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Engineering the Plant Factory for the Production of Biologics and Small-Molecule Medicines

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450510 Year: Pages: 377 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-051-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biotechnology --- General and Civil Engineering --- Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Plant gene transfer achieved in the early ‘80s paved the way for the exploitation of the potential of gene engineering to add novel agronomic traits and/or to design plants as factories for high added value molecules. For this latter area of research, the term "Molecular Farming" was coined in reference to agricultural applications in that major crops like maize and tobacco were originally used basically for pharma applications. The concept of the “green biofactory” implies different advantages over the typical cell factories based on animal cell or microbial cultures already when considering the investment and managing costs of fermenters. Although yield, stability, and quality of the molecules may vary among different heterologous systems and plants are competitive on a case-to-case basis, still the “plant factory” attracts scientists and technologists for the challenging features of low production cost, product safety and easy scale up. Once engineered, a plant is among the cheapest and easiest eukaryotic system to be bred with simple know-how, using nutrients, water and light. Molecules that are currently being produced in plants vary from industrial and pharmaceutical proteins, including medical diagnostics proteins and vaccine antigens, to nutritional supplements such as vitamins, carbohydrates and biopolymers. Convergence among disciplines as distant as plant physiology and pharmacology and, more recently, as omic sciences, bioinformatics and nanotechnology, increases the options of research on the plant cell factory. “Farming for Pharming” biologics and small-molecule medicines is a challenging area of plant biotechnology that may break the limits of current standard production technologies. The recent success on Ebola fighting with plant-made antibodies put a spotlight on the enormous potential of next generation herbal medicines made especially in the name of the guiding principle of reduction of costs, hence reduction of disparities of health rights and as a tool to guarantee adequate health protection in developing countries.Plant gene transfer achieved in the early ‘80s paved the way for the exploitation of the potential of gene engineering to add novel agronomic traits and/or to design plants as factories for high added value molecules. For this latter area of research, the term "Molecular Farming" was coined in reference to agricultural applications in that major crops like maize and tobacco were originally used basically for pharma applications. The concept of the “green biofactory” implies different advantages over the typical cell factories based on animal cell or microbial cultures already when considering the investment and managing costs of fermenters. Although yield, stability, and quality of the molecules may vary among different heterologous systems and plants are competitive on a case-to-case basis, still the “plant factory” attracts scientists and technologists for the challenging features of low production cost, product safety and easy scale up. Once engineered, a plant is among the cheapest and easiest eukaryotic system to be bred with simple know-how, using nutrients, water and light. Molecules that are currently being produced in plants vary from industrial and pharmaceutical proteins, including medical diagnostics proteins and vaccine antigens, to nutritional supplements such as vitamins, carbohydrates and biopolymers. Convergence among disciplines as distant as plant physiology and pharmacology and, more recently, as omic sciences, bioinformatics and nanotechnology, increases the options of research on the plant cell factory. “Farming for Pharming” biologics and small-molecule medicines is a challenging area of plant biotechnology that may break the limits of current standard production technologies. The recent success on Ebola fighting with plant-made antibodies put a spotlight on the enormous potential of next generation herbal medicines made especially in the name of the guiding principle of reduction of costs, hence reduction of disparities of health rights and as a tool to guarantee adequate health protection in developing countries.

Metastable Dynamics of Neural Ensembles

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454372 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-437-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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A classical view of neural computation is that it can be characterized in terms of convergence to attractor states or sequential transitions among states in a noisy background. After over three decades, is this still a valid model of how brain dynamics implements cognition? This book provides a comprehensive collection of recent theoretical and experimental contributions addressing the question of stable versus transient neural population dynamics from complementary angles. These studies showcase recent efforts for designing a framework that encompasses the multiple facets of metastability in neural responses, one of the most exciting topics currently in systems and computational neuroscience.

