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Mechanisms of Persistence, Survival, and Transmission of Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens in Production Animals

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455454 Year: Pages: 130 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-545-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Foodborne illness resulting from food production animals is a global health concern, and the Centers for Disease Control estimate that one in six Americans will become sick with a foodborne illness each year. Of course there are numerous causes for these outbreaks, but contamination from a food production animal is certainly one source. Understanding the host-pathogen interaction and how foodborne bacterial pathogens establish a persistent infection and evade host immune responses will be pivotal in reducing the instance of foodborne illness traced back to a food production animal source.In this volume, we bring together original research and review articles covering some of the key issues surrounding the mechanisms of persistence, survival, and transmission of bacterial foodborne pathogens in production animals. The research focused on poultry and specifically addressed antibiotic resistance, Salmonella colonization, pathogen reduction strategies using pre- or probiotics, pathogen evasion, and post-harvest intervention and pathogen testing. The following 11 articles are fine examples of the multidisciplinary approaches that will be required to address and understand the complex interplay between food safety and animal production.

Teaching Under Pressure

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ISBN: 9780203974438 9780750705035 9780750705042 9781135717599 9781135717582 9781135717544 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203974438 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Education
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:10
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This text is based on the author's research into primary school teacher's stress. The research has been linked with the author's belief in the need to understand ourselves, our personal and professional situations and how they relate. The resulting book is a practical text designed to address the reader in such a way that they can readily identify with what is being discussed. Futhermore, readers are encouraged to explore ways in which they can begin to tackle their own problems.

Making Science Fun - A Tribute to Our Colleague and Friend, Prof. Antonius G. Rolink (1953-2017)

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457519 Year: Pages: 211 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-751-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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This Research Topic honors the memory of Prof. Antonius “Ton” G. Rolink (April 19, 1953–August 06, 2017), our colleague, mentor and friend in immunology. It is now over a year since Ton left us. This article collection, authored by many of Ton’s friends and colleagues, reflects the huge contribution to cellular and molecular immunology that work emanating directly from Ton’s own hands and laboratory have made to the understanding of lymphocyte development. Ton’s hard work, expertise, generosity, passion for science and infectious humor were legendary and for all of those lucky enough to have been his colleague, he ensured that science was fun. We take this opportunity of thanking all contributors for submitting their manuscripts; we are sure that Ton would have enjoyed reading and making his own insightful comments on them. In the form of original research and review articles, these papers cover many of Ton’s scientific interests in different aspects of lymphocyte development in mouse and man. In the first section, Development of hematopoietic cells and lymphocytes, Klein et al. describe the accumulation of multipotent hematopoietic progenitors in peripheral lymphoid organs of IL-7xFlt3L double transgenic mice and Pang et al. the role of the transcription factor PU.1 on the development of Common Lymphoid Progenitors. In Early B cell development, Winkler and Mårtensson review the role of the Pre-B cell receptor in B cell development and papers by Hobeika et al. and Brennecke et al. describe models of inducible B cell development. For B cell selection, survival and tolerance, Smulski and Eibel review the role of BAFF and Kowalczyk-Quintans et al. analyse the role of membrane-bound BAFF. The impact of BIM on B cell homeostasis is discussed by Liu et al. The role of the MEK-ERK pathway in B cell tolerance is discussed by Greaves et al. and the transcriptional regulation of germinal center development is reviewed by Song and Matthias. For Hematological diseases, Ghia reviews how studies of B cell development help the understanding of Leukemia development, Kim and Schaniel review how iPS technology helps the understanding of hematological diseases and Hellmann et al. describe development of new therapeutic antibody drug conjugates. Finally, in T cell development, homeostasis and graft vs. host disease, Heiler et al. describe the therapeutic effects of IL-2/anti-IL-2 immune complexes in GvHD, Calvo-Asensio et al. describe the DNA damage response of thymocyte progenitors and Mori and Pieters review the role of Coronin 1 in T cell survival.

