Search results: Found 11

Listing 1 - 10 of 11 << page
of 2
>>
Sort by
Recent Advances in Symbiosis Research: Integrative Approaches

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450152 Year: Pages: 274 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-015-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Traditionally, symbiosis research has been undertaken by researchers working independently of one another and often focused on a few cases of bipartite host-symbiont interactions. New model systems are emerging that will enable us to fill fundamental gaps in symbiosis research and theory, focusing on a broad range of symbiotic interactions and including a variety of multicellular hosts and their complex microbial communities. In this Research Topic, we invited researchers to contribute their work on diverse symbiotic networks, since there are a large variety of symbioses with major roles in the proper functioning of terrestrial or aquatic ecosystems, and we wished the Topic to provide a venue for communicating findings across diverse taxonomic groups. A synthesis of recent investigations in symbiosis can impact areas such as agriculture, where a basic understanding of plant-microbe symbiosis will provide foundational information on the increasingly important issue of nitrogen fixation; climate change, where anthropogenic factors are threatening the survival of marine symbiotic ecosystems such as coral reefs; animal and human health, where unbalances in host microbiomes are being increasingly associated with a wide range of diseases; and biotechnology, where process optimization can be achieved through optimization of symbiotic partnerships. Overall, our vision was to produce a volume of works that will help define general principles of symbiosis within a new conceptual framework, in the road to finally establish symbiology as an overdue central discipline of biological science.

Epigenetics as a Deep Intimate Dialogue between Host and Symbionts

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198757 Year: Pages: 98 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-875-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Symbiosis is an intimate relationship between different living entities and is widespread in virtually all organisms. It was critical for the origin and diversification of Eukaryotes and represents a major driving force in evolution. Indeed, symbiosis may support a wide range of biological processes, including those underlying the physiology, development, reproduction, health, behavior, ecology and evolution of the organisms involved in the relationship. Although often confused with mutualism, when both organisms benefit from the association, symbiosis actually encompasses several and variable relationships. Among them is parasitism, when one organism benefits but the other is harmed, and commensalism, when one organism benefits and the other remains unaffected. Even if many symbiotic lifestyles do exist in nature, in many cases the intimacy between the partners is so deep that the “symbiont” (sensu strictu) resides into the tissues and/or cells of the other partner. Since the partners frequently belong to different kingdoms, e.g. bacteria, fungi, protists and viruses living in association with animal and plant hosts, their shared “language” should be a basic and ancient form of communication able to effectively blur the boundaries between extremely different living entities. In recent years studies on the role of epigenetics in shaping host-symbiont interactions have been flourishing. Epigenetic changes include, but are not limited to, DNA methylation, remodelling of chromatin structure through histone chemical modifications and RNA interference. In this E-book we present a series of papers exploring the fascinating developmental and evolutionary relationship between symbionts and hosts, by focusing on the mediating epigenetic processes that enable the communication to be effective and robust at both the individual, the ecological and the evolutionary time scales. In particular, the papers consider the role of epigenetic factors and mechanisms in the interactions among different species, comprising the holobiont and host-parasite relationships. On the whole, since epigenetics is fast-acting and reversible, enabling dynamic developmental communication between hosts and symbionts at several different time scale, we argue that it could account for the enormous plasticity that characterizes the interactions between all the organisms living symbiotically on our planet.

Microbial symbiosis of marine sessile hosts - Diversity and function

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196814 Year: Pages: 108 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-681-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Modern molecular -omics tools (metagenomics, metaproteomics etc.) have greatly contributed to the rapid advancement of our understanding of microbial diversity and function in the world’s oceans. These tools are now increasingly applied to host-associated environments to describe the symbiotic microbiome and obtain a holistic view of marine host-microbial interactions. Whilst all eukaryotic hosts are likely to benefit from their microbial associates, marine sessile eukaryotes, including macroalgae, seagrasses and various invertebrates (sponges, acidians, corals, hydroids etc), rely in particular on the function of their microbiome. For example, marine sessile eukaryotes are under constant grazing, colonization and fouling pressure from the millions of micro- and macroorganisms in the surrounding seawater. Host-associated microorganisms have been shown to produce secondary metabolites as defense molecules against unwanted colonization or pathogens, thus having an important function in host health and survival. Similarly microbial symbionts of sessile eukaryotes are often essential players in local nutrient cycling thus benefiting both the host and the surrounding ecosystem. Various research fields have contributed to generating knowledge of host-associated systems, including microbiology, biotechnology, molecular biology, ecology, evolution and biotechnology. Through a focus on model marine sessile host systems we believe that new insight into the interactions between host and microbial symbionts will be obtained and important areas of future research will be identified. This research topic includes original research, review and opinion articles that bring together the knowledge from different aspects of biology and highlight advances in our understanding of the diversity and function of the microbiomes on marine sessile hosts.

