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Antioxidants in Health and Disease Volume 1

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ISBN: 9783038428855 9783038428862 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: X, 436 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-18 14:34:25
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Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress is associated with a number of health disorders, including cardiovascular malfunction, certain types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, many other auto-immune diseases, and even ageing. The body possesses multiple mechanisms to counteract oxidative stress, which employ antioxidant compounds that are either naturally generated in situ (endogenous antioxidants) or externally supplied through food (exogenous antioxidants). These antioxidants are able to counteract oxidative stress, thanks to their ability to neutralize excess free radicals and protect the cellular lipids, proteins, and DNA from molecular damage. Exogenous antioxidants from the diet are of increasing interest because of their beneficial role in maintaining good health and in preventing chronic diseases. Indeed, a diet rich in dietary antioxidants, especially from fruits and vegetables, has been correlated with a successful prevention and lower incidence of several degenerative pathologies, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer.This Special Issue of Nutrients welcomes the submission of manuscripts, either describing original research or reviewing scientific literature, examining the role of diets rich in antioxidant compounds in the prevention of chronic diseases and the characteristics of the antioxidants included in such diets.

Antioxidants in Health and Disease Volume 2

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ISBN: 9783038429395 9783038429401 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: VIII, 264 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-18 15:15:28
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Abstract

Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress is associated with a number of health disorders, including cardiovascular malfunction, certain types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, many other auto-immune diseases, and even ageing. The body possesses multiple mechanisms to counteract oxidative stress, which employ antioxidant compounds that are either naturally generated in situ (endogenous antioxidants) or externally supplied through food (exogenous antioxidants). These antioxidants are able to counteract oxidative stress, thanks to their ability to neutralize excess free radicals and protect the cellular lipids, proteins, and DNA from molecular damage. Exogenous antioxidants from the diet are of increasing interest because of their beneficial role in maintaining good health and in preventing chronic diseases. Indeed, a diet rich in dietary antioxidants, especially from fruits and vegetables, has been correlated with a successful prevention and lower incidence of several degenerative pathologies, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer.This Special Issue of Nutrients welcomes the submission of manuscripts, either describing original research or reviewing scientific literature, examining the role of diets rich in antioxidant compounds in the prevention of chronic diseases and the characteristics of the antioxidants included in such diets.

Vitamin D and Human Health

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ISBN: 9783038975861 / 9783038975878 Year: Pages: 306 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-587-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-21 10:04:11
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Over the past decades, researchers have gathered data demonstrating that vitamin D and its metabolites possess activities far beyond the classic regulation of calcium–phosphate homeostasis. It is now well established that vitamin D is essential for the proper functioning of the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, nervous, and immune systems. Furthermore, vitamin D and its analogs were shown to regulate proliferation and differentiation of keratinocyte, immune cells, and numerous cancer-derived cells, both in vivo and in vitro. On the other hand, population base studies have provided evidence that global vitamin D deficiency is correlated with the occurrence and aggravation of symptoms of skeletal, cardiovascular autoimmune, and skin disease; infections; metabolic and cognitive disorders; multiple types of cancers; as well as overall mortality. This Special Issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences, entitled “Vitamin D and Human Health”, summarizes recent advances in our understanding of pleiotropic activity of vitamin D with a focus on its protective role against cancer, hypertension, viral infections, and neurological diseases, as well as its impact on the immune system and mitochondria. Furthermore, eight research papers provide new insight into vitamin D research and highlight new directions and targets in the prevention and treatment of human diseases.

Metal Metabolism in Animals

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ISBN: 9783038428435 9783038428442 Year: Pages: X, 356 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-20 14:25:48
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Through evolution of life, animals have adapted to the ubiquitous presence of metals in the biosphere. They utilize the more frequent ones as essential constituents of their biochemical machinery. In fact, about 40% of all proteins present in animal cells are so-called metalloproteins. On the other hand, animals have invented regulatory and detoxifying mechanisms to protect themselves from critical concentrations of both essential and non-essential metal concentrations. Metallomics is a modern approach applying cellular, biochemical, molecular and analytical methods to investigate the relationships of metals in their cellular context. The present edition contains a number of original articles and reviews dealing with various aspects of metallomics in animals, published as Special Issues of the International Journal of Molecular Sciences in 2016 and 2017. The book addresses subjects such as metal definition in biology, metabolism of metals in invertebrate and vertebrate animals, metal detoxification and regulation strategies, supplementation of essential trace elements, metal behavior in pregnancy and embryonic development, as well as metal toxicology and emerging medical implications.