The pathogenic Yersiniae - advances in the understanding of physiology and virulence

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192588 Year: Pages: 199 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-258-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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For decades, pathogenic Yersinia have served as an inventive model organism for researchers seeking to understand the complexities of bacteria-host cell interactions. In fact, seminal studies on Yersinia virulence mechanisms contributed to the emergence and recognition of the research field - cellular microbiology. Researching Yersinia infection biology continues to identify and define fascinating virulence and survival mechanisms that advance and expand existing perceptions of bacterial-host encounters. This also includes research that defines how the pathogenic Yersiniae respond to diverse physicochemical stimuli to spatially and temporally control this armory of customized virulence and survival factors. Yet additional research demonstrates how the application of powerful whole genomic-based methodologies can open new frontiers that further facilitate understanding of bacterial evolution and pathogenicity. This Research Topic is therefore focused on presenting and summarizing new developments in Yersinia patho-physiology through highlighting cutting- edge studies on the Yersinia-host cell interaction and the network of regulatory control mechanisms that define this outcome.

Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Effective Radiotherapy Delivery

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198498 Year: Pages: 111 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-849-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) is a new radiotherapy technology that combines the rapid dose fall off associated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and daily tumor imaging allowing for high precision tumor dose delivery and effective sparing of surrounding normal organs. The new radiation technology requires close collaboration between radiologists, nuclear medicine specialists, and radiation oncologists to avoid marginal miss. Modern diagnostic imaging such as positron emission tomography (PET) scans, positron emission tomography with Computed Tomograpgy (PET-CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows the radiation oncologist to target the positive tumor with high accuracy. As the tumor is well visualized during radiation treatment, the margins required to avoid geographic miss can be safely reduced , thus sparing the normal organs from excessive radiation. When the tumor is located close to critical radiosensitive structures such as the spinal cord, IGRT can deliver a high dose of radiation to the tumor and simultaneously decreasing treatment toxicity, thus potentially improving cure rates and patient quality of life. During radiotherapy, tumor shrinkage and changes of normal tissues/volumes can be detected daily with IGRT. The volume changes in the target volumes and organs at risk often lead to increased radiation dose to the normal tissues and if left uncorrected may result in late complications. Adaptive radiotherapy with re-planning during the course of radiotherapy is therefore another advantage of IGRT over the conventional radiotherapy techniques. This new technology of radiotherapy delivery provides the radiation oncologist an effective tool to improve patient quality of life. In the future, radiation dose-escalation to the residual tumor may potentially improve survival rates. Because the treatment complexity, a great deal of work is required from the dosimetry staff and physicists to ensure quality of care. Preliminary clinical results with IGRT are encouraging but more prospective studies should be performed in the future to assess the effectiveness of IGRT in improving patient quality of life and local control. In this Frontiers Research Topic, we encourage submission of original papers and reviews dealing with imaging for radiotherapy planning, the physics and dosimetry associated with IGRT, as well as the clinical outcomes for cancer treatment with IGRT for all tumor sites.

About the Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453887 Year: Pages: 221 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-388-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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A significant increase in the prevalence of campylobacteriosis cases has been observed over the past years. Campylobacter has emerged as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne disease worldwide with a significant impact on human health and an associated economic burdens. Campylobacteriosis human cases have been generally correlated with the handling, preparation and consumption of poultry. In 2017, the European Commission regulation has amended Regulation (EC) No 2073/2005 on the hygiene of foodstuffs as regards Campylobacter on broiler carcasses stating a limit of 1000 cfu/g. Campylobacter is also present in other farm animals and is frequently found on a range of foodstuffs due to cross contamination. Among the pathogenic species, C. jejuni is the most prevalent species followed by C. coli. Current guidelines highlight the importance of biosecurity but these measures are failing to mitigate the risk of pathogenic Campylobacter. As an obligate microaerophile, Campylobacter does not multiply under atmospheric oxygen concentration at ambient temperatures. It therefore constitutes a puzzle as to how it can survive from farm to retail outlets. The underlying molecular mechanisms of persistence, survival and pathogenesis appear to be unique to this pathogen. Recent research has indicated how genomic polymorphism, restricted catabolic capacity, self regulation or deregulation of genes, bacterial cooperation and unknown contamination routes may be connected to this specificity.This book includes original studies on both C. jejuni and C. coli species dealing with epidemiology and animal carriage, host interaction, control strategies, metabolism and regulation specificities of these two pathogenic species, methodology to improve cultural techniques and chicken gut microbiota challenged with Campylobacter.

