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Sub- and Supra-Second Timing: Brain, Learning and Development

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198986 Year: Pages: 162 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-898-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Time perception in the range of milliseconds to a few seconds is essential for many important sensory and perceptual tasks including speech perception, motion perception, motor coordination, and cross-modal interaction. For the brain to be in synchrony with the environment, the physical differences in the speeds of light and sound, as well as stimuli from other modalities such as odors, must be processed and coordinated (Pöppel & Bao 2014; Bao et al., 2015). Time is a subjective feeling that is modulated by emotional states which trigger temporal distortions (temporal dilation vs. contraction) (Wittmann et al., 2014), hence give rise to subjective time that may be different to event time as initially registered in the brain. Recent research suggests that time perception in a multisensory world is subject to prior task experience and shaped by (statistical) learning processes. Humans are active learners. That is, the engagement of the own body in a timing task within a perceptual-action loop will make a noticeable difference in timing performance, as compared to when humans only passively perceive the same perceptual scenario (Bao et al., 2015; Chen & Vroomen, 2013). This Research Topic of “Sub-and Supra-Second Timing: Brain, Learning and Development” has integrated sixteen submissions of novel research on sub- and supra-timing. We have categorized the papers in this topic into the following four themes, from which we can deduce trends of research about multisensory timing in the sub- and supra-second range:Sensory timing, interaction and reliabilityAdaptive representation of time, learning and temporal predictionSensorimotor synchronization, embodiment and coordinationPerspective of psychological moment and temporal organizationOverall, the collections in “Sub-and Supra-Second Timing: Brain, Learning and Development” show some recent trends and debates in multisensory timing research as well as provide a venue to inspire future work in multisensory timing.

The Curving Mirror of Time

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Book Series: Approaches to Culture Theory ISBN: 9789949322589 9789949322596 Year: Pages: 191 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_446135 Language: English
Publisher: University of Tartu Press
Subject: Media and communication
Added to DOAB on : 2013-05-18 08:11:26
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This volume attempts to create a ‘relief map’ of temporalities in Estonian newspapers over different periods of time. The special focus is on binding the empirical analysis to the theoretical and methodological discussions of the temporality of news(paper) culture. The authors of the articles ask to what extent newspapers report on the past and present and to what extent these reports refer to the future. A diachronic analysis of newspaper texts from different periods of time demonstrates that the temporal focus of newspapers changes over time: in some periods, the past receives remarkably more attention, while in other periods the news timeframe is biased towards current events and the future. One study asks how similar, or different, is the (re)construction of the past in Estonian daily newspapers published in Estonian and Russian in 1994 and 2009. Two articles focus on analysis of the links between social remembering and anniversary journalism. Another article provides an overview of the depiction of women in Estonian newspapers and magazines from 1848 to 1940. This collection revitalizes the study of time in news discourse, suggesting new methodological perspectives and developing interdisciplinary approaches in cultural theory.

Durchgängige Timing-Bewertung von Vernetzungsarchitekturen und Gateway-Systemen im Kraftfahrzeug

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ISBN: 9783866445826 Year: Pages: 197 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000020379 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
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Die steigende Anzahl von Elektrik-/Elektronik-Systemen im Automobil und damit verbunden das zunehmende Kommunikationsaufkommen stellen immer höhere Anforderungen an den Entwicklungsprozess. Aufgrund der wachsenden Anzahl an vernetzten Funktionen spielt die Betrachtung des Timing-Verhaltens der Systeme eine zentrale Rolle. Die Arbeit beschreibt eine Methodik, welche eine durchgängige Bewertung von Vernetzungsarchitekturen und Gateway-Systemen hinsichtlich deren Timing-Verhaltens ermöglicht.

Spiking Neural Network Connectivity and its Potential for Temporal Sensory Processing and Variable Binding

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192397 Year: Pages: 123 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-239-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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The most biologically-inspired artificial neurons are those of the third generation, and are termed spiking neurons, as individual pulses or spikes are the means by which stimuli are communicated. In essence, a spike is a short-term change in electrical potential and is the basis of communication between biological neurons. Unlike previous generations of artificial neurons, spiking neurons operate in the temporal domain, and exploit time as a resource in their computation. In 1952, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin and Andrew Huxley produced the first model of a spiking neuron; their model describes the complex electro-chemical process that enables spikes to propagate through, and hence be communicated by, spiking neurons. Since this time, improvements in experimental procedures in neurobiology, particularly with in vivo experiments, have provided an increasingly more complex understanding of biological neurons. For example, it is now well understood that the propagation of spikes between neurons requires neurotransmitter, which is typically of limited supply. When the supply is exhausted neurons become unresponsive. The morphology of neurons, number of receptor sites, amongst many other factors, means that neurons consume the supply of neurotransmitter at different rates. This in turn produces variations over time in the responsiveness of neurons, yielding various computational capabilities. Such improvements in the understanding of the biological neuron have culminated in a wide range of different neuron models, ranging from the computationally efficient to the biologically realistic. These models enable the modelling of neural circuits found in the brain. In recent years, much of the focus in neuron modelling has moved to the study of the connectivity of spiking neural networks. Spiking neural networks provide a vehicle to understand from a computational perspective, aspects of the brain's neural circuitry. This understanding can then be used to tackle some of the historically intractable issues with artificial neurons, such as scalability and lack of variable binding. Current knowledge of feed-forward, lateral, and recurrent connectivity of spiking neurons, and the interplay between excitatory and inhibitory neurons is beginning to shed light on these issues, by improved understanding of the temporal processing capabilities and synchronous behaviour of biological neurons. This research topic aims to amalgamate current research aimed at tackling these phenomena.

