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Carbon Fibers

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ISBN: 9783906980690 9783906980706 Year: Pages: 192 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-906980-70-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 06:30:12
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Remarkably, truly novel structures are still being found for materials made of a single element: carbon. Perhaps there is a ‘revolution’ in carbon-only materials. Indeed, recently, two Nobel prizes were awarded for new forms of carbon: for fullerenes in 1996, and for graphene in 2010. And the magic and beauty of carbon nanotubes has held the attention of the scientific world for more than a decade. Yet, there is still more to discover and to explain. In this Special Issue, the focus is on just one area of carbon research: fibers. Even given this relatively narrow focus there is a diversity of research that is both compelling and frustrating. Compelling as it demonstrates the vitality of the subject, and frustrating as it makes it difficult to organize. The topics covered include new fiber fabrication protocols, the mechanical behavior of fiber reinforced polymers, new techniques to study the microstructure of fiber containing composites, new uses of fiber structures, the use of carbon fibers as catalyst supports, and studies regarding the difficulties of machining fiber structures for inclusion in complex structures.

Application and Characterization of Surfactants

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ISBN: 9789535133254 9789535133261 Year: Pages: 316 DOI: 10.5772/65591 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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The surfactants are among the materials that have a significant importance in everyday life of human. The rapid growth in science and technology has opened new horizons in a very wide range, in which the surfactants play a major and vital role. Hence, the increasing number of applications as well as arising environmental issues has made this relatively old topic still a hot research theme. In the first section of this book, some of the applications of surfactants in various fields such as biology and petroleum industry, as well as their environmental effects, are described. In Section 2 some experimental techniques used for characterization of the surfactants have been discussed.

Liquid Crystals - Recent Advancements in Fundamental and Device Technologies

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ISBN: 9789535138716 9789535138723 9789535140276 Year: Pages: 274 DOI: 10.5772/68030 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Liquid crystals exhibit amazingly interesting properties that make them indispensable for several technological applications. The book Liquid Crystals - Recent Advancements in Fundamental and Device Technologies is aimed to focus on various aspects of research and development that liquid crystal mediums have come across in recent years. This would be ranging from the physical and chemical properties to the important applications that the liquid crystals have in our everyday life. It is expected that the book will make the expert researchers to be abreast of recent research advancements, whereas the novice researchers will benefit from both the conceptual understanding and the recent developments in the area. Multitudes of research themes and directions pivoted to liquid crystals remain the essence, which the readers would get the glimpse of and move ahead for further investigations.

Biomass Chars: Elaboration, Characterization and Applications

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ISBN: 9783038426905 9783038426912 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-691-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-12 11:37:17
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Thermochemical conversion processes convert biomass into gaseous, liquid and solid products named, syngas, bio-oil and char, respectively. Syngas and bio-oil are considered as alternative biofuels to fossil fuels and wide investigations are implemented currently on their production, purification, modification, and applications. Biomass chars have receiving an increasing attention since they lead to carbon sequestration, reduction of the amount of carbon rejected into the atmosphere and represent an friendly carbon source for numerous applications. In particular, biomass chars could be an efficient materials for energy production, syngas production and upgrading, water and air pollutants removal, soil amendment, fuel cells and supercapacitors development, and gas storage. Improving the knowledge of biomass chars elaboration techniques such as pyrolysis, gasification and hydrothermal carbonization is essential to determine the optimal production strategies for their economic viability. Furthermore, the characterization of the physicochemical, textural, structural and surface chemistry properties of the derived chars guide the selection of the suitable recovery processes in order to maximize their utility and therefore the benefits for the environment as well as for industries and agriculture.

Element-Doped Functional Carbon-based Materials

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ISBN: 9783039282241 9783039282258 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-225-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Carbon materials are one of the most fascinating materials because of their unique properties and potential use in several applications. They can be obtained from residues or by using advanced synthesis technologies like chemical vapor deposition. The carbon family is very broad, ranging from classical activated carbons to more advanced species such as carbon nanotubes and graphene. The surface chemistry is one of the most interesting aspects of this broad family of materials, which allows the incorporation of different types of chemical functionalities or heteroatoms on the carbon surface, such as O, N, B, S, or P, which can modify the acid–base character, hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity, or the electronic properties of these materials and, thus, determine the final application. This book represents a collection of original research articles and communications focused on the synthesis, properties, and applications of heteroatom-doped functional carbon materials.

