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The regulated secretory pathway in neuroendocrine cells

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192465 Year: Pages: 157 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-246-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General) --- Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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The regulated secretory pathway is a hallmark of neuroendocrine cells. This process comprises many sequential steps, which include ER-associated protein synthesis, post-translational modification of proteins in the Golgi complex, sorting and packing of secretory proteins into carrier granules, cytoskeleton-based granule transport towards the plasma membrane and tethering, docking and fusion of granules with specialized releasing zones. Each stage is subjected to a rigorous regulation by a plethora of factors that function in a spatially and temporarily coordinated fashion. Much effort has been devoted to characterize the precise role of the regulatory proteins participating in the different steps of this process and to identify new factors in order to obtain a unifying picture of the secretory pathway. In spite of this and given the enormous complexity of the process, certain stages are not fully understood yet and many players remain to be identified. The aim of this Research Topic is to gather review articles and original research papers on the molecular mechanisms that govern and ensure the correct release of neuropeptides.

Facial Texture Super-Resolution by Fitting 3D Face Models

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Book Series: Karlsruher Schriften zur Anthropomatik / Lehrstuhl für Interaktive Echtzeitsysteme, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ; Fraunhofer-Inst. für Optronik, Systemtechnik und Bildauswertung IOSB Karlsruhe ISSN: 18636489 ISBN: 9783731508281 Year: Volume: 37 Pages: ix, 205 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000085134 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-28 18:37:01
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This book proposes to solve the low-resolution (LR) facial analysis problem with 3D face super-resolution (FSR). A complete processing chain is presented towards effective 3D FSR in real world. To deal with the extreme challenges of incorporating 3D modeling under the ill-posed LR condition, a novel workflow coupling automatic localization of 2D facial feature points and 3D shape reconstruction is developed, leading to a robust pipeline for pose-invariant hallucination of the 3D facial texture.

Specialised membrane domains of plasmodesmata plant intercellular nanopores

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193684 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-368-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
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Plasmodesmata (PD) are plant-specific intercellular nanopores defined by specialised domains of the plasma membrane (PM) and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), both of which contain unique proteins, and probably different lipid compositions than the surrounding bulk membranes. The PD membranes form concentric tubules with a minimal outer diameter of only 50 nm, and the central ER strand constricted to ~10-15 nm, representing one of the narrowest stable membrane tubules in nature. This unique membrane architecture poses many biophysical, structural and functional questions. PM continuity across PD raises the question as to how a locally confined membrane site is established and maintained at PD. There is increasing evidence that the PM within PD may be enriched in membrane ‘rafts’ or TET web domains. Lipid rafts often function as signalling platforms, in line with the emerging view of PD as central players in plant defense responses. Lipid-lipid immiscibility could also provide a mechanism for membrane sub- compartmentalisation at PD. Intricate connections of the PM to the wall and the underlying cytoskeleton and ER may anchor the specialised domains locally. The ER within PD is even more strongly modified. Its extreme curvature suggests that it is stabilised by densely packed proteins, potentially members of the reticulon family that tubulate the cortical ER. The diameter of the constricted ER within PD is similar to membrane stalks in dynamin-mediated membrane fission during endocytosis and may need to be stabilised against spontaneous rupture. The function of this extreme membrane constriction, and the reasons why the ER is connected between plant cells remain unknown. Whilst the technically challenging search for the protein components of PD is ongoing, there has been significant recent progress in research on biological membranes that could benefit our understanding of PD function. With this Research Topic, we therefore aim to bring together researchers in the PD field and those in related areas, such as membrane biophysics, membrane composition and fluidity, protein-lipid interactions, lateral membrane heterogeneity, lipid rafts, membrane curvature, and membrane fusion/fission.

Imaging Synapse Structure and Function

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451753 Year: Pages: 125 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-175-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Development of new imaging technologies in recent years has transformed neuroscience in profound ways. Following on the heels of the revolution based on the Green Fluorescent Protein, refined genetically-encoded fluorescent reporters and genetic targeting strategies now enable optical recording of synaptic transmission in defined neuronal populations at speeds approaching the enviable temporal resolution of electrophysiology. Super-resolution light microscopy permits observation of synapses and their molecular machinery at sub-diffraction resolution. At the ultrastructural level, automated forms of electron microscopy, improvements in specimen fixation methods, and recent efforts to correlate data from light and electron micrographs now make the reconstruction of functional neural circuits a reality. Finally, the use of optogenetic actuators, such as channelrhodopsins, allows precise temporal and spatial manipulation of neuronal activity and is revealing profound insights into the organization of neural circuits and their roles in behavior. This research topic highlights recent advances in both light and electron microscopy, with a specific focus on approaches that combine innovations from several different fields to obtain novel information about synapse structure and function. We are confident that this collection of articles - three original research papers, six reviews, one methods paper and one perspective article - will enable neuroscientists to achieve the next generation of experiments aimed at cracking the neural code.