Transient behaviour of ITER poloidal field coils

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Book Series: Karlsruher Schriftenreihe zur Supraleitung / Hrsg. Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Noe, Prof. Dr. rer. nat. M. Siegel ISSN: 18691765 ISBN: 9783866445956 Year: Volume: 002 Pages: 165 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000020684 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:02
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Transient voltages occur on the terminals of superconducting coils and may lead to internal over-voltages. The main objective of this work was to calculate the transient electrical behaviour and internal voltage distribution within the ITER poloidal field (PF) coils at four scenarios and was made using the PF 3 and PF 6 coils as examples. The calculated maximum voltages will be used for definition of amplitudes and voltage waveforms for the tests of the high-voltage insulation of the coils.

TRP Channels in Health and Disease

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ISBN: 9783039210824 / 9783039210831 Year: Pages: 266 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-083-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:07
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Almost 25 years ago, the first mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channel was cloned and published. TRP channels now represent an extended family of 28 members fulfilling multiple roles in the living organism. Identified functions include control of body temperature, transmitter release, mineral homeostasis, chemical sensing, and survival mechanisms in a challenging environment. The TRP channel superfamily covers six families: TRPC with C for “canonical”, TRPA with A for “ankyrin”, TRPM with M for “melastatin”, TRPML with ML for “mucolipidin”, TRPP with P for “polycystin”, and TRPV with V for “vanilloid”. Over the last few years, new findings on TRP channels have confirmed their exceptional function as cellular sensors and effectors. This Special Book features a collection of 8 reviews and 7 original articles published in “Cells” summarizing the current state-of-the-art on TRP channel research, with a main focus on TRP channel activation, their physiological and pathophysiological function, and their roles as pharmacological targets for future therapeutic options.

Keywords

ion channel --- TRPC --- small molecules --- calcium --- chemical probes --- TRPV1 --- TRPV2 --- TRPV3 --- TRPV4 --- mucosal epithelium --- ulcerative colitis --- inflammatory bowel disease --- TRPM4 channel --- cardiovascular system --- physiology --- pathophysiology --- TRPC6 --- elementary immunology --- inflammation --- calcium --- sodium --- neutrophils --- lymphocytes --- endothelium --- platelets --- human medulla oblongata --- cuneate nucleus --- dorsal column nuclei --- TRPV1 --- calcitonin gene-related peptide --- substance P --- TRP channels --- calcium signaling --- salivary glands --- xerostomia --- radiation --- inflammation --- transient receptor potential channels --- TRPC3 pharmacology --- channel structure --- lipid mediators --- photochromic ligands --- transient receptor potential --- TRPC3 --- mGluR1 --- GABAB --- EPSC --- Purkinje cell --- cerebellum --- toxicology --- TRP channels --- organ toxicity --- chemicals --- pollutants --- chemosensor --- TRPM7 --- kinase --- inflammation --- lymphocytes --- calcium signalling --- SMAD --- TH17 --- hypersensitivity --- regulatory T cells --- thrombosis --- graft versus host disease --- 2D gel electrophoresis --- AP18 --- HEK293 --- HSP70 --- MALDI-TOF MS(/MS) --- nanoHPLC-ESI MS/MS --- proteomics --- sulfur mustard --- TRPA1 --- TRPC channels --- diacylglycerol --- TRPC4 --- TRPC5 --- NHERF --- TRP channel --- TRPY1 --- Saccharomyces cerevisiae --- calcium --- manganese --- oxidative stress --- ion channels --- overproduction --- production platform --- protein purification --- Saccharomyces cerevisiae --- sensors --- transient receptor potential (TRP) channels --- yeast --- adipose tissue --- bioavailable --- menthol --- topical --- TRPM8 --- n/a

