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The frontiers of clinical research on transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in Neuropsychiatry

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192878 Year: Pages: 210 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-287-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychiatry --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:07
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Abstract

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation intervention that induces changes in cortical activity and excitability according to the parameters of stimulation. TDCS effects have been reported since the 1800s with the development of the galvanic cell, although more systematic research has been conducted only from 1950-1970 and then from 1998 onwards. At the present time, most tDCS studies have been conducted in healthy volunteers, proving the properties of tDCS as a technique that induces long-lasting, polarity-dependent changes on specific brain areas. In addition, some studies have applied tDCS in selected neuropsychiatric samples, as to investigate its therapeutic effects, obtaining mixed albeit mostly positive results. Using tDCS in clinical practice could bring enormous gains for the treatment of several neuropsychiatric disorders, as tDCS is a portable, non-expensive and straightforward therapy, being therefore a putative candidate as an add-on or substitutive therapy for pharmacological treatments. However, there is still a gap between tDCS basic and clinical research, as it is still unknown whether and how the potent neuromodulatory effects observed after one tDCS session can be carried over for several weeks; therefore proving that tDCS is also a reliable clinical tool. In addition, another gap is observed in tDCS translational research, as results obtained from experimental animal models might not be fully generalizable to neuropsychiatric disorders in humans. Thus, advancing basic and experimental tDCS research as well as tailoring the optimal parameters of stimulation represents the frontiers of tDCS use in neuropsychiatry. In this special edition, our aim is to gather studies that contribute to the proposal of using tDCS for the treatment and investigation of neuropsychiatric disorders. Desired studies include (but are not limited to) the following topics: (1) clinical trials using tDCS as a treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders. (2) original studies investigating optimal parameters for daily tDCS stimulation. (3) safety and tolerability of tDCS, including reports of unexpected and serious adverse effects. (4) comprehensive reviews of putative mechanisms of action of tDCS for neuropsychiatric disorders. (5) translational research, testing different protocols of stimulation in experimental animals. (6) modeling tDCS studies, including studies testing different tDCS devices and montages. (7) studies of cost-efficacy analysis. (8) development of appropriate study designs for tDCS. (9) development of novel employments of tDCS, such as portable, safe devices that allow domestic utilization. (10) development of more precise and focal tDCS devices. To conclude, our ultimate aim is to host studies that contribute to bridge findings from basic and experimental tDCS research with clinical practice, therefore accelerating tDCS use as a novel arsenal for treating neuropsychiatric disorders.

The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039218349 9783039218356 Year: Pages: 322 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-835-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:21:22
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Abstract

The purpose of this Special Issue is to provide a thorough and up-to-date presentation of research investigating the impact of coffee and/or caffeine intake on various health outcomes. Areas of interest include, but are not limited to, the following topics: Human clinical trials of coffee or caffeine use in relation to disease or intermediate phenotypes. Epidemiological studies of habitual coffee or caffeine intake in relation to human health, among the general public, as well as, among special populations (i.e., children, pregnant women, diabetics, cancer patients, hypertensives, etc.). Mechanisms of action of nutrients and other bioactive components of coffee/caffeine. Studies integrating genetic or physiological markers of coffee/caffeine intake to investigations of coffee and health.

