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The Use of Remote Sensing in Hydrology

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ISBN: 9783038429098 9783038429104 Year: Pages: X, 248 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-01 11:22:11
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Remotely sensed data are nowadays commonly used for regional/global monitoring of hydrological variables including soil moisture, rainfall, water levels, flood extent, evapotranspiration or land water storage, as well as the forcing, calibration and assimilation into hydrodynamic, hydrological and hydrometeorological models. In the years to come, recent and future satellite sensors, some of them specifically designed for hydrological purposes, will provide systematic observations of hydrological parameters (e.g., surface and sub-surface storage and flux) at high spatial and temporal resolutions. This will offer new applications for the hydrological community. This book presents reviews and recent advances of general interest regarding the use of remote sensing for hydrology. The chapters are related to any hydrological reservoir (e.g., surface storage, soil moisture, groundwater, etc.) or flux (e.g., rainfall, evapotranspiration, discharge, etc.), the integration of satellite data into hydrological models, and the improvements to hydrology that can be expected from future satellite missions.

Earth Observation for Water Resource Management in Africa

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ISBN: 9783038421535 9783038421542 Year: Pages: XVIII, 538 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-154-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-20 14:55:31
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Reliable access to water, managing the spatial and temporal variability of water availability, ensuring the quality of freshwater and responding to climatological changes in the hydrological cycle are prerequisites for the development of countries in Africa. Water being an essential input for biomass growth and for renewable energy production (e.g. biofuels and hydropower schemes) plays an integral part in ensuring food and energy security for any nation. Water, as a source of safe drinking water, is furthermore the basis for ensuring the health of citizens and plays an important role in urban sanitation.The concept of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) is seen as an opportunity to help manage water variability and the wide spread water scarcity in Africa. One key component missing from IWRM in Africa is the limited knowledge of the available extent and quality of water resources at basin level. Earth Observation (EO) technology can help fill this information gap by assessing and monitoring water resources at adequate temporal and spatial scales. The goal of this Special Issue is to understand and demonstrate the contribution which satellite observations, consistent over space and time, can bring to improve water resource management in Africa. Possible EO products and applications range from catchment characterization, water quality monitoring, soil moisture assessment, water extent and level monitoring, irrigation services, urban and agricultural water demand modeling, evapotranspiration estimation, ground water management, to hydrological modeling and flood mapping/forecasting. Some of these EO applications have already been developed by African scientists within the 10 year lifetime of the TIGER initiative: Looking after Water in Africa (http://www.tiger.esa.int), whose contributions are intended to be the starting point of this Special Issue and is only one example of the wide range of activities in the field. Contributions from the entire African and international scientific community dealing with the challenges of water resource management in Africa are the target of the special issue.

Water Resource Variability and Climate Change

ISBN: 9783038422440 9783038422303 Year: Pages: XVI, 378 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2016-11-04 09:40:08
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Climate change affects global and regional water cycling, as well as surficial and subsurface water availability. These changes have increased the vulnerabilities of ecosystems and of human society. Understanding how climate change has affected water resource variability in the past and how climate change is leading to rapid changes in contemporary systems is of critical importance for sustainable development in different parts of the world. This Special Issue focuses on “Water Resource Variability and Climate Change” and aims to present a collection of articles addressing various aspects of water resource variability as well as how such variabilities are affected by changing climates. Potential topics include the reconstruction of historic moisture fluctuations, based on various proxies (such as tree rings, sediment cores, and landform features), the empirical monitoring of water variability based on field survey and remote sensing techniques, and the projection of future water cycling using numerical model simulations.

Antimicrobial Resistance in Environmental Waters

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ISBN: 9783038976080 9783038976097 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-609-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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This Special Issue on Antimicrobial Resistance in Environmental Waters features 11 articles on the monitoring and surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in natural aquatic systems (i.e., reservoirs, rivers), and effluent discharge from water treatment plants to assess the effectiveness of AMR removal and resulting loads in treated waters. Some of the key elements of AMR studies presented in this Special Issue highlight the underlying drivers of AMR contamination in the environment and the evaluation of the hazard imposed on aquatic organisms in receiving environments through ecological risk assessments. As described in this Issue, screening antimicrobial peptide (AMP) libraries for biofilm disruption and antimicrobial candidates are promising avenues for the development of new treatment options to eradicate resistance.

