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When Chemistry Meets Biology - Generating Innovative Concepts, Methods and Tools for Scientific Discovery in the Plant Sciences

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199280 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-928-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Abstract

Biologically active small molecules have increasingly been applied in plant biology to dissect and understand biological systems. This is evident from the frequent use of potent and selective inhibitors of enzymes or other biological processes such as transcription, translation, or protein degradation. In contrast to animal systems, which are nurtured from drug research, the systematic development of novel bioactive small molecules as research tools for plant systems is a largely underexplored research area. This is surprising since bioactive small molecules bear great potential for generating new, powerful tools for dissecting diverse biological processes. In particular, when small molecules are integrated into genetic strategies (thereby defining “chemical genetics”), they may help to circumvent inherent problems of classical (forward) genetics. There are now clear examples of important, fundamental discoveries originating from plant chemical genetics that demonstrate the power, but not yet fully exploited potential, of this experimental approach. These include the unraveling of molecular mechanisms and critical steps in hormone signaling, activation of defense reactions and dynamic intracellular processes. The intention of this Research Topic of Frontiers in Plant Physiology is to summarize the current status of research at the interface between chemistry and biology and to identify future research challenges. The research topic covers diverse aspects of plant chemical biology, including the identification of bioactive small molecules through screening processes from chemical libraries and natural sources, which rely on robust and quantitative high-throughput bioassays, the critical evaluation and characterization of the compound’s activity (selectivity) and, ultimately, the identification of its protein target(s) and mode-of-action, which is yet the biggest challenge of all. Such well-characterized, selective chemicals are attractive tools for basic research, allowing the functional dissection of plant signaling processes, or for applied purposes, if designed for protection of crop plants from disease. New methods and data mining tools for assessing the bioactivity profile of compounds, exploring the chemical space for structure–function relationships, and comprehensive chemical fingerprinting (metabolomics) are also important strategies in plant chemical biology. In addition, there is a continuing need for diverse target-specific bioprobes that help profiling enzymatic activities or selectively label protein complexes or cellular compartments. To achieve these goals and to add suitable probes and methods to the experimental toolbox, plant biologists need to closely cooperate with synthetic chemists. The development of such tailored chemicals that beyond application in basic research can modify traits of crop plants or target specific classes of weeds or pests by collaboration of applied and academic research groups may provide a bright future for plant chemical biology. The current Research Topic covers the breadth of the field by presenting original research articles, methods papers, reviews, perspectives and opinions.

Remote Sensing for Target Object Detection and Identification

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ISBN: 9783039283323 9783039283330 Year: Pages: 336 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-333-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Target object detection and identification are among the primary uses for a remote sensing system. This is crucial in several fields, including environmental and urban monitoring, hazard and disaster management, and defense and military. In recent years, these analyses have used the tremendous amount of data acquired by sensors mounted on satellite, airborne, and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platforms. This book promotes papers exploiting different remote sensing data for target object detection and identification, such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging and multispectral and hyperspectral imaging. Several cutting-edge contributions, which provide examples of how to select of a technology or another depending on the specific application, will be detailed.

Keywords

anomaly detection --- hyperspectral imagery --- low-rank representation --- dictionary construction --- HSI reconstruction --- sparse coding --- adaptive weighting --- infrared small target detection --- local prior analysis --- nonconvex tensor robust principle component analysis --- partial sum of the tensor nuclear norm --- low rank sparse decomposition --- Lp-norm constraint --- non-convex optimization --- alternating direction method of multipliers --- infrared small target detection --- convolutional neural networks (CNNs) --- object detection --- remote sensing images --- contextual information --- part-based --- multi-model --- very-high-resolution (VHR) remote sensing imagery --- object detection --- multi-scale pyramidal features --- multi-scale strategies --- oil tank detection --- unsupervised saliency model --- Color Markov Chain --- bottom-up and top-down --- hazard prevention --- flood hazard --- hidden danger identification --- tower failure --- vehicle detection --- object matching --- superpixel segmentation --- unmanned aerial vehicle --- remote sensing imagery --- thermal infrared target tracking --- semantic features --- mask sparse representation --- particle filter framework --- ADMM --- satellite videos --- region proposals --- convolutional neural networks --- tiny and dim target detection --- component mixture model --- object detection --- remote sensing image --- deep learning --- convolutional neural networks (CNNs) --- hardware architecture --- processor --- ground-based detection --- infrared imaging --- observability --- detecting distance --- earth entry vehicle --- synthetic aperture radar (SAR) --- rivers water-flow elevation estimation --- pixel-tracking --- phase unwrapping --- infrared small-faint target detection --- non-independent and identical distribution (non-i.i.d.) mixture of Gaussians --- flux density --- variational Bayesian --- target detection --- target identification --- SAR --- visible --- infrared --- hyperspectral

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