Electrochemical Surface Science: Basics and Applications

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ISBN: 9783039216420 9783039216437 Year: Pages: 398 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-643-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General) --- Inorganic Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Electrochemical surface science (EC-SS) is the natural advancement of traditional surface science (where gas–vacuum/solid interfaces are studied) to liquid (solution)/electrified solid interfaces. Such a merging between two different disciplines—i.e., surface science (SS) and electrochemistry—officially advanced ca. three decades ago. The main characteristic of EC-SS versus electrochemistry is the reductionist approach undertaken, inherited from SS and aiming to understand the microscopic processes occurring at electrodes on the atomic level. A few of the exemplary keystone tools of EC-SS include EC-scanning probe microscopies, operando and in situ spectroscopies and electron microscopies, and differential EC mass spectrometry (DEMS). EC-SS indirectly (and often unconsciously) receives a great boost from the requirement for rational design of energy conversion and storage devices for the next generation of energetic landscapes. As a matter of fact, the number of material science groups deeply involved in such a challenging field has tremendously expanded and, within such a panorama, EC and SS investigations are intimately combined in a huge number of papers. The aim of this Special Issue is to offer an open access forum where researchers in the field of electrochemistry, surface science, and materials science could outline the great advances that can be reached by exploiting EC-SS approaches. Papers addressing both the basic science and more applied issues in the field of EC-SS and energy conversion and storage materials have been published in this Special Issue.

Keywords

electrosynthesis --- switchable surfaces --- alkoxyamine surfaces --- redox monolayers --- porphyrins --- self-assembly --- surface nanostructures --- in situ EC-STM --- metal-electrolyte interface --- potential-dependent structures --- combined non-covalent control --- ECALE --- CdS --- silver single crystals --- alkanthiols --- SAMs --- EQCM --- AES --- polypyrrole --- diazonium salts --- flexible ITO --- adhesion --- redox properties --- X-ray absorption spectroscopy --- energy dispersive --- quick-XAS --- FEXRAV --- free electron laser --- electrochemistry --- photoelectrochemistry --- photochemistry --- pump &amp --- probe --- oxygen evolution reaction --- water splitting --- iridium --- thin-films --- spin-coating --- model systems --- electrocatalysts --- oxygen evolution reaction --- iridium --- nickel --- electrodeposition --- model catalyst --- water oxidation --- CO oxidation --- DFT --- hydrogen adsorption --- Pt–Ru catalysts --- ordered mesoporous carbons --- graphitization --- CO oxidation --- methanol oxidation --- direct methanol fuel cells --- electrocatalysis --- catalysts --- methanol oxidation reaction --- graphene --- DMFC --- Pt --- SOFC --- cathode --- XAFS --- in situ --- cobalt oxide --- water oxidation --- photo-electrochemistry --- hydroxyl radical --- electro-oxidation --- Lead OPD --- surface alloy --- XPS --- UPS --- EF-PEEM --- ORR --- Platinum --- PVDF --- PEMFC --- in situ ambient pressure XPS --- hard X rays --- photoelectron simulations --- solid/liquid interface --- TiO2 --- APTES --- Cu(111) --- electrochemical interface --- in-situ X-ray diffraction --- carbon nanofiber --- porous fiber --- electrospinning --- mesopore --- micropore --- porogen --- ammonia activation --- surface area --- methanol oxidation --- platinum single crystals --- pH and concentration effects --- adsorbed OH --- reduced graphene oxide --- electrophoretic deposition --- surface chemistry --- click chemistry --- gold --- palladium --- bimetallic alloy --- carbon nanofibers (CNFs) --- cyclic voltammetry (CV) --- Surface Modification --- Blackening of Steel --- Magnetite --- Corrosion Protection --- Auger-Electron Spectroscopy --- Ordered mesoporous carbon --- nitrogen doping --- cobalt-based electrocatalyst --- bifunctional oxygen electrode --- solvothermal method --- underpotential deposition (upd) --- Au --- Pt --- Pd --- nanoparticles --- cyclic voltammetry --- electrocatalysis --- operando --- near ambient pressure XPS --- scanning photoelectron microscopy --- solid oxide fuel cells --- surface science --- electrodeposited alloys --- CO electro-oxidation --- Pt single-crystal electrodes --- potential cycling --- potential stepping --- surface reconstruction --- electrocatalysis --- oxygen reduction --- ORR --- gas diffusion electrode --- platinum --- fuel cells --- thin-films --- benchmarking --- mass transport --- formic acid oxidation --- Au nanocrystals --- Pd thin films --- electrocatalysis --- d-band theory --- polymer --- silicon nanoparticles --- EPR spectroscopy --- photoconversion --- n/a

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