Multiscale and Innovative Kinetic Approaches in Heterogeneous Catalysis

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039211791 / 9783039211807 Year: Pages: 214 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-180-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Kinetics and reactor modeling for heterogeneous catalytic reactions are prominent tools for investigating and understanding catalyst functionalities at nanoscale and the related rates of complex reaction networks. This book illustrates some examples related to the transformation of simple to more complex feedstocks, including different types of reactor designs, i.e., steady-state, transient plug flow reactors, and TAP reactors for which there is sometimes a strong gap in the operating conditions from ultra-high-vacuum to high-pressure conditions. In conjunction, new methodologies have emerged, giving rise to more robust microkinetics models. As exemplified, they include the kinetics and the dynamics of the reactors and span a large range of length and time scales. The objective of this Special Issue is to provide contributions that can illustrate recent advances and novel methodologies for elucidating the kinetics of heterogeneous reactions and the necessary multiscale approach for optimizing the reactor design. This book is dedicated to postgraduate and scientific researchers, and experts in heterogeneous catalysis. It may also serve as a source of original information for the elaboration of lessons on catalysis for Master students.

Advanced Glasses, Composites and Ceramics for High Growth Industries

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038979609 / 9783038979616 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-961-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Advanced Glasses, Composites and Ceramics for High-Growth Industries (CoACH) was a European Training Network (ETN) project (http://www.coach-etn.eu/) funded by the Horizon 2020 program. CoACH involved multiple actors in the innovation ecosystem for advanced materials, composed of five universities and ten enterprises in seven different European countries. The project studied the next generation of materials that could bring innovation in the healthcare, construction, and energy sectors, among others, from new bioactive glasses for bone implants to eco-friendly cements and new environmentally friendly thermoelectrics for energy conversion. The novel materials developed in the CoACH project pave the way for innovative products, improved cost competitiveness, and positive environmental impact. The present Special Issue contains 14 papers resulting from the CoACH project, showcasing the breadth of materials and processes developed during the project.

Humidity Sensors. Advances in Reliability, Calibration and Application

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039211227 / 9783039211234 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-123-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Humidity detection has deep significance for the scientific research surrounding medical care and human performance, and the industrial development of agriculture, geography and automated instruments. This special issue aims to showcase some of the advancements in humidity sensor design and calibration, and its applications. The selected papers cover a variety of humidity sensor-related topics including material science, chemistry and industrial engineering. Through dedicated contributions from peer reviewers and the editorial team, this book aims to offers reader some insight into the field of humidity sensor development and use.

Power Electronics in Renewable Energy Systems

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039210442 / 9783039210459 Year: Pages: 604 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-045-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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This book offers a collection of 30 scientific papers which address the problems associated with the use of power electronic converters in renewable energy source-based systems. Relevant problems associated with the use of power electronic converters to integrate renewable energy systems to the power grid are presented. Some of the covered topics relate to the integration of photovoltaic and wind energy generators into the rest of the system, and to the use of energy storage to mitigate power fluctuations, which are a characteristic of renewable energy systems. The book provides a good overview of the abovementioned topics.

