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Non-invasive Brain Stimulation in Neurology and Psychiatry

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451340 Year: Pages: 207 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-134-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Brain stimulation techniques, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS), modify brain function through interaction with multiple neurotransmitters and networks. The implementation of these non-invasive stimulation techniques in physiology, behavioral studies, with modelling or functional imaging has provided an outstanding causal link between brain structure and function and helped identify neural networks mediating cognitive or motor function. The potential efficacy of non-invasive brain stimulation procedures for the management of specific symptoms in diverse neurological and psychiatric conditions has been tested in the past decade or so. For example, repetitive TMS over prefrontal areas has been extensively investigated as a treatment for patients with medication-resistant depression and has been shown to be associated with improvement of mood. Similarly, non-invasive stimulation techniques have been applied to various symptoms of Parkinson’s disease such as bradykinesia and dyskinesias, with variables degrees of success reported. However, attempts to expand previously observed clinical improvements to other neurological disorders (e.g. Tourette’s syndrome, autism, epilepsy) has been controversial. In trying to bypass potential confounding elements, researchers aim to target neural populations altered in disease to either increase or decrease their corrupted baseline activity. In addition, a complementary approach is to extend stimulation protocols that results enhanced behavior in healthy participants. One of the potential limitation of this latter strategy has been that most of the protocols evaluated in healthy participants have been tested in populations that are not comparable to the patient populations. This Frontiers Research Topic on non-invasive brain stimulation and enhancement of function seeks to combine contributions from researchers who found non-invasive brain stimulation induced improvement of either a motoric, cognitive or behavioral nature investigated behaviorally, physiologically or using brain imaging techniques in clinical populations. Investigation of the relation between enhancement of function in healthy populations and improvement of symptoms in patients with neurological or psychiatric disorders needs further consideration. Critically, the topic will be centered on the following topics to expand current knowledge: • selection of adequate stimulation protocols, including simple questions such as whether TMS or TDCS is more efficacious for inducing enhancement of function in brain disease; • methodological issues such as optimizing cortical targets and the use of good control groups; • which symptoms to tackle in different brain disorders. For example, is it possible to de-activate hyperactive cortical regions present in Parkinson disease to induce clinical amelioration? Do protocols used in healthy populations produce similar predictable effects in parkinsonian persons?; • potential of using stimulation protocols in combination with pharmacological or cognitive therapy; • the use of appropriate clinical, behavioral, physiological and imaging tools to measure brain plastic changes. Consideration about possible multi-centre clinical trials: feasibility, problems and authorization pathways. Studies or reviews on cost-effectiveness. The aim of this topic is to determine which disease signs are treatable with non-invasive brain stimulation and available protocols to interfere with altered brain systems and produce enhanced motor and behavior outcomes. This Frontiers Research Topic will be important in identifying new avenues of clinical research for rapid advances in the field.

Open questions on the mechanisms of neuromodulation with applied and endogenous electric fields

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193738 Year: Pages: 73 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-373-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
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Despite increased knowledge, and more sophisticated experimental and modeling approaches, fundamental questions remain about how electricity can interact with ongoing brain function in information processing or as a medical intervention. Specifically, what biophysical and network mechanisms allow for weak electric fields to strongly influence neuronal activity and function? How can strong and weak fields induce meaningful changes in CNS function? How do abnormal endogenous electric fields contribute to pathophysiology? Topics included in the review range from the role of field effects in cortical oscillations, transcranial electrical stimulation, deep brain stimulation, modeling of field effects, and the role of field effects in neurological diseases such as epilepsy, hemifacial spasm, trigeminal neuralgia, and multiple sclerosis.

Revisiting the Effectiveness of Transcranial Direct Current Brain Stimulation for Cognition: Evidence, Challenges, and Open Questions

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453252 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-325-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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The aim of this Frontiers Research Topic is to assemble a collection of papers from experts in the field of non-invasive brain stimulation that will discuss (1) the strength of the evidence regarding the potential of tDCS to modulate different aspects of cognition; (2) methodological caveats associated with the technique that may account for the variability in the reported findings; and (3) a set of challenges and future directions for the use of tDCS that can determine its potential as a reliable method for cognitive rehabilitation, maintenance, or enhancement.

Challenging the Functional Connectivity Disruption in Neurodegenerative Diseases: New Therapeutic Perspectives through Non-Invasive Neuromodulation and Cutting-Edge Technologies

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455935 Year: Pages: 143 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-593-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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The neurorehabilitation field is increasingly focused on understanding how to efficiently revert the effects that acute (i.e., stroke or traumatic brain injury) or chronic (i.e., neurodegenerative diseases) insults play either on small or large-scale networks, encompassing motor, sensory and cognitive domains. The link between the disrupted neuronal pulse generators and their effectors is being re-shaped through a wide scenario that embraces biorobotics, robot-aided rehabilitation, non-invasive neurostimulation, nanoprosthetics and neuroengineering. For the past decade and at an amazing speed, large investments and efforts allowed enthusiastic and only apparently heterogeneous researchers to borrow theories from neurophysiology, pharmacology, physics and quantum mechanics in order to generate together highly sophisticated tools that restore, resemble or even substitute the basic biological architecture. The idea of actually reverting weakened functions and/or replacing the faulty parts either of the human body or the central and peripheral nervous system is becoming a new reality, opening a fascinating era in this field.In this Research Topic, several researchers showed how the above principles became reality, from theory to the bedside of patients, providing full explanations of the whole mechanistic processes and how they were implemented, up to the final stage.