Emerging Tools for Emerging Symbioses - Using Genomics Applications to Studying Endophytes

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452194 Year: Pages: 157 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-219-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Plants are typically colonized by numerous endophyte species symbiotically without any noticeable disease symptoms. These microbes are abundant, diverse and play critical ecological roles across natural and agricultural ecosystems. Endophytes have attracted the attention of researchers due to their various beneficial effects on plants, especially in agricultural crop species. Genomic tools will enhance our understanding on the growth and nutrition requirements of this host-symbiont relationship. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies and bioinformatic pipelines have allowed analyzing the plant microbiome and host-endophyte interaction more effectively with limited bias. Furthermore, various studies have employed and utilized transcriptomic and genomic tools to understand the role of endophytes and their interaction with plant hosts. This electronic book covers various research articles highlighting the important developments on endophytes using transcriptomics, next generation sequencing and genomic tools.

Everything Flows

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9780198779636 9780198779636 Year: Pages: 416 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: FP7 Ideas: European Research Council - 324186
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-02 11:01:01
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This collection of essays explores the metaphysical thesis that the living world is not ontologically made up of substantial particles or things, as has often been assumed, but is rather constituted by processes. The biological domain is organized as an interdependent hierarchy of processes, which are stabilized and actively maintained at different timescales. Even entities that intuitively appear to be paradigms of things, such as organisms, are actually better understood as processes. Unlike previous attempts to articulate processual views of biology, which have tended to use Alfred North Whitehead’s panpsychist metaphysics as a foundation, this book takes a naturalistic approach to metaphysics. It submits that the main motivations for replacing an ontology of substances with one of processes are to be looked for in the empirical findings of science. Biology provides compelling reasons for thinking that the living realm is fundamentally dynamic and that the existence of things is always conditional on the existence of processes. The phenomenon of life cries out for theories that prioritize processes over things, and it suggests that the central explanandum of biology is not change but rather stability—or, more precisely, stability attained through constant change. This multicontributor volume brings together philosophers of science and metaphysicians interested in exploring the consequences of a processual philosophy of biology. The contributors draw on an extremely wide range of biological case studies and employ a process perspective to cast new light on a number of traditional philosophical problems such as identity, persistence, and individuality.&#xD;

Signaling in the Phytomicrobiome

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452163 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-216-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

A plant growing under field conditions is not a simple individual; it is a community. We now know that there is a community of microbes associated with all parts of the plant, and that the root associated community is particularly large. This microbial community, the phytomicrobiome, is complex, regulated and the result of almost half a billion years of evolution. Circumstances that benefit the plant generally benefit the phytomicrobiome, and vice versa. Members of the holobiont modulate each other's activities, in part, through molecular signals, acting as the hormones of the holobiont. The plant plus the phytomicrobiome constitute the holobiont, the resulting entity that is that community. The phytomicrobiome is complex, well developed and well-orchestrated, and there is considerable potential in managing this system. The use of “biologicals” will develop during the 21st century and play as large a role as agro-chemistry did in the 20th century. Biologicals can be deployed to enhance plant pathogen resistance, improve plant access to nutrients and improve stress tolerance. They can be used to enhance crop productivity, to meet the expanding demands for plant material as food, fibre and fuel. They can assist crop plants in dealing with the more frequent and more extreme episodes of stress that will occur as climate change conditions continue to develop. The path is clear and we have started down it; there is a considerable distance remaining.

Elucidating the function of mycorrhizal-induced Kunitz protease inhibitors and characterization of their putative target proteases in Medicago truncatula

Author:
ISBN: 9783731501756 Year: Pages: XVI, 169 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000038422 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:02
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Most terrestrial plants live in symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In this study, a mycorrhizal-induced gene family of Medicago truncatula encoding putative Kunitz protease inhibitors was functionally characterized by means of biomolecular, biochemical, microscopical and in silico methods. Their putative target proteases were identified among a clan of serine carboxypeptidases. Results suggest that both protein families work functionally together to control mycorrhizal establishment.

New Vision 2050: A Platinum Society

Authors: ---
Book Series: Science for Sustainable Societies ISSN: 2197-7348 ISBN: 9784431566229 9784431566236 Year: Pages: 179 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-56623-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc.
Subject: Economics --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-29 12:59:47
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This book presents the "New Vision 2050," which adds the concept of the “platinum society” to the “Vision 2050”.The 20th century was a century in which energy led the development of material civilization, resulting in deletion of resources, global warming and climate change. What form should sustainable material and energy take to protect the Earth? The "Vision 2050" was established 20 years ago as a model that we should pursue for the next half century. Fortunately, the world is on course for the Vision 2050.The 21st century will be a century in which we seek qualitative richness, with the Vision 2050 as the material basis. That is, a “platinum society” that has resource self-sufficiency and resource symbiosis, and where people remain active throughout their lives and have a wide range of choices and opportunities for free participation. Since the author presented the concept of "Vision 2050" in 1999, the idea has been introduced in two books entitled Vision 2050: Roadmap for a Sustainable Earth (2008) and Beyond the Limits to Growth: New Ideas for Sustainability from Japan (2014). The latter includes a chapter that sheds light on the concept of a “platinum society”. In this publication, the author presents the "New Vision 2050" in more detail.

