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Carbohydrate Metabolism in Health and Disease

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ISBN: 9783038429999 9783038970002 Year: Pages: X, 256 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-04 13:00:08
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Carbohydrate metabolism is a fundamental aspect of health and a crucial function in a variety of species, including humans. A primary disfunction in major global diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes, is dysregulation of thecarbohydrate metabolism. Furthermore, certain disease outcomes may be impacted by the amount and type of dietary carbohydrates consumed. Finally, carbohydrate obtainability is essential for optimal performance and endurance during sporting events. This book collates articles that either describe original research, or review the scientific literature on the topic of carbohydrate metabolism in health and disease. .

Dietary Fructose and Glucose: The Multifacetted Aspects of Their Metabolism and Implication for Human Health (Vol. 1)

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ISBN: 9783038970538 9783038970545 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: X, 318 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-15 09:00:11
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We welcome the submission of manuscripts, either describing original research, or reviewing scientific literature. Manuscripts should focus on well-defined topics, not previously reported extensively in the literature, such as (without being limited to): functional aspects of fructose and glucose metabolism health effects of chronic fructose and glucose consumption molecular and mechanistic insights of hexoses-induced metabolic adaptations sugars, sweet taste receptors and brain responses intervention studies in humansPapers covering species comparisons of nutrition/metabolism or evolutionary perspectives, or effects of fructose and glucose in specific physiological conditions (physical activity, pregnancy, growth, etc.) or special tissues (testis, placenta) are welcome.

Dietary Fructose and Glucose: The Multifacetted Aspects of Their Metabolism and Implication for Human Health (Vol. 2)

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ISBN: 9783038970835 9783038970842 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: X, 318 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-15 09:25:11
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We welcome the submission of manuscripts, either describing original research, or reviewing scientific literature. Manuscripts should focus on well-defined topics, not previously reported extensively in the literature, such as (without being limited to): functional aspects of fructose and glucose metabolism health effects of chronic fructose and glucose consumption molecular and mechanistic insights of hexoses-induced metabolic adaptations sugars, sweet taste receptors and brain responses intervention studies in humansPapers covering species comparisons of nutrition/metabolism or evolutionary perspectives, or effects of fructose and glucose in specific physiological conditions (physical activity, pregnancy, growth, etc.) or special tissues (testis, placenta) are welcome.

Microbial Exopolysaccharides: From Genes to Applications

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198436 Year: Pages: 161 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-843-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Microbial polysaccharides represent an attractive alternative to those from plants or macro algae. They can be produced from renewable sources including lignocellulosic waste streams. Their production does not depend on geographical constraints and/or seasonal limitations. Additionally the manipulation of biosynthetic pathways to enhance productivity or to influence the chemi-cal polysaccharide composition is comparatively easy in bacteria. Microbial exopolysaccharides represents a valuable resource of biogenic and biodegradable polymers, suitable to replace petro based polymers in various technical applications. Furthermore, biocompatible exopolysaccha-rides are very attractive in medical applications, such as drug delivery systems, use as vaccines or nanoparticles. This research topic will depict the status quo, as well as the future needs in the field of EPS and biofilm research. Starting from the unexplored diversity of microbial polysaccharide producers to production processes and possibilities for modifications, to enhance the already high number of functionalities based on the chemical structures. An overview of the recent and future applications will be given, and the necessity in unravelling the biosynthesis of microbial exopolysaccharide producers is depicted, highlighting the future trend of tailor made polymers. Constraints in structure analysis of these highly complex biogenic polymers are described and different approaches to solve the restrictions in imaging and NMR analysis will be given. Therefore; this research topic comprises the whole process from genes to applications.

