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Schizophrenie des Kindes- und Jugendalters

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ISBN: 9783954661732 Year: Pages: 524 DOI: 10.32745/9783954661732 Language: German
Publisher: MWV Medizinisch Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft
Subject: Psychiatry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-07-07 23:59:48
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Trauma; Psychosis and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453603 Year: Pages: 217 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-360-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Psychiatry --- Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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There is abundant evidence showing a strong association between trauma exposure, psychotic symptoms, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Early trauma exposure contributes to the formation of psychotic symptoms and the development of psychotic disorders or severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and treatment-refractory major depression. Furthermore, among persons with psychotic disorders, multiple traumatization over the lifetime is common, due to factors such as social stigma, the criminalization of severe mental illness, and increased vulnerability to interpersonal victimization. In addition to these factors is the traumatic nature of experiencing psychotic symptoms and coercive treatments such as involuntary hospitalization and being placed in seclusion or restraints. Not surprisingly, these high rates of trauma lead to high rates of PTSD in people with psychotic disorders, which are associated with more severe symptoms, worse functioning, and greater use of acute care services. In addition to the impact of trauma on the development of psychotic disorders and comorbid PTSD, traumatic experiences such as childhood sexual and physical abuse can shape the nature of prominent psychotic symptoms such as the content of auditory hallucinations and delusional beliefs. Additionally, traumatic experiences have been implicated in the role of ‘stress responsivity’ and increased risk for transition to psychosis in those identified as being at clinical high risk of developing psychosis. Finally, although the diagnostic criteria for PTSD primarily emphasize the effects of trauma on anxiety, avoidance, physiological over-arousal, and negative thoughts, it is well established that PTSD is frequently accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions that cannot be attributed to another DSM-V Axis I disorder such as psychotic depression or schizophrenia. Understanding the contribution of traumatic experiences to the etiology of psychosis and other symptoms can inform the provision of cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis, including the development of a shared formulation of the events leading up to the onset of the disorder, as well as other trauma-informed treatments that address distressing and disabling symptoms associated with trauma and psychosis. Until recently the trauma treatment needs of this population have been neglected, despite the high rates of trauma and PTSD in persons with psychotic disorders, and in spite of substantial gains made in the treatment of PTSD in the general population. Fortunately, progress in recent years has provided encouraging evidence that PTSD can be effectively treated in people with psychotic disorders using interventions adapted from PTSD treatments developed for the general population. In contrast to clinician fears about the untoward effects of trauma-focused treatments on persons with a psychotic disorder, research indicates that post-traumatic disorders can be safely treated, and that participants frequently experience symptom relief and improved functioning. There is a need to develop a better understanding of the interface between trauma, psychosis, and post-traumatic disorder. This Frontiers Research Topic is devoted to research addressing this interface.

1. Allvarliga idrottsskador hos svenska manliga akademifotbollsspelare (Book chapter)

Book title: Trender for idrettspsykologisk forskning i Skandinavia

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ISBN: 9788202596903 9788202596903 Year: Pages: 16 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.39.ch1 Language: Swedish
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-27 11:01:02
License: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)

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Sporting and sport psychological accomplishments are an important part of Scandinavian culture. Psychological factors have been demonstrated to have a major impact on both participation and achievements in sport. Sport psychology is about precisely these factors. The diversity of sport psychology research in Scandinavia is presented for the first time in this scholarly volume. Contributors from key sport psychology research teams in Sweden, Denmark and Norway present resarch covering a wide range of issues in the book’s twelve chapters. By publishing the contributions collectively as an Open Access anthology, the authors wish to reach researchers in the field of sport psychology, sport psychology advisers and professionals throughout Scandinavia. The volume will also be relevant to anyone with any interest in sport. The editors of the book are Tommy Haugen and Rune Høigaard, who are both affiliated with the Department of Public Health, Sport and Nutrition in the Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences at the University of Agder.

New Advanced Wireless Technologies for Objective Monitoring of Motor Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454860 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-486-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Over the last decade, a growing number of researchers have used advanced wireless technologies including wearable sensors for objective evaluation of specific motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). In the near future, sensing technologies will likely provide relevant advances in the clinical management of patients with PD, contributing to early diagnosis, disease progression monitoring and therapeutic approach. In this regard, this eBook hosts new original studies focused on the objective monitoring of motor symptoms and therapeutic perspectives of wireless technologies in patients with PD.