Breastfeeding and Human Lactation

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ISBN: 9783038979302 / 9783038979319 Year: Pages: 450 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-931-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Human lactation has evolved to produce a milk composition that is uniquely-designed for the human infant. Not only does human milk optimize infant growth and development, it also provides protection from infection and disease. More recently, the importance of human milk and breastfeeding in the programming of infant health has risen to the fore. Anchoring of infant feeding in the developmental origins of health and disease has led to a resurgence of research focused in this area. Milk composition is highly variable both between and within mothers. Indeed the distinct maternal human milk signature, including its own microbiome, is influenced by environmental factors, such as diet, health, body composition and geographic residence. An understanding of these changes will lead to unravelling the adaptation of milk to the environment and its impact on the infant. In terms of the promotion of breastfeeding, health economics and epidemiology is instrumental in shaping public health policy and identifying barriers to breastfeeding. Further, basic research is imperative in order to design evidence-based interventions to improve both breastfeeding duration and women’s breastfeeding experience.

Keywords

human milk --- breastfed infants --- body composition --- anthropometrics --- milk intake --- bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy --- ultrasound skinfolds --- maternal factors --- infant --- feeding --- preterm --- premature --- bottle --- human milk --- breastfeeding --- nipple shield --- infant feeding --- choline --- phosphocholine --- glycerophosphocholine --- lactation --- human milk --- infants --- adequate intake --- dietary recommendations --- Canada --- Cambodia --- breast milk --- galactogogues --- mothers of preterm infants --- breastfeeding --- attitudes --- knowledge --- midwifery --- formula supplementation --- justification of supplementation --- maternal wellbeing --- maternal distress --- post-partum distress --- breastfeeding support --- paternal role --- partner support --- infant --- Ireland --- passive immunity --- antibodies --- lactation --- peptidomics --- prematurity --- proteolysis --- breast milk --- preterm infant --- enteral nutrition --- lipids --- omega-3 fatty acids --- omega-6 fatty acids --- Docosahexaenoic acid --- Arachidonic acid --- long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids --- pregnancy --- breast milk --- lactation --- maternal diet --- n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid --- docosahexaenoic acid --- zinc deficiency --- plasma zinc --- lactating women --- zinc supplementation --- Quito --- Ecuador --- Andean region --- GDM --- lactation --- thyroid --- triiodothyronine --- thyroxine --- thyroid antibodies --- breastfeeding --- knowledge --- practice --- barriers --- social support --- professional support --- raw breast milk --- cytomegalovirus --- milk-acquired infections --- preterm infant --- adipokines --- adiponectin --- leptin --- breastfeeding --- infant --- body composition --- bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy --- ultrasound skinfolds --- human milk --- lactation --- human lactation --- expressing --- milk synthesis --- fat synthesis --- human milk --- milk metabolites --- lactation --- milk metabolomics --- human milk --- breastfeeding --- lactation --- lipids --- lipidomics --- mass spectrometry --- chromatography --- NMR spectroscopy --- human milk --- sex-specificity --- infant growth --- early life nutrition --- postnatal outcomes --- breastfeeding --- breast milk --- human milk --- colostrum --- IgA --- HGF --- TGF-? --- growth factors --- geographical location --- human milk --- potassium --- sodium --- ICP-OES --- ion selective electrode --- lactoferrin --- human milk --- infection --- immunity --- antisecretory factor --- human milk --- breast milk --- breastfeeding --- inflammation --- lactoferrin --- candida --- human milk --- milk cells --- immune cells --- antimicrobial proteins --- human milk --- breastfeeding --- ethnicity --- composition --- diet --- responsive feeding --- breastfeeding --- breastmilk --- babywearing --- co-sleeping --- mother–infant interaction --- feeding cues --- maternal responsiveness --- mother–infant physical contact --- proximal care --- fatty acids --- long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids --- endocannabinoids --- infant health --- breast milk --- casein --- whey --- protein --- breastfeeding --- infant --- body composition --- bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy --- ultrasound skinfolds --- human milk --- calculated daily intakes --- lactation --- human milk --- metabolites --- microbiome --- mode of delivery --- caesarean section --- proton nuclear magnetic resonance --- breastfeeding --- human milk composition --- body composition --- maternal diet --- infant growth --- appetite regulation --- N-acylethanolamines --- OEA --- SEA --- PEA --- breastfeeding --- human milk composition --- obesity --- Breastfeeding --- human lactation --- lactation --- human milk --- breast milk --- milk composition

