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Optimization of Hot-Electron Bolometers for THz Radiation

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Book Series: Karlsruher Schriftenreihe zur Supraleitung / Hrsg. Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Noe, Prof. Dr. rer. nat. M. Siegel ISSN: 18691765 ISBN: 9783731500667 Year: Volume: 8 Pages: IX, 127 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000035742 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:57
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Hot-electron bolometers are fast and low noise radiation detectors which can be used for many different applications. The aim of this work was to optimize the fabrication process of hot-electron bolometers and gain a deeper understanding of the underlying processes. To achieve this, the fabrication of the superconducting thin films was optimized and the superconducting properties of the films were analyzed. Detectors fabricated using the results showed a record value for the noise temperature.

Sea Surface Temperature Retrievals from Remote Sensing

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ISBN: 9783038974796 / 9783038974802 Year: Pages: 340 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-480-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-14 10:39:15
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This book covers topics ranging from a detailed error analysis of SSTs to new applications employed, for example, in the study of the El Niño–La Niña Southern Oscillation, lake temperatures, and coral bleaching. New techniques for interpolation and algorithm development are presented, including improvements for cloud detection. Analysis of the pixel-to-pixel uncertainties provides insight to applications for high spatial resolutions. New approaches for the estimation and evaluation of SSTs are presented. In addition, an overview of the Climate Change Initiative, with specific applications to SST, is presented. The book provides an excellent overview of the current technology, while also highlighting new technologies and their applications to new missions.

Hydrological Hazard: Analysis and Prevention

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ISBN: 9783038973744 9783038973751 Year: Pages: 218 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-375-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Meteorology and Climatology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-26 10:26:46
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Due to the considerable impacts of hydrological hazards on water resources, natural environments, and human activities, as well as on human health and safety, climate variability and climate change have become key issues for the research community. In fact, a warmer climate, with its heightened climate variability, will increase the risk of hydrological extreme phenomena, such as droughts and floods. The Special Issue “Hydrological Hazard: Analysis and Prevention” presents a collection of scientific contributions that provides a sample of the state-of-the-art and forefront research in this field. In particular, innovative modelling methods for flood hazards, regional flood, and drought analysis and the use of satellite and climate data for drought analysis were the main research and practice targets that the papers published in this Special Issue aimed to address.

Influence of elevated temperatures up to 100 °C on the mechanical properties of concrete

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Book Series: Karlsruher Reihe Massivbau, Baustofftechnologie, Materialprüfung / Institut für Massivbau und Baustofftechnologie ; Materialprüfungs- und Forschungsanstalt Karlsruhe ISSN: 1869912X ISBN: 9783731507956 Year: Volume: 84 Pages: X, 240 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000082992 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-28 18:37:01
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Experiments to characterize the effects of moisture content and temperature on the mechanical properties of concrete were conducted. Based on these experiments, a new overall material model capable of predicting the mechanical behaviour of concrete subject to elevated temperatures up to 100 °C was developed. The material model estimates the time, temperature and moisture dependency of the compressive and tensile strength, creep and shrinkage of concrete.

Abiotic Stresses in Agroecology: A Challenge for Whole Plant Physiology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452040 Year: Pages: 177 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-204-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Understanding plant responses to abiotic stresses is central to our ability to predict the impact of global change and environmental pollution on the production of food, feed and forestry. Besides increasing carbon dioxide concentration and rising global temperature, increasingly frequent and severe climatic events (e.g. extended droughts, heat waves, flooding) are expected in the coming decades. Additionally, pollution (e.g. heavy metals, gaseous pollutants such as ozone or sulfur dioxide) is an important factor in many regions, decreasing plant productivity and product quality. This Research topic focuses on stress responses at the level of whole plants, addressing biomass-related processes (development of the root system, root respiration/fermentation, leaf expansion, stomatal regulation, photosynthetic capacity, leaf senescence, yield) and interactions between organs (transport via xylem and phloem, long-distance signaling and secondary metabolites). Comparisons between species and between varieties of the same species are helpful to evaluate the potential for species selection and genetic improvement. This research topic is focused on the following abiotic stresses and interactions between them:- Increased carbon dioxide concentration in ambient air is an important parameter influenced by global change and affects photosynthesis, stomatal regulation, plant growth and finally yield.- Elevated temperature: both the steady rise in average temperature and extreme events of shorter duration (heat waves) must be considered in the context of alterations in carbon balance through increased photorespiration, decreased Rubisco activation and carboxylation efficiency, damage to photosynthetic apparatus, as well as loss of water via transpiration and stomatal sensitivity. - Low temperatures (late frosts, prolonged cold phases, freezing temperature) can decrease overwintering survival rates, productivity of crop plants and species composition in meadows.- Water availability: More frequent, severe and extended drought periods have been predicted by climate change models. The timing and duration of a drought period is crucial to determining plant responses, particularly if the drought event coincides with an increase in temperature. Drought causes stomatal closure, decreasing the cooling potential of transpiration and potentially leading to thermal stress as leaf temperature rises. Waterlogging may become also more relevant during the next decades and is especially important for seedlings and young plants. It is not the presence of water itself that causes the stress, but the exclusion of oxygen from the soil which causes a decrease in respiration and an increase in fermentation rates followed by a period of potential oxidative stress as water recedes.- Salinity: high salt concentration in soil influences soil water potential, the water status of the plant and hence affects productivity. Salt tolerance will become an important trait driven by increased competition for land and the need to exploit marginal lands.