Keywords

accidental death --- caffeine --- caffeine intoxication --- intoxication --- Suicide --- HIV-HCV co-infection --- liver fibrosis --- coffee --- alcohol consumption --- coffee --- tea --- European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition --- 24-h dietary recall --- whole-blood --- mRNA --- transcriptomics --- gene expression --- coffee --- the Norwegian Women and Cancer Cohort (NOWAC) --- caffeine --- myocardial perfusion --- coronary artery disease --- adenosine --- regadenoson --- dipyridamole --- caffeine intake --- assisted reproduction techniques --- risk factors --- implantation --- clinical pregnancy --- live birth --- epidemiology --- bias --- causation --- coffee --- pregnancy --- coffee --- depression --- cohort study --- Mendelian Randomization --- coffee --- caffeine --- behavior --- causality --- genetic epidemiology --- epidemiological methods --- cardiovascular disease --- coffee consumption --- gene-diet interaction --- longevity --- NADH dehydrogenase --- polymorphism --- serum chloride levels --- CYP1A2 --- ADORA2A --- time trial performance --- caffeine metabolism --- pharmacological ergogenic aid --- polymorphism --- anxiety --- ergogenic --- adenosine receptor --- cytochrome P450 --- caffeine --- pharmacogenomics --- coffee --- caffeine --- chlorogenic acids --- phenolic --- cognition --- cognitive --- mood --- age --- sex --- caffeine --- wine --- chocolate --- aging --- cognition --- adult --- coffee --- hearing --- protection --- tinnitus --- Caffeine --- placebo --- sport --- exercise --- health --- expectancy --- cognitions --- caffeine --- coffee --- systematic review --- pregnancy --- safety --- individual responses --- ergogenic aid --- supplement --- did not respond --- responders --- n/a --- caffeine --- coffee --- tea --- soda --- energy drinks --- mate --- guidelines --- country --- consumption --- population --- public policy --- coffee --- caffeine --- lipids --- biomarkers --- trial --- lysophosphatidylcholine --- lipidomics --- n/a

Cocoa, Chocolate and Human Health

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039285884 / 9783039285891 Year: Pages: 288 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-589-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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This book entitled “Cocoa, Chocolate, and Human Health” presents the most recent findings about cocoa and health in 14 peer-reviewed chapters including nine original contributions and five reviews from cocoa experts around the world. Bioavailability and metabolism of the main cocoa polyphenols, i.e., the flavanols like epicatechin, are presented including metabolites like valerolactones that are formed by the gut microbiome. Many studies, including intervention studies or epidemiological observations, do not focus on single compounds, but on cocoa as a whole. This proves the effectiveness of cocoa as a functional food. A positive influence of cocoa on hearing problems, exercise performance, and metabolic syndrome is discussed with mixed results; the results about exercise performance are contradictive. Evidence shows that cocoa flavanols may modulate some risk factors related to metabolic syndrome such as hypertension and disorders in glucose and lipid metabolism. However, several cardiometabolic parameters in type 2 diabetics were not affected by a flavanol-rich cocoa powder as simultaneous treatment with pharmaceuticals might have negated the effect of cocoa. The putative health-promoting components of cocoa are altered during processing like fermentation, drying, and roasting of cocoa beans. Chocolate, the most popular cocoa product, shows remarkable losses in polyphenols and vitamin E during 18 months of storage.

Keywords

type 2 diabetes --- flavanol-rich cocoa --- blood pressure --- glucose metabolism --- lipid status --- type 2 diabetes --- flavanol-rich cocoa --- postprandial --- meal --- glucose metabolism --- lipids --- blood pressure --- cocoa processing --- cocoa proteins --- classification --- extraction and characterization methods --- fermentation-related enzymes --- bioactive peptides --- heath potentials --- protein–phenol interactions --- chocolate --- hearing loss --- tinnitus --- cohort study --- cocoa --- bioactive compounds --- flavanols bioavailability --- anti-inflammatory properties --- metabolic syndrome --- oxidative stress --- cocoa by-product --- functional food --- polyphenols --- ?-glucosidase inhibition --- antidiabetic capacity --- antioxidant capacity --- methylxanthines --- fermentation --- functional volatile compounds --- starter culture --- yeast --- roasting --- chocolate --- cocoa beans --- theobromine --- cacao --- working memory --- behavior --- CaMKII --- CREB --- BDNF --- cocoa --- oligopeptides --- simulated gastrointestinal digestion --- angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity --- cocoa --- chocolate --- metabolites --- biomarkers --- metabolomics --- urine --- plasma --- procyanidins --- methylxanthines --- polyphenols --- flavanols --- soluble cocoa products --- bioavailability --- human --- plasma nutrikinetics --- liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QToF-MS) --- colonic bacteria --- athlete --- cocoa --- chocolate --- exercise performance --- oxidative stress --- performance --- physical exercise --- polyphenol --- skeletal muscle --- inflammation --- Italian chocolate --- quality --- cocoa-based ingredients --- monitoring --- nutrition --- cocoa --- flavan-3-ol stereoisomers --- (?)-epicatechin --- (+)-catechin --- (?)-catechin --- plasma appearance --- chiral separation --- pharmacokinetics --- one-compartment model --- n/a

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