Nutrition in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

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ISBN: 9783039214396 / 9783039214402 Year: Pages: 370 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-440-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Abstract

The purpose of this Special Issue “Nutrition in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)” is to increase knowledge regarding the role of dietary composition and effects in IBD, describing the prevalence of malnutrition in IBD and the effect on clinical outcomes, discussing methods of nutrition risk screening and assessment in IBD, and reviewing mechanisms through which diet and dietary components may affect disease severity. The articles focus on the following areas: Dietary Composition/Therapy Interventions in Ulcerative Colitis and effects on outcomes; Dietary Composition/Therapy Interventions in Crohn’s Disease and effects on outcomes; Nutrition Risk Screening and Assessment in IBD; Mechanisms of Diet in the pathogenesis of IBD.

Keywords

body composition --- obesity --- visceral adipose tissue --- fat --- osteoporosis --- osteopenia --- sarcopenia --- inflammatory bowel disease --- Crohn’s disease --- dietary intake --- malnutrition --- Mediterranean diet --- exclusive enteral nutrition --- children --- IBD --- remission --- mucosal cytokines --- dietary protein level --- colitis --- epithelial repair --- mucosa-adherent microbiota --- intestinal inflammation --- inflammatory bowel disease --- epithelial adherens junctions --- bioactive peptides --- synbiotic --- prebiotic --- probiotic --- IBD --- Bacillus spores --- dietary fibre --- sugar cane fibre --- ulcerative colitis --- colon --- high-sulfur foods --- inflammation --- metagenomics --- microbiota --- sulfur reducing --- inflammatory bowel disease --- Crohn --- ulcerative colitis --- diet --- nutrition --- exclusive enteral nutrition --- intestinal epithelial cells --- inflammation --- probiotics --- Lactobacillus acidophilus --- Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis --- vitamin D --- IBD --- Crohn’s disease --- ulcerative colitis --- supplementation --- deficiency --- Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) --- Mediterranean Diet --- Western-style Diet (WSD) --- Nutritional Approach --- vitamin D --- Crohn’s disease --- ulcerative colitis --- faecal calprotectin --- C-reactive protein --- diet --- inflammatory bowel disease --- microbiota --- intestinal barrier --- nutrients --- immunity --- colitis --- food additive --- diet --- emulsifiers --- high salt diet --- inflammatory bowel diseases --- inflammatory bowel disease --- dietary modification --- exclusive enteral nutrition --- lifestyle modification --- Mediterranean diet --- colorectal cancer --- inflammatory bowel disease --- colorectal cancer --- dysplasia --- berries --- chemoprevention --- Inflammatory Bowel Disease --- micronutrients --- vitamin --- mineral --- deficiency --- inflammatory bowel disease --- dietary habits --- food components --- gut microbiota --- immune homeostasis --- epigenetic changes --- inflammatory bowel disease --- malnutrition --- Mediterranean diet --- older age --- diet --- inflammatory bowel disease --- ulcerative colitis --- inflammatory bowel disease --- Westernisation --- genotypes --- nutrient deficiency --- food intolerance --- FODMAPs --- gluten --- fructose --- lactose --- brassica --- mushrooms --- n/a

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