Search results: Found 5

Listing 1 - 5 of 5
Sort by
Improving Animal Welfare through Genetic Selection

Author:
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198832 Year: Pages: 106 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-883-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

In livestock species, breeding goals are aimed primarily at improvement of production traits. However, there are a number of examples where selection for high production efficiency has resulted in reduced welfare through unfavorable outcomes in health and fitness characteristics. These effects raise questions about what is ethically acceptable in animal breeding. Welfare problems may be experienced when physiological balance is disturbed by genetic selection for high production alone, by a mismatch between the environmental challenges and the range of coping responses available to an animal, or from a mismatch between the animal’s needs and their degree of satisfaction. This may be resolved by either improving the environment to support the animal, but also by providing the animal, through genetic selection, with means to adapt to the production environment. The Standing Committee of the European Convention for the Protection of Animals kept for Farming Purposes emphasizes that breeding goals should include health and welfare. The Farm Animal Welfare Council pleas for a greater emphasis in breeding programs on traits associated with good welfare. However, although breeding goals in most farm animal species have been broadened beyond production traits to include functional traits, behavioral traits are rarely included despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. It is the goal of the present Research Topic to bring together experimental and theoretical research focusing on the genetics of welfare traits and the possibility to improve animal welfare through selection. This topic presents an overview of the relationship between selection for high production and livestock robustness, examples of improving robustness through the introduction of novel traits in livestock breeding, and a discussion on selection methods to address welfare issues. The discussion on sustainability of breeding practices is very alive today and will remain to be an important part of the debate in the future.

Natural Diversity in the New Millennium

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199525 Year: Pages: 173 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-952-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Natural diversity has been extensively used to understand plant biology and improve crops. However, studies were commonly based on visual phenotypes or on a few measurable parameters. Nowadays, a large number of parameters can be measured thanks to next generation sequencing, metabolomics, proteomics, and transcriptomics thus providing an unprecedented resolution in the detection of natural diversity. This enhanced resolution offers new possibilities in terms of understanding plant biology. Technology advances also contribute to a better assessment of the biodiversity loss currently taking place. Hence, the topic presents an overview on efforts for maintaining biological diversity in crops, on possibilities offered by recent technologies in the assessment of natural variation, and ends with examples of the diversity found even at the cellular level.

Enhancing Soil Health to Mitigate Soil Degradation

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038423584 9783038423591 Year: Pages: VIII, 328 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-359-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-06-20 09:44:18
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Five of the top ten problems facing humanity (http://cnst.rice.edu/content.aspx?id=246) over the next 50 years (food, water, energy, environment and poverty) are directly related to the health of soil resources. Several different factors, including: (a) excessive tillage; (b) inappropriate crop rotations; (c) excessive grazing or crop residue removal; (d) deforestation; (e) mining and/or fracking; and (f) construction or urban sprawl, have contributed to the global problem of soil degradation. Understanding and implementing sustainable agricultural and land management practices that improve soil health is essential for mitigating and reversing these trends, if we are to successfully meet the needs of more than 9.5 billion people who will be sharing our fragile planet by the middle of the 21st century.The overall focus for this Special Issue was on agricultural factors contributing to soil degradation and suggested strategies for mitigating and reversing those trends. The discussion was anchored by invited contributions reflecting perspectives from Africa, Australia, China, Eastern Europe, India, Latin America, North America, Russia, and Western Europe. Voluntary contributions were evaluated, and incorporated into the issue to provide a global perspective on soil degradation and strategies to mitigate its devastating effects.This Special Issue draws upon published literature addressing soil quality and/or soil health, soil and crop management strategies to mitigate soil degradation, and future research needs and strategies that will steadily improve the fragile layer that lies between us and starvation. Your participation and contributions to this important endeavor were most welcome.

Sustainable Agriculture–Beyond Organic Farming

ISBN: 9783038423041 9783038423058 Year: Pages: XVI, 341 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-12-30 14:26:43
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The current conception of organic farming is the result of nearly a century of intellectual thought and dialogue, field observations and experiences, systematic experimentation, and codification of rules. Debates on the future viability of organic farming often focus on its capacity to produce sufficient food to meet the demands of a growing human population. Yet any thorough examination of the pros and cons of alternative farming approaches should consider much more—for example the side effects on soil, water and air; energy and land-use efficiency; global warming potential; conservation of biodiversity; waste generation and recycling; farmer and community well-being; animal welfare; and the capacity to function and meet demands long into the future. The chapters in this book represent perspectives on organic farming and food systems from widely different academic disciplines and different regions of the world. They include replicated field experiments, modelling, systems analysis, case studies and literature reviews. The findings, interpretations, and ideas shared will likely generate as many questions as answers, but asking the relevant and difficult questions is as critical as finding the right answers. This diverse group of authors makes interesting and useful contributions to our ongoing conversations about food, agriculture and the evolution of organic farming.

Building a Resilient and Sustainable Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783319762210 9783319762227 Year: Pages: 302 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-76222-7 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan Grant: African Development Bank
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-20 18:51:43
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

What are the challenges and action points for agricultural sustainability in Sub-Saharan Africa? This collection of papers offers technical analyses, policy recommendations and an overview of success stories to date. Each carefully selected paper provides valuable insights for improved policy making and defines relevant strategic priorities on Africa’s sustainable transformation process, which is in line with the international development agenda. Although agriculture remains the main source of income for Africa’s population, the sector is rain-fed subjecting it to the vagaries of weather and climate change. This volume demonstrates the rationale of developing a competitive, inclusive and sustainable agribusiness sector for Africa’s food security and structural transformation.From the impact of Bioenergy crop adoption and Drought Index Insurance to Agro-Industrialization, this volume is important reading for individual researchers, academic associations and professional bodies interested in African agricultural development.

Listing 1 - 5 of 5
Sort by
Narrow your search