Biofuels and Biochemicals Production

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ISBN: 9783038425540 9783038425557 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-555-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-10 12:39:10
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The high demand and depletion of petroleum reserves and the associated impact on the environment, together with volatility in the energy market price over the past three decades, have led to tremendous efforts in bio-based research activities, especially in biofuels and biochemicals. Most people associate petroleum with gasoline, however, approximately 6000 petroleum-derived products are available on the market today. Ironically, these petroleum-derived products have not elicited a high level of interest among the populace and media due, in part, to little awareness of the origins of these important products. Given the finite nature of petroleum, it is critical to devote substantial amounts of energy and resources on the development of renewable chemicals, as is currently done for fuels. Theoretically, the bioproduction of gasoline-like fuels and the 6000 petroleum-derived products are within the realm of possibility since our aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems contain abundant and diverse microorganisms capable of catalyzing unlimited numbers of reactions. Moreover, the fields of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering have evolved to the point that a wide range of microorganisms can be enticed or manipulated to catalyze foreign, or improve indigenous, biosynthetic reactions. To increase the concentration of products of interest and to ensure consistent productivity and yield, compatible fermentation processes must be used. Greater agricultural and chemical production during the past three decades, due in part to population increase and industrialization, has generated increasing levels of waste, which must be treated prior to discharge into waterways or wastewater treatment plants. Thus, in addition to the need to understand the physiology and metabolism of microbial catalysts of biotechnological significance, development of cost-effective fermentation strategies to produce biofuels and chemicals of interests while generating minimal waste, or better yet, converting waste into value-added products, is crucial. In this Special Issue, we invite authors to submit original research and review articles that increase our understanding of fermentation technology vis-à-vis production of liquid biofuels and biochemicals, and fermentation strategies that alleviate product toxicity to the fermenting microorganism while enhancing productivity. Further, original research articles and reviews focused on anaerobic digestion, production of gaseous biofuels, fermentation optimization using modelling and simulations, metabolic engineering, or development of tailor-made fermentation processes are welcome.

Carbohydrate Intake in Non-communicable Disease Prevention and Treatment

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ISBN: 9783038978183 9783038978190 Year: Pages: 156 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-819-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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In 2011, carbohydrates provided 63% of the dietary energy intake to the world’s population. Historically, carbohydrate-rich diets have been associated with good health and longevity but there has been a move away from traditional carbohydrate-rich diets, with refined carbohydrate taking much criticism for contributing to non-communicable disease. The aim of this Special Issue is to discuss the appropriate use of environmentally sustainable carbohydrate-rich foods in the modern diet in developing and developed countries in the context of prevention and treatment of non-communicable disease.

Biological Potential and Medical Use of Secondary Metabolites

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ISBN: 9783039211876 / 9783039211883 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-188-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Many macro and micro species, from terrestrial and aquatic environments, produce structurally unique compounds and, in many countries, still are the primary sources of medicines. In fact, secondary metabolites are an important source of chemotherapeutic agents but are also lead compounds for synthetic modification and the optimization of biological activity. Therefore, the exploitation of secondary metabolites, or their inspired synthetic compounds, offers excellent opportunities for the pharmaceutical industry. This Medicines Special Issue focuses on the great potential of secondary metabolites for therapeutic application. The Special Issue contains 16 articles reporting relevant experimental results, and an overview of bioactive secondary metabolites, their biological effects, and new methodologies that improve and accelerate the process of obtained lead compounds with regard to new drug development. We would like to thank all 83 authors, from all over the world, for their valuable contributions to this Special Issue.

Keywords

Juniperus --- secondary metabolites --- diterpenes --- flavonoids --- lignans --- cytotoxic --- antitumor --- antibacterial --- amentoflavone --- deoxypodophyllotoxin --- frankincense --- Boswellia --- cembranoids --- cneorubenoids --- boswellic acids --- molecular docking --- Scabiosa --- flavonoids --- iridoids --- pentacyclic triterpenoids --- antioxidant --- anti-inflammatory --- antibacterial --- anticancer --- Cordyceps militaris --- xanthine oxidase --- antioxidant --- antibacterial --- cordycepin --- GC-MS --- Artemisia species --- Artemisia vachanica --- artemisinin --- HPLC-PAD --- Tajikistan --- Malus x domestica --- Tuscany --- ancient varieties --- nutraceutics --- antioxidants --- polyphenols --- sugars --- pectin --- defensins --- secondary metabolites --- plant defense --- antimicrobial and anticancer activity --- medicine --- innate immunity --- cannabis --- cannabinoids --- therapeutics --- toxicology --- analytical determination --- legalization --- natural products --- biosynthetic gene clusters --- secondary metabolites --- antiSMASH --- Mitragyna speciosa --- kratom --- secondary metabolites --- therapeutic uses --- toxicology --- analysis --- Maytenus chiapensis --- Celastraceae --- quinonemethide triterpenoids --- pristimerin --- tingenone --- HPLC-PDA --- Ocimum sanctum --- Lamiaceae --- (-)-rabdosiin --- cytotoxic activity --- triterpenoids --- phenolic derivatives --- nanoemulsion --- essential oils --- vector control --- infectious diseases --- TCM --- phytochemistry --- LC-MS/MS --- antioxidant activity --- ABTS --- DPPH --- FRAP --- ascorbic acid --- EGCG --- total phenolics --- antimicrobial activity --- sargaquinoic acid --- sarganaphthoquinoic acid --- antiplasmodial --- malaria --- PPAR-? --- sargahydroquinoic acid --- sarganaphthoquinoic acid --- sargachromenoic acid --- inflammation --- bowel diseases --- secondary metabolites --- biological activities --- medicinal applications --- plants --- seaweeds

Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Bioactive Natural Products 2018

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ISBN: 9783038977889 Year: Pages: 374 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-789-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Throughout most of history, medicinal plants and their active metabolites have represented a valuable source of compounds used to prevent and to cure several diseases. Interest in natural compounds is still high as they represent a source of novel biologically/pharmacologically active compounds. Due to their high structural diversity and complexity, they are interesting structural scaffolds that can offer promising candidates for the study of new drugs, functional foods, and food additives.Plant extracts are a highly complex mixture of compounds and qualitative and quantitative analyses are necessary to ensure their quality. Furthermore, greener methods of extraction and analysis are needed today.This book is based on articles submitted for publication in the Special Issue entitled “Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Bioactive Natural Products” that collected original research and reviews on these topics.

Keywords

Talaromyces pinophilus --- talarodiolide --- macrodiolides --- GC/MS --- secondary metabolites --- anthocyanins --- red cabbage --- recycling preparative high performance liquid chromatography --- stability --- UHPLC-MS/MS --- decursin --- decursinol angelate --- nodakenin --- decursinol --- Ginkgo biloba Extract (GBE) --- chromatogram-bioactivity correlation --- bioactive compounds --- endothelial function --- wine --- volatile compounds --- terrain conditions --- odor-activity values --- SPME-GC/MS --- Bolbostemma paniculatum --- identification --- LTQ-Orbitrap --- UPLC --- multivariate statistical analysis --- cannabidiol --- CBD oil --- terpenes --- hemp seed oil --- GC-MS --- HPLC-Q-Exactive-Orbitrap-MS --- Rossa da inverno sel. Rojo Duro onion cultivar --- geographical origin --- amino acids content --- HPLC analysis --- statistical evaluations --- food traceability --- aleuritolic acid --- autophagy --- apoptosis --- HPLC --- Curcuma longa --- turmeric --- curcuminoids --- turmerone --- quantification --- Quercus acuta leaf --- antioxidant --- antibacterial activity --- Staphylococcus aureus --- Erigeron breviscapus extract --- UPLC-ESI-MS/MS --- cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury --- scutellarin --- scutellarein --- HPLC --- Podospermum --- Scorzonera --- triterpenes --- ginseng berry extract --- ginsenosides --- stereoselective and simultaneous analysis --- pharmacokinetics --- oral administration --- saffron --- crocins --- UHPLC analysis --- separation optimisation --- artificial neural network --- response surface methodology --- bioactive natural compounds --- secondary metabolites --- Alzheimer’s disease --- Olea europaea L. --- liquid chromatography --- gas chromatography --- mass spectrometry --- secondary metabolites --- olive leaves --- Moroccan region --- phenolic compounds --- liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry --- chemometrics --- metabolic profiling --- Sorbus --- fruit powders --- phenolic compounds --- carotenoids --- sugars --- organic acids --- chili --- capsaicinoids --- phenolics --- free radical-scavenging --- geographical variation --- 1-triacontanol --- HPLC-ELSD --- biostimulant --- method validation --- Myristica fragrans --- nutmeg --- essential oil --- ionic liquids --- hydrodistillation --- MODDE experimental design --- rice --- phenolic compounds --- phenolic acids --- flavonoids --- anthocyanins --- proanthocyanidins --- antioxidant activity --- extraction --- HPLC methods --- phenolic compounds --- Spondias spp. --- UPLC-MS --- antioxidant capacity --- Iris lactea Pall. var. chinensis (Fisch.) Koidz. --- HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS --- qualitative analysis --- quantitative analysis --- C-glycosylflavone --- traditional Chinese medicine decoction --- quality evaluation --- UPLC-QTOF-MS --- UFLC-QQQ-MS --- ShenFu prescription decoction

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