Functional Somatic Symptoms in Children and Adolescents

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Book Series: Palgrave Texts in Counselling and Psychotherapy ISBN: 9783030461843 Year: Pages: 383 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-46184-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Psychiatry --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-10-15 00:05:15
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This open access book sets out the stress-system model for functional somatic symptoms in children and adolescents. The book begins by exploring the initial encounter between the paediatrician, child, and family, moves through the assessment process, including the formulation and the treatment contract, and then describes the various forms of treatment that are designed to settle the child’s dysregulated stress system. This approach both provides a new understanding of how such symptoms emerge – typically, through a history of recurrent or chronic stress, either physical or psychological – and points the way to effective assessment, management, and treatment that put the child (and family) back on the road to health and well-being.

Pathophysiology of the Basal Ganglia and Movement Disorders: Gaining New Insights from Modeling and Experimentation to Influence the Clinic

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453177 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-317-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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The basal ganglia constitute a group of subcortical structures, highly interconnected among themselves, as well as with the cerebral cortex, thalamus and other brain areas. These nuclei play a central role in the control of voluntary movement, and their specific pathology comprises the group of diseases known as movement disorders, including Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, dystonia and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, among others. Additionally, the presence of a number of circuits within the basal ganglia related to non-motor functions has been acknowledged. Currently, the basal ganglia are thought to participate in cognitive, limbic and learning functions. Moreover, disorders related to the basal ganglia are known to involve a number of complex, non-motor symptoms and syndromes (e.g. compulsive and addictive behavior). In the light of this evidence, it is becoming clear that our knowledge about the basal ganglia needs to be revised, and that new pathophysiological models of movement disorders are needed. In this context, the study of the pathophysiology of the basal ganglia and the treatment of their pathology is becoming increasingly interdisciplinary. Nowadays, an appropriate approach to the study of these problems must necessarily involve the use of complex mathematical modeling, computer simulations, basic research (ranging from biomolecular studies to animal experimentation), and clinical research. This research topic aims to bring together the most recent advances related to the pathophysiology of the basal ganglia and movement disorders.

Field Guide for the Identification of Damage on Woody Sentinel Plants

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9781786394408; 9781786394415 Year: Pages: 292 Language: English
Publisher: CABI
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Forestry --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2020-10-16 15:03:26
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This guide is intended as an aid for managers of sentinel plantings, botanical gardens or arboreta, as well as phytosanitary inspectors, who may have knowledge of common pests and diseases of woody plants, but may not know the likely cause of damage that they have not encountered before. It aims to provide a tentative identification of relatively broad groups of organisms and not definitive identification of the causal agents. Hence, the pictures in this guide need to be regarded as typical examples of the described symptoms. There are chapters that explain how to use the guide, followed by keys (for different organs of conifer and broadleaf species) to guide the user to the relevant sections of the book, based on the questions entomologists and pathologists ask themselves when looking at a damaged or diseased tree in a fashion similar to how a doctor interrogates a patient to arrive at a diagnosis. The largest part of the book is devoted to the description and illustration of damage types and typical causes of the observed damage. The last chapters provide instructions for taking and preserving samples for further identification by an expert, notification of relevant authorities, and a glossary.

Mercury and Methylmercury Toxicology and Risk Assessment

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ISBN: 9783038979708 9783038979715 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-971-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Mercury is a global pollutant that affects the health of both humans and ecosystems. This Special Issue collects three review papers and six research articles that report on the latest findings on the mechanisms of mercury toxicology and its impacts on environmental health. This collection of papers provides useful, new information on the mechanisms of mercury toxicity and methods of improving the risk assessment of mercury exposure.