Multisensory Perception And Action: Psychophysics, Neural Mechanisms, And Applications

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193813 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-381-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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Our senses are not separated. Information received from one sensory modality may be linked with, or distorted by information provided from another modality, such as in the ventriloquism illusion and experiences of crossmodal correspondence. Scientific interest in how we integrate multisensory information and how we interact with a multisensory world has increased dramatically over the last two decades, as evidenced by an exponential growth of relevant studies using behavioral and/or neuro-scientific approaches to investigate multisensory integration and the underlying brain mechanisms. This work has revealed that the brain integrates information across senses in a statistically optimal manner; also, some key multisensory brain areas, such as the superior colliculus, have been identified. However, many questions remain unresolved. For example, at what age do we develop optimal multisensory integration? How does the brain 'know' which stimuli to combine, and which to segregate? What are the principles that govern crossmodal interactions? Does multisensory integration rely solely on the variability of sensory information? Do primary sensory cortices also contribute to multisensory integration? How does multisensory integration influence our sensorimotor interactions? To take stock of the most recent developments, this Research Topic aims to provide a broad scope of research on multisensory perception and action from different perspectives/approaches and disciplines, including behavioral and neuro-sciences, computational/mathematical modeling, and engineering science. Specifically, the Research Topic will focus on the following topics: 1. Functional and behavioral mechanisms of multisensory perception 2. Neural mechanisms of multisensory coding 3. Multisensory perception and sensorimotor interaction 4. Multisensory applications

Towards embodied artificial cognition: TIME is on my side

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194735 Year: Pages: 132 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-473-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:33
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From the moment of birth, humans and animals are immersed in time: all experiences and actions evolve in time and are dynamically structured. The perception of time is thus a capacity indispensable for the control of perception, cognition and action. The last 10 years have witnessed a remarkable resurgence of interest in timing and time perception, with a continuously increasing number of researchers exploring these innate abilities. However, existing robotic systems largely neglect the key role of time in cognition and action. This is a major barrier for accomplishing the long-term goal of symbiotic human-robot interaction. The critical question is: how is time instantiated in a biological system and how can it be implemented in an artificial system? Recent years have for example seen an increasing focus on the relationship between affective states and the experience of time. The influence of affective states on subjective time seems to depend on the embodiment of emotions: intertwined affective and interoceptive states may create our subjective experience of time. Since robotic systems are in essence embodied information-processing systems that interact with the real world, we hope to inspire a reciprocal exchange of ideas between the field of Robotics and the Cognitive Neurosciences. In this research topic, we call researchers from different disciplines (Robotics, Neurosciences, and Psychology) to present their empirical work, their models or reviews on the question of how time judgments are instantiated in biological and artificial systems. Of particular interest are papers on time perception in humans and animals, with a focused interest on embodied time perception, i.e. the influence of affective and body states on time judgments. Moreover, the present Research Topic seeks to gather papers discussing the key role of time on different aspects of robotic cognition as well as modeling approaches. We are interested in paving the way for a new generation of intelligent computational systems that incorporate the sense of time in their processing loop and thus accomplish more efficient and more advanced cognitive capacities.

Is Conflict Adaptation an Illusion?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194957 Year: Pages: 164 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-495-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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Conflict adaptation theory is one of the most popular theories in cognitive psychology. The theory argues that participants strategically modulate attention away from distracting stimulus features in response to conflict. Although results with proportion congruent, sequential congruency, and similar paradigms seem consistent with the conflict adaptation view, some researchers have expressed scepticism. The paradigms used in the study of conflict adaptation require the manipulation of stimulus frequencies, sequential dependencies, time-on-task regularities, and various other task regularities that introduce the potential for learning of conflict-unrelated information. This results in the unintentional confounding of measures of conflict adaptation with simpler learning and memory biases. There are also alternative accounts which propose that attentional adaptation does occur, but via different mechanisms, such as valence, expectancy, or effort. A significant (and often heated) debate remains surrounding the question of whether conflict adaptation exists independent of these alternative mechanisms of action. The aim of this Research Topic is to provide a forum for current directions in this area, considering perspectives from all sides of the debate.