Trends in Neuroergonomics: A Comprehensive Overview

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452033 Year: Pages: 402 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-203-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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This Research Topic is dedicated to Raja Parasuraman who unexpectedly passed on March 22nd 2015. Raja Parasuraman’s pioneering work led the emergence of Neuroergonomics as a new scientific field. He combined his research interests in the field of Neuroergonomics which he defined as the study of the human brain in relation to performance at work and everyday settings. Raja Parasuraman was a pioneer, a truly exceptional researcher and an extraordinary person. He made significant contributions to a number of disciplines, from human factors to cognitive neuroscience. His advice to young researchers was to be passionate in order to develop theory and knowledge that can guide the design of technologies and environments for people. His legacy, the field of Neuroergonomics, will live on in countless faculties and students whom he advised and inspired with unmatched humility throughout the whole of his distinguished career. Raja Parasuraman was an impressive human being, a very kind person, and an absolutely inspiring individual who will be remembered by everyone who had the chance to meet him. About this Research Topic Since the advent of neuroergonomics, significant progress has been made with respect to methodology and tools for the investigation of the brain and behavior at work. This is especially the case for neuroscientific methods where the availability of ambulatory hardware, wearable sensors and advanced data analyses allow for imaging of brain dynamics in humans in applied environments. Methods such as: electroencephalography (EEG), functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), and stimulation approaches like transcranial direct-currrent stimulation (tDCS) have made significant progress in both recording and altering brain activity while allowing full body movements outside laboratory environments. For neuroergonomics, the application of brain imaging in real-world scenarios is highly relevant. Traditionally, brain imaging experiments in human factors research tend to avoid active behavior for fear of artifacts and a contaminated data set that would provide limited insight into brain dynamics in real working environments. To overcome these problems new analyses approaches have to be developed that identify artifacts resulting from hostile recording environments and movement-related non-brain activity stemming from eye-, head, and full-body movements. The application of methodology from the field of Brain-Computer Interfacing (BCI) for neuroergonomics is one approach that has significant potential to enhance ambulatory monitoring and applied testing. Passive BCIs allow for assessing aspects of the user state online, such that systems can automatically adapt to their user. This neuroadaptive technology could lead to highly efficient working environments, to auto-adaptive experimental paradigms and to a continuous tracking of cognitive and affective aspects of the user state. Hence, deployment of portable neuroimaging technologies to real time settings could help assess cognitive and motivational states of personnel assigned to perform critical tasks. This Research Topic gathers submissions that cover new approaches in neuroergonomics. Different article type cover advanced neuroscience methods and neuroergonomics techniques as well as analysis approaches to investigate brain dynamics in working environments. The selection of papers provides insights into new neuroergonomic research approaches that demonstrate significant advances in brain imaging technologies that become more and more mobile, Moreover, a strong trend for new analyses approaches and paradigms investigating real work settings can be seen. Together, this unique collection of latest research papers provides a comprehensive overview on the latest developments in neuroergonomics.

Manipulative approaches to human brain dynamics

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194797 Year: Pages: 246 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-479-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:33
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In this EBook, we highlight how newly emerging techniques for non-invasive manipulation of the human brain, combined with simultaneous recordings of neural activity, contribute to the understanding of brain functions and neural dynamics in humans. A growing body of evidence indicates that the neural dynamics (e.g., oscillations, synchrony) are important in mediating information processing and networking for various functions in the human brain. Most of previous studies on human brain dynamics, however, show correlative relationships between brain functions and patterns of neural dynamics measured by imaging methods such as electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In contrast, manipulative approaches by non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) have been developed and extensively used. These approaches include transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial electric stimulation (tES) such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), alternating current stimulation (tACS), and random noise stimulation (tRNS), which can directly manipulate neural dynamics in the intact human brain. Although the neural-correlate approach is a strong tool, we think that manipulative approaches have far greater potential to show causal roles of neural dynamics in human brain functions. There have been technical challenges with using manipulative methods together with imaging methods. However, thanks to recent technical developments, it has become possible to use combined methods such as TMS–EEG coregistration. We can now directly measure and manipulate neural dynamics and analyze functional consequences to show causal roles of neural dynamics in various brain functions. Moreover, these combined methods can probe brain excitability, plasticity and cortical networking associated with information processing in the intact human brain. The contributors to this EBook have succeeded in showcasing cutting-edge studies and demonstrate the huge impact of their approaches on many areas in human neuroscience and clinical applications.

New Research in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Major Depression

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ISBN: 9783039210909 / 9783039210916 Year: Pages: 102 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-091-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:07
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Major depression and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) are now recognized among the most frequent psychiatric disorders, affecting 16–17% and 2–3% of the general population, respectively. They are commonly characterized by: i) a high level of psychiatric and somatic comorbidities; ii) a recurrence or chronic profile; and iii) a negative impact on daily functions, thereby leading to a profound impairment of quality of life. Despite significant advances in pharmacological and psychological therapies over the last decades, unsuccessful responses to standard treatment strategies are classically observed in approximately 20–30% of cases. Therefore, there is a significant need for improving the pathophysiological knowledge through a better identification of environmental, clinical, psychological, genetic, anatomical, and biological determinants, specifically implied in the development, the phenotypic expression, and the relapsing course and/or contributing to the therapeutic failure in major depression and OCD. We are convinced that this research approach is particularly relevant providing critical support for the promotion of innovative treatment alternatives potentially useful for the management of resistant forms of major depression and OCD.

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