Keywords

modular multilevel converter --- battery energy storage system --- state-of-charge balancing --- second-life battery --- multi-energy complementary --- microgrid --- demand response --- operation optimization --- electricity price --- peak-current-mode control --- dynamic modeling --- duty-ratio constraints --- discontinuous conduction mode --- FACTS devices --- active power filter --- static compensator --- control strategies --- grid-connected converter --- SPWM --- SVM --- maximum power point tracking --- open circuit voltage --- perturb and observe --- thermoelectric generator --- two-stage photovoltaic power --- virtual synchronous generator --- adaptive-MPPT (maximum power point tracking) --- improved-VSG (virtual synchronous generator) --- power matching --- failure zone --- governor --- frequency regulation --- inverter --- voltage-type control --- static frequency characteristics --- grid-connected converter --- adaptive resonant controller --- PLL --- impedance analysis --- distorted grid --- digital signal processor (DSP) TMS320F28335 --- grid-connected inverter --- internal model --- linear quadratic regulator --- LCL filter --- photovoltaic systems --- multilevel power converter --- soft switching --- selective harmonic mitigation --- phase shifted --- voltage cancellation --- adaptive control --- sliding mode control --- speed control --- wind energy system --- microgrid (MG) --- droop control --- washout filter --- hardware in the loop (HIL) --- active front-end converter --- back-to-back converter --- permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) --- THD --- type-4 wind turbine --- wind energy system --- Opal-RT Technologies® --- synchronization --- adaptive notch filter (ANF) --- phase-locked loop (PLL) --- wind power prediction --- phase space reconstruction --- multivariate linear regression --- cloud computing --- time series --- multiple VSGs --- oscillation mitigation --- coordinated control --- small-signal and transient stability --- coordination control --- energy storage --- grid support function --- inertia --- photovoltaic --- virtual synchronous generator --- weak grid --- parallel inverters --- oscillation suppression --- notch filter --- impedance reshaping --- boost converter --- peak-current-mode control --- dynamic modeling --- discontinuous operation mode --- doubly-fed induction generator --- short-circuit fault --- frequency regulation --- variable power tracking control --- improved additional frequency control --- variable coefficient regulation --- inertia and damping characteristics --- generator speed control --- electrical power generation --- turbine and generator --- grid-connected converter --- organic Rankine cycle --- renewable energy --- multiport converter (MPC) --- single ended primary inductor converter (SEPIC) --- multi-input single output (MISO) --- renewable power system --- coupled oscillators --- virtual impedance --- synchronization --- power converters --- droop control --- virtual admittance --- distributed generation --- energy --- renewable energy --- microgrids --- Energy Internet --- energy router --- microgrid --- electric vehicle --- PV --- battery-energy storage --- DC-AC power converters --- impedance emulation --- stability analysis --- power-hardware-in- the-loop --- photovoltaic generators --- maximum power point tracking --- step size --- perturbation frequency --- source and load impedance --- transient dynamics --- stability --- grid synchronization --- power electronics --- power grid --- inverter --- grid-connected --- microgrid --- experiment --- modules --- synchronverter --- power ripple elimination --- resonant controller --- unbalanced power grid --- ROCOF --- PLL --- error --- low inertia --- VSC --- n/a

Soil Water Conservation. Dynamics and Impact

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783038978527 9783038978534 Year: Pages: 258 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-853-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Human needs like food and clean water are directly related to good maintenance of healthy and productive soils. A good understanding of human impact on the natural environment is therefore necessary to preserve and manage soil and water resources. This knowledge is particularly important in semi-arid and arid regions, where the increasing demands on limited water supplies require urgent efforts to improve water quality and water use efficiency. It is important to keep in mind that both soil and water are limited resources. Thus, wise use of these natural resources is a fundamental prerequisite for the sustainability of human societies. This book collects 15 original scientific contributions addressing the state of the art of soil and water conservation research. Contributions cover a wide range of topics, including (1) recovery of soil hydraulic properties; (2) erosion risk; (3) novel modeling, monitoring and experimental approaches for soil hydraulic characterization; (4) improvement of crop yields; (5) water availability; and (6) soil salinity. This collection provides more insights into conservation strategies for effective and sustainable soil and water management.

Keywords

soil moisture storage --- van Genuchten model --- distributed model --- Xin’anjiang model --- TOPMODEL --- bimsoils --- critical hydraulic gradient (CHG) --- response surface methodology --- multi-parameter evaluation --- laboratory experiment --- soil block --- subsurface flow --- macropore network --- spatial scale --- polyurethane foam --- hillslope --- soil water content --- field observation --- three-dimensional model --- numerical model --- delta plain --- shallow groundwater --- unsaturated soil --- Richards equation --- the Trefftz method --- transient --- the meshless method --- vineyards --- infiltration rate --- age of planting --- saturated hydraulic conductivity --- Malawi --- conservation agriculture --- peer effects --- decision tree modeling --- olive grove --- sap flow --- relative transpiration --- FDR sensor --- EM38 --- fraction transpiration soil water --- transdisciplinary research --- Follow-the-Innovation --- innovation development --- electromagnetic induction meter (EM) --- The Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) software --- AquaCrop --- cereals --- DSSAT --- field scattering --- food security --- microdose fertilization --- rainfall variability --- tied ridges --- upgrading strategies --- soil properties --- saturated soil hydraulic conductivity --- soil infiltration --- Beerkan method --- post-fire soil hydraulic characterization --- infiltration --- bottomless bucket method --- single-ring infiltrometer --- field-saturated soil hydraulic conductivity --- data analysis procedures --- environmental change --- local perception --- food security --- adaptation --- soil tillage --- tillage erosion --- seedbed preparation --- water infiltration --- nitrogen use efficiency --- specific leaf water content --- vegetable production --- soil --- yield --- water and soil conservation --- sustainable land management --- soil erosion --- soil water storage --- water infiltration --- water availability --- crop yields

