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Wavelet Analysis for the Extraction of Morphological Features for Orthopaedic Bearing Surfaces (Book chapter)

Book title: Progress in Molecular and Environmental Bioengineering - From Analysis and Modeling to Technology Applications

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9789533072685 Year: DOI: 10.5772/20728 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen Grant: FP7 Ideas: European Research Council - 228117
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:47:58
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Surface texture is one of the most critical factors and important functionality indicators in the performance of high precision and nanoscale devices and components. The functions&#xD;&#xD;that have been identified in various studies include wear, friction, lubrication, corrosion,&#xD;&#xD;fatigue, coating, paintability, etc. [1-3]. It is also reported that the wear rates of surfaces in&#xD;&#xD;operational service is determined by roughness, waviness and the multi-scalar topographic&#xD;&#xD;features of a surface, such as random peaks/pits and ridges/valleys. These functional&#xD;&#xD;topographical features will impact directly on wear mechanics and physical properties of a&#xD;&#xD;whole system, such as hip joint replacement system in bioengineering [4-9]. For example,&#xD;&#xD;during functional operation of interacting surfaces, peaks and ridges will act as sites of high&#xD;&#xD;contact stresses and abrasion; consequently wear particles and debris will be generated by&#xD;&#xD;such surface topographical features, whereas the pits and valleys will affect the lubrication&#xD;&#xD;and fluid retention properties. In this situation, a vitally important consideration for&#xD;&#xD;functional characterisation must be the appropriate separation of the different components&#xD;&#xD;of surfaces, which is not only to extract roughness, waviness and form error, but should also&#xD;&#xD;be extended to all multi-scalar topographical events over surfaces.

Reconstruction of Specular Reflective Surfaces using Auto-Calibrating Deflectometry

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe / Institut für Mess- und Regelungstechnik, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 16134214 ISBN: 9783866449664 Year: Volume: 23 Pages: XI, 135 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000032148 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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This thesis discusses deflectometry as a reconstruction method for highly reflecting surfaces. It focuses on deflectometry alone and does not use other reconstruction techniques to supplement with additional data. It explains the measurement process and principle and provides a crash course into an efficient mathematical representation of the principles involved. Using this, it reformulates existing three-dimensional reconstructing methods, expands upon them and develops new ones.

Polyhedral Structures, Symmetry, and Applications

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ISBN: 9783038426899 9783038426882 Year: Pages: 322 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-08 13:24:15
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Symmetry is an intriguing phenomenon manifesting itself in art, nature, and the mind. This Special Issue book features 19 articles about discrete geometric and combinatorial polyhedral structures, with symmetry as the unifying theme. These articles present an attractive mix of topics and have appeared in two related Special Issues of Symmetry, on "Polyhedra" in 2012/2013 and on "Polyhedral Structures" in 2016/2017. Specific topic areas covered include polyhedra, tilings, and crystallography; abstract polyhedra, maps on surfaces, and graphs; and polyhedral structures, arts, and architectural design.

Food Packaging Based on Nanomaterials

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038975014 / 9783038975021 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-502-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-07 11:41:52
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The use of nanotechnologies in the food-packaging area has opened up a number of possibilities derived from the inherent characteristics of nanoadditives, which can either improve relevant properties of neat polymers (such as barrier or mechanical properties) or introduce new functionalities (for active and bioactive packaging applications or even for sensing). This is an exciting and rapidly growing field of study, and very interesting developments are unfolding. Although the aim of these novel materials is to improve packaged food quality and safety, the toxicological effects derived from their potential migration from the polymer structures is also under consideration.This Special Issue compiles a review and five original papers describing novel nanocomposites with improved packaging properties, the use of nanotechnologies for smart packaging applications, and nanoparticle migration studies from novel nanocomposites.

Deflektometrische Untersuchung spiegelnd reflektierender Freiformflächen

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe / Institut für Mess- und Regelungstechnik, Universität Karlsruhe (TH) ISSN: 16134214 ISBN: 3937300287 Year: Volume: 4 Pages: VIII, 115 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000002980 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:57

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Sowohl bei der Fertigung industrieller Zwischenprodukte als auch bei der Produktion von Konsumgütern treten vielerlei glänzende bzw. spiegelnde Oberflächen auf. Während bei technischen spiegelnden Oberflächen, wie z.B. Press- bzw. Gusswerkzeugen oder optischen Bauelementen, die Funktionalität des Werkstücks durch Oberflächendefekte gefährdet ist, stehen bei Produkten für den Endkunden, wie z.B. Armaturen, Musikinstrumenten oder lackierten Autokarosserien, ästhetische Aspekte im Vordergrund. Gerade im Bereich der Automobilindustrie sind die Qualitätsansprüche der Endkunden in den letzten Jahren enorm gestiegen, so dass marktübliche Verfahren zur Qualitätssicherung allmählich an ihre Grenzen stoßen.Ein Messverfahren, das den gestiegenen Anforderungen an Genauigkeit und Geschwindigkeit weitgehend gerecht wird, ist die Deflektometrie. Sie ist dem menschlichen Verhalten beim Prüfen spiegelnder Oberflächen nachempfunden. Aufbauend auf dem deflektometrischen Messprinzip wurden im Rahmen dieser Arbeit Algorithmen entwickelt, welche die Planung eines deflektometrischen Messaufbaus automatisieren. Für eine präzise Messung geringer Krümmungsänderungen wurden darüber hinaus Methoden vorgestellt, welche die Phase der optischen Abbildungsfunktion analysieren. Weiterhin wurden Verfahren entwickelt, welche die punktweise Fokusänderung messen. Diese zeichnen sich durch eine hohe Geschwindigkeit aus und ermöglichen eine empfindliche Erkennung von Defekten mit geringer lateraler Ausdehnung (Blasen, Einschlüsse) in Echtzeit. Die Leistungsfähigkeit der entwickelten Verfahren wurde dabei nicht nur in Simulationen demonstriert, sondern auch an Hand von realen, industrierelevanten Oberflächen, wie Karosserieteilen, Linsen und Spiegeln.