Recent Advances in Water Management: Saving, Treatment and Reuse

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ISBN: 9783038970316 / 9783038970323 Year: Pages: 208 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-032-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:28
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue Recent Advances in Water Management: Saving, Treatment and Reuse that was published in Water

Keywords

guidelines --- contaminated sites --- risk assessment --- China --- ferrous iron --- ferrous sulfide --- hydrogen sulfide --- odor control --- pumping mains --- sewerage --- pharmaceuticals --- micropollutant removal --- tezontle --- filter media --- active sites --- trickling filter --- anaerobic digester --- swine wastewater --- organic matter --- COD --- decomposition analysis --- global patent data --- research and development strategy --- water treatment technology --- anammox bacteria --- wastewater treatment --- nitrification --- denitrification --- zeolite --- combined sewer --- wastewater treatment --- microbiological quality --- surface water --- river --- lignin --- delignification --- pulp-and-paper-mill c --- wastewater --- white rot fungi --- B. adusta --- P. crysosporium --- foreign countries --- agricultural occupations --- water --- environmental education --- surveys --- sustainability --- milk production --- water --- footprint --- water recycling --- conservation --- partitioning --- efficiency --- forest waste --- palm mulch --- constructed wetlands --- vertical flow --- water treatment --- passive treatment systems --- anaerobic processes --- constructed wetlands --- ornamental plants --- treated wastewater reuse --- advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) --- activated carbon adsorption --- carbamazepine toxicity --- conventional treatment processes --- membrane technology --- occurrence --- food industry --- anticorrosive agent --- benzotriazole --- emerging contaminant --- oxygen injection --- Pb(II) --- nano illite/smectite clay --- adsorption kinetics --- adsorption thermodynamic

Swarm Robotics

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ISBN: 9783038979227 / 9783038979234 Year: Pages: 310 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-923-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Collectively working robot teams can solve a problem more efficiently than a single robot, while also providing robustness and flexibility to the group. Swarm robotics model is a key component of a cooperative algorithm that controls the behaviors and interactions of all individuals. The robots in the swarm should have some basic functions, such as sensing, communicating, and monitoring, and satisfy the following properties:

Keywords

3D model identification --- shape normalization --- weighted implicit shape representation --- panoramic view --- scale-invariant feature transform --- optimization --- meta-heuristic --- parallel technique --- Swarm intelligence algorithm --- artificial flora (AF) algorithm --- bionic intelligent algorithm --- particle swarm optimization --- artificial bee colony algorithm --- swarm robotics --- search --- surveillance --- behaviors --- patterns --- comparison --- swarm behavior --- Swarm Chemistry --- self-organization --- asymmetrical interaction --- genetic algorithm --- cooperative target hunting --- multi-AUV --- improved potential field --- surface-water environment --- signal source localization --- multi-robot system --- event-triggered communication --- consensus control --- time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) --- Cramer–Rao low bound (CRLB) --- optimal configuration --- UAV swarms --- path optimization --- multiple robots --- formation --- sliding mode controller --- nonlinear disturbance observer --- system stability --- formation control --- virtual structure --- formation reconfiguration --- multi-agents --- robotics --- unmanned aerial vehicle --- swarm intelligence --- particle swarm optimization --- search algorithm --- underwater environment --- sensor deployment --- event-driven coverage --- fish swarm optimization --- congestion control --- modular robots --- self-assembly robots --- environmental perception --- target recognition --- autonomous docking --- formation control --- virtual linkage --- virtual structure --- formation reconfiguration --- mobile robots --- robotics --- swarm robotics --- formation control --- coordinate motion --- obstacle avoidance --- n/a

Ten Years of TerraSAR-X—Scientific Results

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ISBN: 9783038977247 9783038977254 Year: Pages: 422 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-725-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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This Special Issue is a collection of papers addressing the scientific use of data acquired in the course of the TerraSAR-X mission 10 years after launch. The articles deal with the mission itself, the accuracy of the products, with differential interferometry, and with applications in the domains cryosphere, oceans, wetlands, and urban areas.