Flow and Transport Properties of Unconventional Reservoirs 2018

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039211166 / 9783039211173 Year: Pages: 364 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-117-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Unconventional reservoirs are usually complex and highly heterogeneous, such as shale, coal, and tight sandstone reservoirs. The strong physical and chemical interactions between fluids and pore surfaces lead to the inapplicability of conventional approaches for characterizing fluid flow in these low-porosity and ultralow-permeability reservoir systems. Therefore, new theories and techniques are urgently needed to characterize petrophysical properties, fluid transport, and their relationships at multiple scales for improving production efficiency from unconventional reservoirs. This book presents fundamental innovations gathered from 21 recent works on novel applications of new techniques and theories in unconventional reservoirs, covering the fields of petrophysical characterization, hydraulic fracturing, fluid transport physics, enhanced oil recovery, and geothermal energy. Clearly, the research covered in this book is helpful to understand and master the latest techniques and theories for unconventional reservoirs, which have important practical significance for the economic and effective development of unconventional oil and gas resources.

Keywords

fracturing fluid --- rheology --- chelating agent --- viscosity --- polymer --- fluid-solid interaction --- velocity profile --- the average flow velocity --- flow resistance --- pore network model --- shale gas --- volume fracturing --- finite volume method --- production simulation --- multi-scale flow --- multi-scale fracture --- shale gas reservoir --- fractured well transient productivity --- succession pseudo-steady state (SPSS) method --- complex fracture network --- multi-scale flow --- analysis of influencing factors --- tight sandstones --- spontaneous imbibition --- remaining oil distributions --- imbibition front --- imbibition recovery --- NMR --- slip length --- large density ratio --- contact angle --- pseudo-potential model --- lattice Boltzmann method --- micro-fracture --- dissolved gas --- experimental evaluation --- reservoir depletion --- recovery factor --- tight oil --- Lucaogou Formation --- tight oil --- pore structure --- prediction by NMR logs --- tight oil reservoir --- SRV-fractured horizontal well --- multiporosity and multiscale --- flow regimes --- productivity contribution degree of multimedium --- equilibrium permeability --- non-equilibrium permeability --- matrix–fracture interaction --- effective stress --- coal deformation --- porous media --- non-linear flow --- conformable derivative --- fractal --- hydraulic fracturing --- tight reservoirs --- fracture diversion --- extended finite element method --- fracture network --- gas adsorption capacity --- shale reservoirs --- influential factors --- integrated methods --- sulfonate gemini surfactant --- thickener --- temperature-resistance --- clean fracturing fluid --- low-salinity water flooding --- clay mineral composition --- enhanced oil recovery --- wetting angle --- pH of formation water --- fractional diffusion --- fractal geometry --- analytical model --- shale gas reservoir --- carbonate reservoir --- petrophysical characterization --- pore types --- pore structure --- permeability --- fractal dimension --- reservoir classifications --- deep circulation groundwater --- groundwater flow --- geothermal water --- faults --- isotopes --- shale permeability --- local effect --- global effect --- matrix-fracture interactions --- nanopore --- pore structure --- shale --- tight sandstone --- mudstone --- nitrogen adsorption --- fractal --- enhanced geothermal system --- well-placement optimization --- fracture continuum method --- 0-1 programming --- unconventional reservoirs --- petrophysical characterization --- fluid transport physics

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