Ultrasound B-mode Imaging: Beamforming and Image Formation Techniques

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ISBN: 9783039211999 / 9783039212002 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-200-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Ultrasound medical imaging stands out among the other diagnostic imaging modalities for its patient-friendliness, high temporal resolution, low cost, and absence of ionizing radiation. On the other hand, it may still suffer from limited detail level, low signal-to-noise ratio, and narrow field-of-view. In the last decade, new beamforming and image reconstruction techniques have emerged which aim at improving resolution, contrast, and clutter suppression, especially in difficult-to-image patients. Nevertheless, achieving a higher image quality is of the utmost importance in diagnostic ultrasound medical imaging, and further developments are still indispensable. From this point of view, a crucial role can be played by novel beamforming techniques as well as by non-conventional image formation techniques (e.g., advanced transmission strategies, and compounding, coded, and harmonic imaging). This Special Issue includes novel contributions on both ultrasound beamforming and image formation techniques, particularly addressed at improving B-mode image quality and related diagnostic content. This indeed represents a hot topic in the ultrasound imaging community, and further active research in this field is expected, where many challenges still persist.

Very High Resolution (VHR) Satellite Imagery: Processing and Applications

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ISBN: 9783039217564 / 9783039217571 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-757-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Recently, growing interest in the use of remote sensing imagery has appeared to provide synoptic maps of water quality parameters in coastal and inner water ecosystems;, monitoring of complex land ecosystems for biodiversity conservation; precision agriculture for the management of soils, crops, and pests; urban planning; disaster monitoring, etc. However, for these maps to achieve their full potential, it is important to engage in periodic monitoring and analysis of multi-temporal changes. In this context, very high resolution (VHR) satellite-based optical, infrared, and radar imaging instruments provide reliable information to implement spatially-based conservation actions. Moreover, they enable observations of parameters of our environment at greater broader spatial and finer temporal scales than those allowed through field observation alone. In this sense, recent very high resolution satellite technologies and image processing algorithms present the opportunity to develop quantitative techniques that have the potential to improve upon traditional techniques in terms of cost, mapping fidelity, and objectivity. Typical applications include multi-temporal classification, recognition and tracking of specific patterns, multisensor data fusion, analysis of land/marine ecosystem processes and environment monitoring, etc. This book aims to collect new developments, methodologies, and applications of very high resolution satellite data for remote sensing. The works selected provide to the research community the most recent advances on all aspects of VHR satellite remote sensing.

Keywords

road extraction --- very high-resolution image --- fast marching method --- semiautomatic --- edge constraint --- beaver mimicry --- beaver dam analogue --- QuickBird --- riparian --- stream restoration --- Worldview --- benthic mapping --- seagrass --- airborne hypespectral imagery --- Worldview-2 --- atmospheric correction --- sunglint correction --- water column correction --- dimensionality reduction techniques --- SVM classification --- linear unmixing --- building detection --- built-up areas extraction --- local feature points --- saliency index --- morphological building index --- Deformable CNN --- Faster R-CNN --- data augmentation --- occluded object detection --- very high-resolution Pléiades imagery --- canopy height model --- acquisition geometry --- forested mountain --- accuracy assessment --- remote sensing imagery --- super-resolution --- ultra-dense connection --- feature distillation --- video satellite --- compensation unit --- urban water mapping --- water index --- shadow detection --- threshold stability --- agriculture parcel segmentation --- superpixels --- consensus --- texture analysis --- multi-resolution segmentation (MRS) --- greenhouse extraction --- over-segmentation index (OSI) --- under-segmentation index (USI) --- error index of total area (ETA) --- composite error index (CEI) --- GaoFen-2 (GF-2) --- synthetic aperture radar --- landslide monitoring --- sub-pixel offset tracking --- Slumgullion landslide --- natural hazards --- large displacements --- remote sensing --- scene classification --- CNN --- capsule --- PrimaryCaps --- CapsNet --- High-resolution satellite imagery --- submesoscale --- spiral eddy --- cyanobacteria --- surface convergence --- western Baltic Sea

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