Electroluminescence from Plasmonic Excitations in a Scanning Tunnelling Microscope

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Book Series: Experimental Condensed Matter Physics / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Physikalisches Institut ISSN: 21919925 ISBN: 9783731509233 Year: Volume: 24 Pages: III, 136 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000093148 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:57
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This work presents the design and commissioning of a new low-temperature Scanning Tunnelling Microscope equipped with an innovative light collection setup using an integrated, micro-fabricated mirror tip. Commissioning experiments demonstrate the capabilities of this new instrument and reproduce known effects regarding gap plasmons on noble-metal surfaces. Furthermore, different contrasts in the plasmon-mediated light emission from Cobalt nano-islands on a Copper (111) substrate are reported.

Invariants of complex and p-adic origami-curves

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ISBN: 9783866444829 Year: Pages: VI, 74 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000015949 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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Origamis (also known as square-tiled surfaces) are Riemann surfaces which are constructed by glueing together finitely many unit squares. By varying the complex structure of these squares one obtains easily accessible examples of Teichmüller curves in the moduli space of Riemann surfaces.Different Teichmüller curves can be distinguished by several invariants, which are explicitly computed. The results are then compared to a p-adic analogue where Riemann surfaces are replaced by Mumford curves.

Geometry and topology of wild translation surfaces

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ISBN: 9783731504566 Year: Pages: 151 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000050964 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:02
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A translation surface is a two-dimensional manifold, equipped with a translation structure. It can be obtained by considering Euclidean polygons and identifying their edges via translations. The vertices of the polygons form singularities if the translation structure can not be extended to them. We study translation surfaces with wild singularities, regarding the topology (genus and space of ends), the geometry (behavior of the singularities), and how the topology and the geometry are related.

Polymeric Materials: Surfaces, Interfaces and Bioapplications

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783038979623 / 9783038979630 Year: Pages: 342 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-963-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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This book collects the articles published in the Special Issue “Polymeric Materials: Surfaces, Interfaces and Bioapplications”. It shows the advances in polymeric materials, which have tremendous applications in agricultural films, food packaging, dental restoration, antimicrobial systems, and tissue engineering. These polymeric materials are presented as films, coatings, particles, fibers, hydrogels, or networks. The potential to modify and modulate their surfaces or their content by different techniques, such as click chemistry, ozonation, breath figures, wrinkle formation, or electrospray, are also explained, taking into account the relationship between the structure and properties in the final application. Moreover, new trends in the development of such materials are presented, using more environmental friendly and safe methods, which, at the same time, have a high impact on our society.

Keywords

corn stalk fiber --- friction composite --- friction and wear --- worn surface morphology --- antifouling coatings --- biofouling --- natural biofilms --- single-stranded conformation polymorphism --- polydimethylsiloxane --- multidimensional scale analysis --- antimicrobial coatings --- porous surfaces --- breath figures --- antimicrobial polymer --- coatings --- hydrogel --- protein-repellent polymer --- surface-attached polymer network --- polymer cross-linking --- alginate modification --- calcium chloride --- microparticles --- spray drying --- prolonged drug release --- gradient wrinkles --- UV/ozone --- irradiance --- polymeric composites --- bonding agents --- antibacterial --- oral biofilms --- periodontal pathogens --- caries inhibition --- recycling --- polypropylene --- biodegradable polymers --- degradation --- inmiscibility --- hemicelluloses --- chitosan --- composite films --- oxygen barrier property --- food packaging --- nanosecond laser surface modification --- ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene) --- surface wettability --- superhydrophobic --- superhydrophilic --- poly(x-chlorostyrene) --- honeycomb --- breath figures --- conformational entropy --- spinal anatomy --- intervertebral disc --- degenerative disc disease --- herniated disc --- spinal fusion --- total disc replacement --- tissue engineering --- Electrically conductive polymers --- Electroactive biomaterials --- Electrical stimulation --- Smart composites --- Bioelectric effect --- Drug delivery --- Artificial muscle --- bio-based --- fossil --- hybrids --- blends --- packaging --- bio-based polymers --- antimicrobial --- biodegradable --- sustainable --- eco-friendly --- graphene oxide --- chitosan --- composites --- scaffolds --- tissue engineering --- surface modification/functionalization --- surface segregation --- micro- and nanopatterned films --- blends and (nano)composites --- coatings --- surface wettability --- stimuli-responsive materials/smart surfaces --- bioapplications

Tribological Performance of Artificial Joints

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039210787 / 9783039210794 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-079-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Surgery
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Joint replacement is a very successful medical treatment. However, the survivorship of the implants could be adversely affected due to the loss of materials in the form of particles or ions as the bearing surfaces articulate against earch other. The consequent tissue and immune response to the wear products, remain one of the key factors of their failure. Tribology has been defined as the science and technology of interacting surfaces in relative motion and all related wear products (e.g., particles, ions, etc.). Over the last few decades, in an attempt to understand and improve joint replacement technology, the tribological performance of several material combinations have been studied experimentally and assessed clinically. In addition, research has focused on the biological effects and long term consequences of wear products. Improvements have been made in manufacturing processes, precision engineering capabilities, device designs and materials properties in order to minimize wear and friction and maximize component longevity in vivo.

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