Plants; Stress & Proteins

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452675 Year: Pages: 323 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-267-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Biotic and abiotic stress factors deliver a huge impact on plant life. Biotic stress factors such as damage through pathogens or herbivore attack, as well as abiotic stress factors like variation in temperature, rainfall and salinity, have placed the plant kingdom under constant challenges for survival. As a consequence, global agricultural and horticultural productivity has been disturbed to a large extent. Being sessile in nature, plants cannot escape from the stress, and instead adapt changes within their system to overcome the adverse conditions. These changes include physiological, developmental and biochemical alterations within the plant body which influences the genome, proteome and metabolome profiles of the plant. Since proteins are the ultimate players of cellular behavior, proteome level alterations during and recovery period of stress provide direct implications of plant responses towards stress factors. With current advancement of modern high-throughput technologies, much research has been carried out in this field. This e-book highlights the research and review articles that cover proteome level changes during the course or recovery period of various stress factors in plant life. Overall, the chapters in this e-book has provided a wealth of information on how plants deal with stress from a proteomics perspective.

Deep Carbon in Earth: Early Career Scientist Contributions to the Deep Carbon Observatory

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453634 Year: Pages: 221 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-363-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography --- Chemistry (General) --- Microbiology --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Since its inception, the Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) has coalesced a multidisciplinary and international group of researchers focused on understanding and quantifying Earth’s deep carbon budget. Carbon is the fourth most abundant element in the universe, and understanding carbon chemistry under a variety of environmental conditions impacts all aspects of planetary sciences, including planet formation, the form and function of planetary interiors, and the origin and diversity of life. DCO recognizes that is integrating and promoting the contributions of early career scientists are integral to the advancement of knowledge regarding the quantities, movements, origins, and forms of Earth’s deep carbon through field, experimental, analytical, and computational research. Early career scientists represent the future of deep carbon science and contribute substantially to ongoing research by implementing innovative ideas, challenging traditional working schemes, and bringing a globally interconnected perspective to the scientific community. This research topic highlights the contributions at the forefront of deep carbon research by DCO Early Career Scientist community. The manuscripts of this Frontiers e-volume bear evidence of the rapid advances in deep carbon science, and highlights the importance of approaching this field from a plethora of different angles integrating disciplines as diverse as mineralogy, geochemistry and microbiology. This integration is fundamental in understanding the movements and transformations of carbon across its deep cycle.

Transitions in Energy Efficiency and Demand

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Book Series: Routledge Studies in Energy Transitions ISBN: 9780815356783 9781351127264 Year: Pages: 300 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:12
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Meeting the goals enshrined in the Paris Agreement and limiting global temperature increases to less than two degrees above pre-industrial levels demands rapid reductions in global carbon dioxide emissions. Reducing energy demand has a central role in achieving this goal, but existing policy initiatives have been largely incremental in terms of the technological and behavioural changes they encourage. Against this background, this book develops a sociotechnical approach to the challenge of reducing energy demand and illustrates this with a number of empirical case studies from the United Kingdom. In doing so, it explores the emergence, diffusion and impact of low energy innovations, including electric vehicles and smart meters. The book has the dual aim of improving the academic understanding of sociotechnical transitions and energy demand and providing practical recommendations for public policy. Combining an impressive range of contributions from key thinkers in the field, this book will be of great interest to energy students, scholars and decision-makers.

Current Trends of Insect Physiology and Population Dynamics: Modeling Insect Phenology, Demography, and Circadian Rhythms in Variable Environments

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454891 Year: Pages: 155 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-489-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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The current eBook collection includes substantial scientific work in describing how insect species are responding to abiotic factors and recent climatic trends on the basis of insect physiology and population dynamics. The contributions can be broadly split into four chapters: the first chapter focuses on the function of environmental and mostly temperature driven models, to identify the seasonal emergence and population dynamics of insects, including some important pests. The second chapter provides additional examples on how such models can be used to simulate the effect of climate change on insect phenology and population dynamics. The third chapter focuses on describing the effects of nutrition, gene expression and phototaxis in relation to insect demography, growth and development, whilst the fourth chapter provides a short description on the functioning of circadian systems as well as on the evolutionary dynamics of circadian clocks.

Simulations for the optimization of High Temperatur Superconductor current leads for nuclear fusion applications

Author:
Book Series: Karlsruher Schriftenreihe zur Supraleitung / Hrsg. Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Noe, Prof. Dr. rer. nat. M. Siegel ISSN: 18691765 ISBN: 9783731501329 Year: Volume: 14 Pages: III, 206 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000037132 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58
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Techniques based on numerical simulations have been applied to the analysis of the heat exchanger and the High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) module of HTS current leads. In the first case correlations have been derived for the meander flow geometry. In the second case steady state and transient thermal-electric models have been validated. Both techniques are used to design and optimize HTS current leads. The correlations were applied to a predictive analysis of the ITER HTS current leads.

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