Breaking Intergenerational Cycles of Repetition

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ISBN: 9783847406136 9783847402404 Year: DOI: 10.3224/84740613 Language: English
Publisher: Verlag Barbara Budrich Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 102294
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-07 11:21:02
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The authors in this volume explore the interconnected issues of intergenerational trauma and traumatic memory in societies with a history of collective violence across the globe. Each chapter's discussion offers a critical reflection on historical trauma and its repercussions, and how memory can be used as a basis for dialogue and transformation. The perspectives include, among others: the healing journey of three generations of a family of Holocaust survivors and their dialogue with third generation German students over time; traumatic memories of the British concentration camps in South Africa; reparations and reconciliation in the context of the historical trauma of Aboriginal Australians; and the use of the arts as a strategy of dialogue and transformation.

The EU and China in African Authoritarian Regimes: Domestic Politics and Governance Reforms

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Book Series: Governance and Limited Statehood ISBN: 9783319635903 9783319635910 Year: Pages: 261 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-63591-0 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan Grant: Deutsche Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE)
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-01 15:29:45
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This open access book analyses the domestic politics of African dominant party regimes, most notably African governments’ survival strategies, to explain their variance of opinions and responses towards the reforming policies of the EU. The author discredits the widespread assumption that the growing presence of China in Africa has made the EU’s task of supporting governance reforms difficult, positing that the EU’s good governance strategies resonate better with the survival strategies of governments in some dominant party regimes more so than others, regardless of Chinese involvement. Hackenesch studies three African nations – Angola, Ethiopia and Rwanda – which all began engaging with the EU on governance reforms in the early 2000s. She argues that other factors generally identified in the literature, such as the EU’s good governance strategies or economic dependence of the target country on the EU, have set additional incentives for African governments to not engage on governance reforms.

Analyse der Studiendauer und des Studienabbruch-Risikos

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Book Series: Forschungsergebnisse der Wirtschaftsuniversitaet Wien ISBN: 9783631525012 Year: Pages: 228 DOI: 10.3726/b13923 Language: German
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:25
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Die Arbeit behandelt zunächst die statistische Theorie der Ereignisanalyse, die die Grundlage für die empirische Analyse der Studiendauer und des Studienabbruch-Risikos auf der Basis von Studieneingangskohorten der Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien bildet. Die Einbeziehung erklärender Variablen in das statistische Modell und die Ermittlung des Effektes dieser Variablen auf die Dauer bis zum Eintreffen eines Ereignisses bilden einen Schwerpunkt der Arbeit. Es werden parametrische Regressionsmodelle zur Analyse von Verweildauern unter Einbeziehung von (auch zeitabhängigen) erklärenden Variablen und semiparametrische, proportionale Hazardraten-Modelle diskutiert und gegenübergestellt. Ferner werden die verfügbaren Studentendaten aus der Hörerevidenz und aus einer ergänzend durchgeführten Befragung deskriptiv analysiert und versucht, erste Zusammenhänge zwischen einzelnen Variablen und dem Studierstatus aufzuzeigen. Ein weiterer Schwerpunkt liegt in der Anwendung der zuvor beschriebenen parametrischen und semiparametrischen Mehr-Zustands-Modelle für die Analyse der Studiendauer und von Studienabbruch-Wahrscheinlichkeiten an der Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien.

Genetic Determinants of Human Longevity

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039216789 / 9783039216796 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-679-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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In the last two decades, due to the continuous increase of lifespans in Westernsocieties, and the consequent growing of the elderly population, have witnessedan increase in the number of studies on biological and molecular factors able topromote healthy aging and reach longevity. The study of the genetic componentof human longevity demonstrated that it accounts for 25% of intra populationphenotype variance. The efforts made to characterize the genetic determinantssuggested that the maintenance of cellular integrity, inflammation, oxidativestress response, DNA repair, as well as the use of nutrients, represent the mostimportant pathways correlated with a longer lifespan. However, although aplethora of variants were indicated to be associated with human longevity, onlyvery few were successfully replicated in different populations, probably becauseof population specificity, missing heritability as well as a complex interactionamong genetic factors with lifestyle and cultural factors, which modulate theindividual chance of living longer. Thus, many challenges remain to be addressedin the search for the genetic components of human longevity. This Special Issue isaimed to unify the progress in the analysis of the genetic determinants of humanlongevity, to take stock of the situation and point to future directions of the field.We invite submissions for reviews, research articles, short-communicationsdealing with genetic association studies in human longevity, including all types ofgenetic variation, as well as the characterization of longevity-related genes.

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