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The Evolution of Endothermy - From Patterns to Mechanisms

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455690 Year: Pages: 150 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-569-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Abstract

Metabolic rate is a key ecophysiological factor determining fitness, distribution, survival and reproductive strategies of organisms. The ability to endogenously produce heat and elevate body temperature beyond ambient, has far reaching ecological implications. The diversity of thermogenic mechanisms and strategies employed throughout the animal kingdom is truly phenomenal and one of the greatest biological mysteries. Interestingly, even heat producing plants have been characterised.


Over the last several decades, the oversimplified distinction between warm- and cold blooded animals has well and truly been put to rest and the terms “endo- and ectotherm” have been established. Birds and mammals are regarded as endotherms, capable of maintaining high body temperatures within highly precise boundaries. On contrary, in ectothermic organisms ambient temperature governs body temperature and metabolism, encompassing the majority of present day species. However, it has recently become very clear that this distinction is still not accurate enough to describe the vastness of heat generating mechanisms within endo- but also ectotherms. Indeed, a plethora of ectothermic animals display endogenous as well as behavioural means of temperature control and mechanisms for heat generation. There is large diversity in regards to thermoregulatory ability and strategy within endotherms as well, with some groups being classified by separate categories such as basoendotherms and mesotherms.


Considerable interest and efforts has been put into the quest to understand the underlying physiological mechanisms leading and facilitating high metabolic rates and body temperatures of endotherms. These mechanisms are far from being exhaustively studied and the evolutionary trajectory leading to high metabolic rates and stable body temperatures is equally, vividly debated. This discussion includes an array of questions and theories surrounding the presence of endothermy in extinct dinosaurs. In addition, a lively debate surrounds the evolutionary drivers promoting the establishment of endothermy with clear support of direct or indirect selective benefits.


Within this Research Topic we plan to compile the latest ideas, knowledge and experimental work to elucidate the patterns of the evolution of endothermy and its transition/distinction from ectothermy. The focus is on key physiological mechanisms supporting this transition and contributing to the maintenance of high metabolic rates and body temperature in endotherms, as well as mechanisms for local heterothermy and heat dissipation in ectotherms. These mechanisms and conclusions may be derived from different levels of organisation such as population, taxon, species as well as tissue, cellular or molecular levels. It may also encompass novel experimental or theoretical models testing evolutionary theories of endothermy. A comparative approach is encouraged but not fundamental.

Water Intake, Body Water Regulation and Health

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039286560 / 9783039286577 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-657-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The purpose of this Special Issue, “Water Intake, Body Water Regulation, and Health”, is to present novel reviews and experimental data regarding hydration physiology and its implication in overall health. Water has previously been dubbed the forgotten nutrient due to humans’ and animals’ ability to subsist seemingly unchanged across a wide range of daily water intakes. However, with the introduction of stressors such as exercise, diseased states, and/or chronic high or low water intake, the homeostatic signals related to body water regulation can influence organ and whole-body health. This Special Issue will discuss water intake, the scientific rationale surrounding the U.S. and European water intake guidelines, homeostatic mechanisms, diseases related to dysfunction of water regulation, and differences in the volume and the vehicle in which the water is contained (i.e., plain water versus mixed beverages) on water intake during and following exercise. The aim is to continue discussion surrounding water, the previously forgotten nutrient, and highlight the importance of water in daily life.

Human Health Engineering

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ISBN: 9783039284085 9783039284092 Year: Pages: 428 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-409-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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In this Special Issue on human health engineering, we invited submissions exploring recent contributions to the field of human health engineering, which is the technology used for monitoring the physical or mental health status of individuals in a variety of applications. Contributions focused on sensors, wearable hardware, algorithms, or integrated monitoring systems. We organized the different papers according to their contributions to the main aspects of the monitoring and control engineering scheme applied to human health applications, including papers focusing on measuring/sensing physiological variables, contributions describing research on the modelling of biological signals, papers highlighting health monitoring applications, and finally examples of control applications for human health. In comparison to biomedical engineering, the field of human health engineering also covers applications on healthy humans (e.g., sports, sleep, and stress) and thus not only contributes to develop technology for curing patients or supporting chronically ill people, but also more generally for disease prevention and optimizing human well-being.

Keywords

artefact correction --- head-shaped phantom --- spherical phantom --- gradient artefact --- simultaneous EEG–fMRI --- calcaneal spur --- pain minimum compressive pressure --- contour of shoe insole --- insole foot area --- health information --- interface formats --- older adults --- wearable devices --- usability --- emotional reaction --- ADHD --- screening --- machine learning --- SVM --- children --- novel --- nomophobia --- anxiety --- smartphone --- internet --- cyberaddiction --- new technologies --- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease --- COPD --- oxygen uptake --- VO2 --- kinetics --- exercise testing --- rehabilitation robotics --- soft walking assistive robot --- long-term effect --- gait characteristics --- elderly person --- blood pressure estimation --- photoplethysmogram --- pulse wave --- pulse oximeter --- wearable device --- Kano-TRIZ design theory --- quality function deployment --- four-wheeled rollator --- model predictive control --- orthosis control --- muscle modeling --- arm --- Hill muscle --- swarm optimization --- pneumatic artificial muscle --- sliding mode control --- fractional calculus --- antagonistic actuator --- weight loss --- mHealth --- dynamic model --- adaptive control --- spirometry --- airflow limitation --- airway resistance --- specific airway conductance --- COPD --- body-plethysmography --- forced expiration --- alveolar pressure --- emphysema --- computed tomography --- air-trapping --- thermal comfort --- bicycle helmet --- smart wearables --- adaptive model --- streaming data --- thermal sensation --- adaptive model --- personalized model --- machine leaning --- support-vector-machine --- adaptive control --- streaming algorithm --- thermoregulation --- homeostasis --- cold-induced-vasodilation --- cold-induced-vasoconstriction --- control system --- dynamic modelling --- powered mobility --- dyskinetic cerebral palsy --- dystonia --- choreoathetosis --- mobility scale --- movement disorder --- children --- youth --- reliability --- validity --- feature engineering --- intensive care unit --- mortality prediction --- hard-margin support vector machines --- driver drowsiness --- thermoregulation --- distal skin temperature --- decision tree --- heart model --- Van der Pol --- FitzHugh–Nagumo --- relaxation oscillator --- electrocardiographic signal --- bicycle helmets --- thermal manikin --- convective and evaporative heat loss --- zonal performance characteristics --- freestyle skiing aerials --- knee joint --- ligament --- finite element simulation --- lifting technique --- stoop --- squat --- work-related musculoskeletal disorders --- musculoskeletal modeling --- spine --- shoulder --- back loading --- harmonization --- meta-analysis --- missing data --- multiple imputations --- information technology --- remoteness --- cohort studies --- control parameter reference --- stance assistance --- magnetorheological brake --- body mass index --- walking speed --- ankle torque --- ankle angular velocity --- n/a

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