curable coatings --- low surface energy materials --- fluorinated siloxane resin

Hardwood Reforestation and Restoration

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038977308 / 9783038977315 Year: Pages: 192 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-731-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:28
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Hardwood-dominated temperate forests (mostly in Eastern North America, Europe, North East Asia) provide valuable renewable timber and numerous ecosystem services. Many of these forests have been subjected to harvesting or conversion to agriculture, sometimes over centuries, that have greatly reduced their former extent and diversity. Natural regeneration following harvesting or during post-agricultural succession has often failed to restore these forests adequately. Past harvesting practices and the valuable timber of some species have led to a reduction in their abundance. The loss of apex predators has caused herbivore populations to increase and exert intense browsing pressure on hardwood regeneration, often preventing it. Particularly important are fruit, nut and acorn bearing species, because of their vital role in forest food webs and biodiversity. Restoring hardwood species to natural forests in which they were formerly more abundant will require a number of forest management actions (e.g., resistant hybrids, deer exclosures/protectors, enrichment planting, underplanting, etc.). Similarly, reforesting areas that were once natural forests will also require new silvicultural knowledge. Global warming trends will intensify the need for interventions to maintain the diversity and function of temperate hardwood forests, as well as for increase hardwood reforestation.

Integrated Role of Nutrition and Physical Activity for Lifelong Health

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039212118 / 9783039212125 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-212-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

As computer and space technologies have been developed, geoscience information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technologies, which deal with the geospatial information, have been rapidly maturing. Moreover, over the last few decades, machine learning techniques including artificial neural network (ANN), deep learning, decision tree, and support vector machine (SVM) have been successfully applied to geospatial science and engineering research fields. The machine learning techniques have been widely applied to GIS and RS research fields and have recently produced valuable results in the areas of geoscience, environment, natural hazards, and natural resources. This book is a collection representing novel contributions detailing machine learning techniques as applied to geoscience information systems and remote sensing.

Keywords

aging --- chronic low-grade systemic inflammation --- physical activity --- nutrition --- physical performance --- chronic diseases --- adolescent --- free or reduced lunch --- National School Lunch Program --- Fitbit --- soccer --- low-income --- Latino --- added sugar --- sport nutrition --- sport --- older adults --- diet quality --- physical activity --- telemonitoring --- lifestyle intervention --- mechanisms of impact --- mediation analyses --- dietary restriction --- macronutrients --- physical exercise --- free radicals --- cytokines --- childhood memories --- sport spectators --- sport games --- sporting events --- music events --- food consumption --- out-of-home eating --- food healthiness --- immunity --- inflammation --- metabolism --- physical activity --- physical activity --- food intake --- adolescents --- movement skills --- fitness --- nutrition education --- health promotion --- behavioral intervention --- self-efficacy --- stunting --- overweight --- obesity --- physical activity --- dual burden of malnutrition --- compensatory eating --- exercise-induced anorexia --- food choice --- acute exercise --- behavioral economics --- nudges --- aging --- exercise --- diet --- telomerase --- TERRA --- telomere length --- senescence --- dietary intake --- physical activity --- body weight --- lifestyle change --- cardiometabolic health --- long-term follow-up --- vegetarian --- vegan --- half-marathon --- marathon --- running --- health conscious --- recreational athlete --- Protein --- oxidation --- anabolic competence --- breath test --- naturally enriched 13C-milk proteins --- endurance exercise --- skeletal muscle damage --- inflammation --- protein --- carbohydrates --- protein shake --- food --- n/a

Listing 1 - 10 of 14 << page
of 2
>>
Sort by