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Trace element supplementation as a management tool for anaerobic digester operation

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ISBN: 9781780409429 Year: DOI: 10.2166/9781780409429 Language: English
Publisher: IWA Publishing
Subject: Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-13 11:02:02
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" This guide is intended for use by industry stakeholders, decision-makers and digester operators in navigating the topic of trace element (TE) supplementation as a management tool for anaerobic digester operation.
The subject is the application of TE, and supplementation regimes in anaerobic waste-conversion biotechnologies, such as biogas digesters. TE is a term used to include a wide range of micronutrients essential for the microbial community underpinning AD. TE mostly includes elements from the metal groups (e.g. cobalt, nickel, zinc and tungsten) but also other elemental groups, such as metalloids (e.g. selenium). TE are dosed to anaerobic digesters to boost biological activity and to increase biogas production rates. Little is understood about the concentrations and dosing strategies best suited to sustained supplementation and stable performance in anaerobic biotechnologies.
A range of companies offer proprietary blends of trace elements for supplementation of anaerobic digesters. Very little joined-up information is available on the concentrations of individual TE best suited to improved digester performance. Moreover, typically no attention whatsoever is paid to the bioavailability of TE dosed to digesters i.e. despite high concentrations, TE may not be available for uptake by the microorganisms underpinning the digestion process.
Based on extensive engagement with a range of stakeholders throughout the course of the recent EU COST Action on ‘The ecological roles of trace metals in anaerobic biotechnologies’, and particularly on feedback from industrial partners, it is clear that such a guide is needed by industry stakeholders, decision-makers and operators of anaerobic digesters."

Mineralogy of Quartz and Silica Minerals

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ISBN: 9783038973485 9783038973492 Year: Pages: 274 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-349-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- Geology --- Earth Sciences --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-20 11:34:22
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The present book reports recent contributions from research in the field of quartz and other silica minerals. The various forms of silica (SiO2) represent important constituents of the Earth crust and play a central role in the composition of geological materials. In particular, quartz is widely used as a raw material in numerous industrial sectors. The knowledge of the formation and specific properties of SiO2 rocks and minerals is indispensable for the understanding and reconstruction of geological processes, as well as for specific technical applications.The works presented in this book are contributed by leading scientists and deal with aspects of the formation and processing of SiO2 raw materials, the analysis of high-purity quartz, and the specifics and varieties (e.g., quartz, amethyst, opal, agate) of SiO2 modifications. The presentations cover the main interrelations between theoretical, analytical, and industrial studies and provide information concerning recent developments in the research on SiO2 materials.

Micronutrients Intake and Status during Pregnancy and Lactation

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ISBN: 9783038978404 9783038978411 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-841-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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Optimal nutrition is important during pregnancy and lactation for the health of both the mother and infant. Chronic deficiencies of both macronutrients and micronutrients are well established in developing countries. Although in developed countries overconsumption of macronutrients is a major issue, micronutrient deficiencies which occur concomitantly are no less of a concern. Furthermore in developed countries there is also the risk of excessive micronutrient intake from dietary supplements. Micronutrients have a role in fetal and neonatal health and also health in later life. Micronutrient deficiency or toxicity during pregnancy or early life can permanently affect developing tissues, resulting in adverse growth and development of the infant which is associated with chronic diseases in adulthood. An aberrant micronutrient intake during pregnancy or lactation can also have detrimental effect on the mother both in the neonatal period and in later life.

Condensed Matter Researches in Cryospheric Science

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ISBN: 9783039213238 / 9783039213245 Year: Pages: 144 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-324-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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The cryosphere is very sensitive to climate change, and glaciers represent one of the most important archives of atmospheric composition and its variability. From the Himalaya to the European Alps, the longest mid-latitude mountain chain in the world, lie thousands of glaciers that have collected atmospheric compounds over the last millennia. China and Italy are located at the opposite terminals of this long mountain chain, comprising strategic positions for understanding climate evolution and providing important information for the modeling of future climates. The results presented are highlights of some of the most recent advances in cryospheric studies, especially on the topic of mineral dust and aerosols in the atmosphere. They evidence the complexity of the chemical–physical processes involving solid compounds occurring in glacier, snow, and permafrost environments, covering different aspects such as spatial and temporal trends, as well as the impact of mineral and nonmineral particles. Results also show that recent advances in measurement techniques and source apportionment may be powerful and sophisticated tools to provide novel, high-quality scientific information.