Integrating Innovation: South Australian Entrepreneurship Systems and Strategies

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781922064912 Year: Pages: 406 DOI: 10.20851/integrating-innovation Language: English
Publisher: University of Adelaide Press
Subject: Business and Management --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2015-05-06 09:11:41
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

South Australia is a small economy that faces a fundamental need to re-shape its approach to innovation. The manufacturing sector, as the backbone of the state’s economy, has and will continue to change in its nature and form. This necessitates a re-think about how innovation happens and how the respective actors within an economy interact and engage with each other. In effect, innovation relies on intersections between people, knowledge, information sharing, ideas, financial and other resources. Innovation happens through regional social and economic system dynamics; innovation relies on a system view of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship can be taken as a study of the entrepreneur and new business creation. However, this conception of entrepreneurship misses the critical link to economic outcomes; the ebb and flow of social and economic fortunes that are underpinned by the actions, reactions and engagement of individuals in a specific social and economic system that brings about innovation and change. In this book the authors are exploring how the linkages within the system can be conceptualised and made transparent.

Thioredoxin and Glutaredoxin Systems

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038978367 / 9783038978374 Year: Pages: 280 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-837-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This Special Issue features recent data concerning thioredoxins and glutaredoxins from various biological systems, including bacteria, mammals, and plants. Four of the sixteen articles are review papers that deal with the regulation of development of the effect of hydrogen peroxide and the interactions between oxidants and reductants, the description of methionine sulfoxide reductases, detoxification enzymes that require thioredoxin or glutaredoxin, and the response of plants to cold stress, respectively. This is followed by eleven research articles that focus on a reductant of thioredoxin in bacteria, a thioredoxin reductase, and a variety of plant and bacterial thioredoxins, including the m, f, o, and h isoforms and their targets. Various parameters are studied, including genetic, structural, and physiological properties of these systems. The redox regulation of monodehydroascorbate reductase, aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, and cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase could have very important consequences in plant metabolism. Also, the properties of the mitochondrial o-type thioredoxins and their unexpected capacity to bind iron–sulfur center (ISC) structures open new developments concerning the redox mitochondrial function and possibly ISC assembly in mitochondria. The final paper discusses interesting biotechnological applications of thioredoxin for breadmaking.

Keywords

methionine --- methionine sulfoxide --- methionine sulfoxide reductase --- physiological function --- protein --- plant --- repair --- redox homeostasis --- signaling --- stress --- mitochondria --- thioredoxin --- iron–sulfur cluster --- redox regulation --- ALAD --- tetrapyrrole biosynthesis --- redox control --- thioredoxins --- posttranslational modification --- chlorophyll --- redox regulation --- thioredoxin --- ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase --- chloroplast --- H2O2 --- redox signalling --- development --- regeneration --- adult stem cells --- metazoan --- cyanobacteria --- thioredoxin --- photosynthesis --- redox active site --- thioredoxin --- disulfide --- flavin --- NADPH --- X-ray crystallography --- SAXS --- methanoarchaea --- chilling stress --- cold temperature --- posttranslational modification --- regulation --- ROS --- thiol redox network --- thioredoxin --- thioredoxin --- Calvin-Benson cycle --- photosynthesis --- carbon fixation --- chloroplast --- macromolecular crystallography --- protein-protein recognition --- electrostatic surface --- Chlamydomonas reinhardtii --- thioredoxin --- glutaredoxin --- legume plant --- symbiosis --- redox homeostasis --- stress --- thioredoxin --- monodehydroascorbate reductase --- water stress --- protein oxidation --- antioxidants --- ascorbate --- glutathione --- wheat --- thioredoxin --- thioredoxin reductase --- baking --- redox --- dough rheology --- protein oxidation --- methionine oxidation --- methionine sulfoxide reductases --- oxidized protein repair --- ageing --- Chlamydomonas reinhardtii --- cysteine alkylation --- cysteine reactivity --- MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry --- thioredoxin --- X-ray crystallography --- Isocitrate dehydrogenase --- glutathionylation --- nitrosylation --- glutaredoxin --- Arabidopsis thaliana --- thioredoxins --- plastidial --- specificity --- function --- proteomic --- photosynthesis --- Calvin cycle --- n/a

Listing 1 - 10 of 11 << page
of 2
>>
Sort by