New Research in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Major Depression

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ISBN: 9783039210909 9783039210916 Year: Pages: 102 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-091-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:07
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Major depression and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) are now recognized among the most frequent psychiatric disorders, affecting 16–17% and 2–3% of the general population, respectively. They are commonly characterized by: i) a high level of psychiatric and somatic comorbidities; ii) a recurrence or chronic profile; and iii) a negative impact on daily functions, thereby leading to a profound impairment of quality of life. Despite significant advances in pharmacological and psychological therapies over the last decades, unsuccessful responses to standard treatment strategies are classically observed in approximately 20–30% of cases. Therefore, there is a significant need for improving the pathophysiological knowledge through a better identification of environmental, clinical, psychological, genetic, anatomical, and biological determinants, specifically implied in the development, the phenotypic expression, and the relapsing course and/or contributing to the therapeutic failure in major depression and OCD. We are convinced that this research approach is particularly relevant providing critical support for the promotion of innovative treatment alternatives potentially useful for the management of resistant forms of major depression and OCD.

Gluten-Free Diet

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ISBN: 9783038977360 9783038977377 Year: Pages: 318 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-737-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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In the last few years, an increasing number of individuals have adopted a gluten free diet (GFD). A significant proportion of that includes patients affected by celiac disease (CD), who have to follow a strict GFD for medical purposes. However, a high number of individuals are currently following a GFD without medical counseling and without a specific diagnosis needing a gluten withdrawal from the diet. This is due to the frequently incorrect information diffused on the Internet and mass media on the topic of GFD. For these reasons, research on the GFD and its clinical use and biological effects is urgently needed.

Keywords

Celiac Disease --- depression --- gluten-free diet --- dietary adherence --- gluten --- gastric emptying --- cholecyst --- celiac disease --- non celiac gluten sensitivity --- gluten-free diet --- gastrointestinal symptoms --- quality of life --- Brazilian CD-QoL --- quality of life --- celiac disease --- questionnaire --- coeliac disease --- celiac disease --- gluten --- gluten-free diet --- fortification --- micronutrient --- cost --- celiac disease --- diagnosis --- gliadin --- gluten --- glutenin --- non-celiac gluten sensitivity --- oral food challenge --- pepsin --- wheat allergy --- celiac disease (CD) --- quality of life (QoL) --- gluten-free diet --- disease duration --- place of residence --- educational level --- economic status --- body mass index (BMI) --- celiac disease --- gluten-free diet --- gut microbiota --- gluten-free diet --- celiac disease --- children --- teenagers --- gluten-related disorders --- celiac disease --- gut microbiota --- gluten-free diet --- Pseudomonas --- gluten-free diet --- mineral --- deficiency --- calcium --- iron --- magnesium --- zinc --- celiac disease --- non-celiac gluten sensitivity --- gut motility --- gluten-free diet --- gluten-related disorders --- gluten-free diet --- coeliac disease --- non-coeliac gluten sensitivity --- irritable bowel syndrome --- mood disorders --- affective disorders --- depression --- major depressive disorder --- mental health --- nutrition --- celiac disease --- gluten-free diet --- diary recommended intake --- food habit --- body composition --- non-coeliac gluten sensitivity --- gluten --- wheat --- low FODMAP diet --- irritable bowel syndrome --- beta cell --- beta-cell stress --- celiac disease --- gluten-free diet --- high-fat diet-induced obesity --- intestinal permeability --- islet of Langerhans --- NOD mouse --- type 1 diabetes --- type 2 diabetes --- FODMAP intake --- celiac disease --- irritable bowel syndrome --- gluten-free diet --- gastrointestinal symptoms --- celiac disease --- gluten-free diet --- effectiveness --- adherence --- nutritionists --- clinic --- serology --- duodenal biopsies --- structured questionnaires --- peptides derived from gluten in faeces and urine --- gluten --- adherence --- serology --- villous atrophy --- mucosal recovery --- threshold --- celiac disease --- body composition --- gluten free diet --- children --- celiac disease --- gluten --- gluten-free diet --- screening --- outcome --- gluten sensitivity --- osteoporosis --- non-celiac gluten sensitivity --- gluten re-introduction --- gluten-free diet --- gastrointestinal symptoms --- celiac disease --- ?-gliadin --- 33-mer --- DQ2.5-glia-?1 --- DQ2.5-glia-?2 --- DQ2.5-glia-?3 epitopes --- wheat species --- n/a --- gluten --- gluten-free diet --- coeliac disease --- non-celiac gluten sensitivity --- non-coeliac wheat sensitivity --- gliadin --- microbiota

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