Arctic Mineral Resources. Science and Technology

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ISBN: 9783038978244 9783038978251 Year: Pages: 432 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-825-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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The Arctic zone of the Earth is a major source of mineral and other natural resources for the future development of science and technology. It contains a large supply of strategic mineral deposits, including rare earths, copper, phosphorus, niobium, platinum-group elements, and other critical metals. The continued melting of the sea ice due to climate change makes these resources more accessible than ever before. However, the mineral exploration in the Arctic has always been a challenge due to the climatic restrictions, remote location, and vulnerability of Arctic ecosystems. This book covers a broad range of topics related to the problem of Arctic mineral resources, including geological, geochemical, and mineralogical aspects of their occurrence and formation; chemical technologies; and environmental and economic problems related to mineral exploration. The contributions can be tentatively classified into four major types: geodynamics and metallogeny, mineralogy and petrology, mineralogy and crystallography, and mining and chemical technologies associated with the exploration of mineral deposits and the use of raw materials for manufacturing new products. The book can be of interest for all those interested in Arctic issues and especially in Arctic mineral resources and associated problems of mineralogy, geology, geochemistry, and technology.

Keywords

forsterite --- typochemistry --- crystal structure --- Kovdor phoscorite–carbonatite complex --- pyrochlore supergroup minerals --- typochemistry --- crystal structure --- Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite complex --- pyrrhotite --- chalcopyrite --- pentlandite --- cobaltpentlandite --- typochemistry --- crystal structure --- Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite complex --- shkatulkalite --- titanosilicate --- crystal structure --- Kola Peninsula --- Lovozero alkaline massif --- transformation mineral species --- vuonnemite --- titanium --- niobium --- heap leaching --- bacterial leaching --- cryomineralogenesis --- low-grade copper-nickel ore --- raw materials --- apatite-nepheline-titanite ore --- sulfuric-acidic decomposition --- titanyl sulfate --- hydrothermal synthesis --- ivanyukite --- batievaite-(Y) --- hainite-(Y) --- titanosilicate --- rinkite group minerals --- Kola Peninsula --- Sakharjok massif --- Keivy alkaline province --- transformation mineral species --- vanadium mineralization --- mineralogy --- Paleoproterozoic --- Kola region --- Arctic zone --- Fennoscandian Shield --- zircon --- macrocrysts --- kimberlite --- trace elements --- geochronology --- cathodoluminescence --- Ti-in-zircon geothermometry --- antigorite --- ore dressing tailings --- mechanical activation --- alkali-activated binder --- Yenisei-Khatanga basin --- Siberian craton --- Arctic --- oil --- gas --- petroleum potential --- geodynamics --- apatite --- Khibiny --- apatite-nepheline deposit --- phase diagram apatite-nepheline-diopside --- silicocarbonatite --- melteigite --- calcite --- nepheline --- zeolite group minerals --- garnet --- crystal fractionation --- Breivikbotn --- Northern Norway --- saponite-containing waters --- diamond processing plants --- cryogenic treatment --- electrochemical separation --- saponite product applications --- U mineralization --- hydrothermal deposits --- U-Pb --- Rb-Sr --- Kola region --- evolution of the composition --- basic rocks --- Precambrian --- search of trend differences --- geodynamic evolution --- metallogeny --- beryllium minerals --- chemical composition --- mineral data --- alkaline rocks --- granite --- pegmatites --- hydrothermal veins --- Kola Peninsula --- Plume --- LIP --- PGE --- Palaeoproterozoic --- mafic intrusion --- U-Pb --- isotopes --- PGE --- South Reef --- West-Pana intrusion --- Fedorova-Pana Complex --- zircon dating --- U-Pb --- Khibiny promising structures --- conductive layers --- MHD-source “Khibiny”, Pechenga structure --- Kola Peninsula --- greenstone belt --- gold --- Kola Peninsula --- Northern Karelia --- rock alteration --- n/a

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