Keywords

synthetic aperture radar --- TerraSAR-X --- geolocation --- absolute localization accuracy --- stereo sar --- imaging geodesy --- TerraSAR-X --- internal calibration --- geometric and radiometric calibration --- antenna model verification --- antenna pointing determination --- radiometric accuracy --- calibration targets --- long term performance monitoring --- TerraSAR-X --- TanDEM-X --- LEO --- POD --- SLR --- SAR --- Satellite Laser Ranging --- radar ranging --- satellite orbit --- validation --- InSAR coherence --- NDVI --- damage assessment --- density map --- tsunami --- earthquake --- GIS --- TSX Staring spotlight --- high resolution InSAR --- small-scale movements --- atmospheric phase --- layover --- DSM blending --- SAR --- internal waves --- Andaman Sea --- radar --- satellite --- remote sensing --- SAR --- TerraSAR-X --- operations --- ground segment --- orbit --- mission --- global --- urban footprint --- processing --- validation --- community survey --- sustainability --- synthetic aperture radar --- X-band --- marine --- estuarine --- lacustrine --- riverine --- palustrine --- time-series --- SAR applications --- vegetation --- remote sensing data --- DInSAR --- landslide monitoring --- PSI --- super high-spatial resolution TerraSAR-X images --- pixel selection --- measurement pixels’ density --- synthetic aperture radar --- PolSAR --- TerraSAR-X --- surface water monitoring --- flooded vegetation --- classification --- segmentation --- InSAR --- landslide --- phase unwrapping --- phase demodulation --- TerraSAR-X --- RADARSAT-2 --- ALOS-1 --- ERS --- synthetic aperture radar --- TerraSAR-X --- habitat mapping --- monitoring --- remote sensing --- Wadden Sea --- mussel beds --- intertidal bedforms --- tidal gullies --- remote sensing --- film slicks on the sea surface --- dual co-polarized microwave radar --- surface wind waves --- wave breaking --- Snow Cover Extent (SCE) --- TerraSAR-X --- Landsat --- wet snow --- small Arctic catchments --- satellite time series --- TerraSAR-X --- synthetic aperture radar (SAR), radar mission --- remote sensing --- land subsidence --- TerraSAR-X --- SAR interferometry --- coastal environments --- Venice lagoon --- multi-baseline --- multi-pass --- PS --- DS --- geodetic --- TomoSAR --- D-TomoSAR --- PSI --- robust estimation --- covariance matrix --- InSAR --- SAR --- review --- SAR --- SAR interferometry --- atmospheric propagation delay --- persistent scatterer interferometry --- numerical weather prediction --- stratified atmospheric delay --- zenith path delay --- slant path delay --- interferometry --- surface movement monitoring --- ground control points --- radargrammetry --- automated target recognition --- convolutional neural networks (CNN), deep CNN --- support vector machine --- SVM --- synthetic aperture radar --- TerraSAR-X --- SAR interferometry --- land subsidence --- precise orbit determination --- geometric and radiometric calibration --- PSI

Innovation Issues in Water, Agriculture and Food

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039211654 / 9783039211661 Year: Pages: 406 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-166-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Agriculture (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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In a worldwide context of ever-growing competition for water and land, climate change, droughts and man-made water scarcity, and less-participatory water governance, agriculture faces the great challenge of producing enough food for a continually increasing population. In this line, this book provides a broad overview of innovation issues in the complex water–agriculture–food nexus, thus also relative to their interconnections and dependences. Issues refer to different spatial scales, from the field or the farm to the irrigation system or the river basin. Multidisciplinary approaches are used when analyzing the relationships between water, agriculture, and food security. The covered issues are quite diverse and include: innovation in crop evapotranspiration, crop coefficients and modeling; updates in research relative to crop water use and saving; irrigation scheduling and systems design; simulation models to support water and agricultural decisions; issues to cope with water scarcity and climate change; advances in water resource quality and sustainable uses; new tools for mapping and use of remote sensing information; and fostering a participative and inclusive governance of water for food security and population welfare. This book brings together a variety of contributions by leading international experts, professionals, and scholars in those diverse fields. It represents a major synthesis and state-of-the-art on various subjects, thus providing a valuable and updated resource for all researchers, professionals, policymakers, and post-graduate students interested in the complex world of the water–agriculture–food nexus.

Keywords

drought classes --- Standardized Precipitation and Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) --- Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) --- North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) --- log-linear modeling --- persistence --- surface irrigation modelling --- precise land levelling --- irrigation systems design --- beneficial water use --- decision support systems (DSS) --- inflow rates --- cut-off time --- crop water requirements --- latent heat flux --- remote sensing --- olive orchard --- spatial variability --- agriculture --- impact --- measures --- nitrogen --- Sensitive Zones --- Tagus River Basin --- Vulnerable Zones --- basal crop coefficients --- crop coefficient curves --- crop transpiration --- Kcb from ground cover --- SIMDualKc model --- soil evaporation --- soil moisture --- soil temperature --- soil nutrient --- crop yield --- Corn --- Black soil --- deficit irrigation --- Fiesta grapes --- drip irrigation --- dried on the vine --- sustained deficit irrigation --- regulated deficit irrigation --- water–energy–food nexus --- policy-making --- stakeholder engagement --- fuzzy cognitive maps --- Spain --- Andalusia --- calibration --- irrigation district --- evapotranspiration --- crop growth --- validation --- Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. --- crop transpiration --- soil evaporation --- drip and basin irrigation --- deficit irrigation --- reform --- Participatory Irrigation Management --- Transfer --- water users association --- biomass --- crop transpiration --- direct forcing --- leaf area index --- soil evaporation --- soil temperature --- soil water storage depletion --- root growth --- maize yield --- semi-arid region --- actual evapotranspiration --- Pampa biome --- eddy covariance --- evaporative fraction --- hysteresis loops --- dry drainage system --- water and salt balance --- groundwater --- evaporation --- salinity --- irrigation scheduling --- wheat --- soil water balance --- new technologies --- smartphone application --- reference evapotranspiration --- local advection --- aridity effects --- satellite observations --- Evapotranspiration --- Irrigation --- Density coefficient --- Dual crop coefficients --- Row crops --- water and land management --- water users’ organization --- water balance --- supply–demand balance model --- organizational analysis --- participatory management --- pressurized irrigation systems --- on-demand operation --- perturbation --- unsteady flow --- hydrant risk indicator --- relative pressure exceedance --- agricultural intensification --- DPSIR --- nitrogen --- pressures --- policies --- surface water pollution --- water-agriculture-food nexus --- crop water use and evapotranspiration --- irrigation scheduling --- design of irrigation systems --- simulation models --- droughts --- irrigation water governance --- economic and environmental issues