The Evolution of Rhythm Cognition: Timing in Music and Speech

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455003 Year: Pages: 391 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-500-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Human speech and music share a number of similarities and differences. One of the closest similarities is their temporal nature as both (i) develop over time, (ii) form sequences of temporal intervals, possibly differing in duration and acoustical marking by different spectral properties, which are perceived as a rhythm, and (iii) generate metrical expectations. Human brains are particularly efficient in perceiving, producing, and processing fine rhythmic information in music and speech. However a number of critical questions remain to be answered: Where does this human sensitivity for rhythm arise? How did rhythm cognition develop in human evolution? How did environmental rhythms affect the evolution of brain rhythms? Which rhythm-specific neural circuits are shared between speech and music, or even with other domains? Evolutionary processes’ long time scales often prevent direct observation: understanding the psychology of rhythm and its evolution requires a close-fitting integration of different perspectives. First, empirical observations of music and speech in the field are contrasted and generate testable hypotheses. Experiments exploring linguistic and musical rhythm are performed across sensory modalities, ages, and animal species to address questions about domain-specificity, development, and an evolutionary path of rhythm. Finally, experimental insights are integrated via synthetic modeling, generating testable predictions about brain oscillations underlying rhythm cognition and its evolution. Our understanding of the cognitive, neurobiological, and evolutionary bases of rhythm is rapidly increasing. However, researchers in different fields often work on parallel, potentially converging strands with little mutual awareness. This research topic builds a bridge across several disciplines, focusing on the cognitive neuroscience of rhythm as an evolutionary process. It includes contributions encompassing, although not limited to: (1) developmental and comparative studies of rhythm (e.g. critical acquisition periods, innateness); (2) evidence of rhythmic behavior in other species, both spontaneous and in controlled experiments; (3) comparisons of rhythm processing in music and speech (e.g. behavioral experiments, systems neuroscience perspectives on music-speech networks); (4) evidence on rhythm processing across modalities and domains; (5) studies on rhythm in interaction and context (social, affective, etc.); (6) mathematical and computational (e.g. connectionist, symbolic) models of “rhythmicity” as an evolved behavior.

Advances in Modern Mental Chronometry

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195664 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-566-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Mental chronometry encompasses all aspects of time processing in the nervous system and constitutes a standard tool in many disciplines including theoretical and experimental psychology and human neuroscience. Mental chronometry has represented a fundamental approach to elucidate the time course of many cognitive phenomena and their underlying neural circuits over more than a century. Nowadays, mental chronometry continues evolving and expanding our knowledge, and our understanding of the temporal organization of the brain in combination with different neuroscience techniques and advanced methods in mathematical analysis. In research on mental chronometry, human reaction/responses times play a central role. Together with reaction times, other topics in mental chronometry include vocal, manual and saccadic latencies, subjective time, psychological time, interval timing, time perception, internal clock, time production, time representation, time discrimination, time illusion, temporal summation, temporal integration, temporal judgment, redundant signals effect, perceptual, decision and motor time, etc. The aim of this research topic is to provide an overview of the state of the art in this field?its relevance, recent findings, current challenges, perspectives and future directions. Thus, as a result, a collection of 14 original research and opinion papers from different experts have been gathered together in a single volume.

Sound, Music and Movement in Parkinson's Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450794 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-079-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology --- Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Recent years have brought new insights to the understanding of Parkinson’s disease, impact of exercise and sound displays in rehabilitation and movement facilitation. There is growing evidence that auditory signals in the environment can provide a temporal template for movement and change the mode of motor control from intrinsic to extrinsic; habitual to goal-directed, enabling enhanced motor performance in patients. In addition, forced exercise rate studies show that exercising at the pace of healthy adults can have potential neuroprotective benefits for patients. Many research groups have explored the use of auditory cues (such as rhythmical auditory training) in improving gait and upper limb movement parameters. Cues are usually either intermittent (metronome) or continuous (dynamic sound displays). Similarly, dance based interventions suggest that patients benefit from additional sensory information (i.e. the temporal structure embedded in music and proprioceptive information from a dancing partner) that facilities movement. On the contrary, studies dedicated to auditory perception and motor timing report an impaired ability of patients to perceive and synchronise with complex rhythmical structures (i.e. causing an inability to play musical instruments). With the growth of modern technology and the increasing portability of hi-specification devices (such as smart phones), new research questions on the design of interventions are beginning to emerge as we strive for more efficient therapeutic approaches. In this Research Topic we wanted to bring together top scientists from the movement disorder, motor control and sound related studies along with therapists. That way, we can engage in cross-disciplinary and challenging scientific debate about future rehabilitation avenues and frontiers for Parkinson’s disease patients.

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