Adaptive Catchment Management and Reservoir Operation

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038977384 / 9783038977391 Year: Pages: 498 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-739-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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River catchments and reservoirs play a central role in water security, food supply, flood risk management, hydropower generation, and ecosystem services; however, they are now under increasing pressure from population growth, economic activities, and changing climate means and extremes in many parts of the world. Adaptive management of river catchments and reservoirs requires an in-depth understanding of the impacts of future uncertainties and thus the development of robust, sustainable solutions to meet the needs of various stakeholders and the environment. To tackle the huge challenges in moving towards adaptive catchment management, this book presents the latest developments in cutting-edge knowledge, novel methodologies, innovative management strategies, and case studies, focusing on the following themes: reservoir dynamics and impact analysis of dam construction, optimal reservoir operation, climate change impacts on hydrological processes and water management, and integrated catchment management.

Keywords

Siemianówka --- hydrology --- Narew River --- dam --- reservoir --- discharge --- flow regime --- reservoir flushing --- numerical simulation --- flushing efficiency --- Kurobe River --- two-dimensional bed evolution model --- sediment flushing of empty storage --- shaft spillway pipe --- sediment flushing efficiency --- sediment regime --- suspended sediment concentration --- vertical profiles of concentration --- Jingjiang River Reach --- Yangtze River --- CO2 --- reservoirs --- general regression neural network --- back propagation neural network --- climate change --- CMIP3 --- CMIP5 --- downscaling --- runoff response --- SWAT model --- stochastic linear programming --- Markov chain --- reliability --- vulnerability --- reservoir operation --- stochastic dynamic programming --- protection zone --- nutrient uptake --- NPP --- South-to-North Water Transfer Project --- Miyun Reservoir --- reservoir operation --- optimization --- SWAT --- HEC-ResPRM --- climate change --- CORDEX-Africa --- Tekeze basin --- long distance water diversion --- inverted siphon --- sensitivity analysis --- integrated supply system modeling --- sediment regime --- suspended sediment concentration --- vertical profiles of concentration --- the Jingjiang River Reach --- the Yangtze River --- reservoir operation --- multi-stage stochastic optimization --- TB-MPC --- flood control --- real-time control --- energy --- hydropower stations --- differential evolution algorithm --- optimal scheduling --- ?-constrained method --- drinking water resources --- water environmental capacity (WEC) --- Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model --- the Huangshi Reservoir --- seasonal rainfall --- upper Chao Phraya River Basin --- El Niño/Southern Oscillation --- Indian Monsoon --- sea surface temperatures --- reverse regulation --- coupling model --- aftereffect --- accompanying progressive optimality algorithm --- Dokan Dam --- runoff --- sediment load --- SWAT --- natural flow regime --- multi-objective model --- uncertainty --- genetic algorithm --- land and water resources --- system dynamics --- modeling --- scenario analysis --- Heilongjiang --- tropical reservoir --- heating impact --- Langcang-Mekong River --- Kappa distribution --- parameter relation --- partial gauged basin --- power function --- ratio curve --- ungauged basin --- reservoir operation --- integrated surface water-groundwater model --- Heihe River Basin --- environmental flow --- irrigation --- design and operation of the multipurpose reservoir --- water deficit --- reservoir simulation model --- climate change --- multi-objective optimization NSGA II --- resilience and robustness --- costs and benefits --- water energy --- multi-agent of river basin --- game theory --- water resources allocation --- optimal flood control operation --- cascade reservoirs --- dynamic programming with progressive optimality algorithm (DP-POA) --- the upper Yangtze River Basin --- parameterization --- simulation --- optimization --- direct policy search --- hedging policy --- shortage ratio: Vulnerability --- NSGA-II --- lentic habitats --- bitterling --- mussel --- floodplain vertical shape index --- sediment management --- adaptive management --- catchment modelling --- integrated management --- reservoir operation

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