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Comprehensive Systems Biomedicine

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193745 Year: Pages: 113 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-374-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Genetics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
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Systems Biomedicine is a field in perpetual development. By definition a translational discipline, it emphasizes the role of quantitative systems approaches in biomedicine and aims to offer solutions to many emerging problems characterized by levels and types of complexity and uncertainty unmet before. Many factors, including technological and societal ones, need to be considered. In particular, new technologies are providing researchers with the data deluge whose management and exploitation requires a reinvention of cross-disciplinary team efforts. The advent of “omics” and high-content imaging are examples of advances de facto establishing the necessity of systems approaches. Hypothesis-driven models and in silico validation tools in support to all the varieties of experimental applications call for a profound revision. The focus on phases like mining and assimilating the data has substantially increased so to allow for interpretable knowledge to be inferred. Notably, to be able to tackle the newly generated data dimensionality, heterogeneity and complexity, model-free and data-driven intensive applications are increasingly shaping the computational pipelines and architectures that quant specialists set aside of the high-throughput genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics platforms. As for the societal aspects, in many advanced societies health care needs now more than in the past to address the problem of managing ageing populations and their complex morbidity patterns. In parallel, there is a growing research interest on the impact that cross-disciplinary clinical, epidemiological and quantitative modelling studies can have in relation to outcomes potentially affecting the quality of life of many people. Complex systems, including those characterizing biomedicine, are assessed in both their functionality and stability, and also relatively to the capacity of generating information from diversity, variation, and complexity. Due to the combined interactions and effects, such systems embed prediction power available for instance in both target identification or marker discovery, or more generally for conducting inference about patients’ pathological states, i.e. normal versus disease, diagnostic or prognostic analysis, and preventive assessment (e.g., risk evaluation). The ultimate goal, personalized medicine, will be achieved based on the confluence of the system’s predictive power to patient-specific profiling.

Improving outcomes in cerebral palsy with early intervention: new translational approaches

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195121 Year: Pages: 155 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-512-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Pediatrics --- Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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The aim of this Research Topic was to collate articles describing prediction of outcomes of pre- and perinatal lesions leading to cerebral palsy, basic research in animal models and human subjects, and ideas for, and trials of, interventions in the first two years of life.CP arises from insults to the sensorimotor cortex, subcortical axon tracts and subplate. The aetiology is complex and often multifactorial. The outcome is not simply a loss of voluntary control due to disruption of descending pathways, but also involves abnormal development of reflex and corticospinal circuitry. CP may be viewed as aberrant plasticity in response to a lesion, indeed, abnormalities in movement are subtle at first but develop subsequently. It is misleading to suppose that developmental mechanisms are self-reparative. The challenge is to understand activitydependent fine tuning of neural circuitry during normal development and to find how to promote desirable plasticity whilst limiting undesirable effects following developmental lesions. However, before proposing interventions, we have to develop our ability to predict the severity of neonatal insults.We solicited a variety of articles, including long and short reviews, original research and opinion pieces, from both basic scientists and clinicians. Likewise we, as editors, have complementary knowledge and experience in this area. Anna Basu is an academic pediatric neurologist and Gavin Clowry is a developmental neuroscientist.

Biomedical Chemistry. Current Trends and Developments

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ISBN: 9783110468755 9783110468878 Year: Pages: 361 DOI: 10.1515/9783110468755 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Biochemistry --- Organic Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2017-01-18 19:08:48
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Biomedical Chemistry provides readers with an understanding of how fundamental chemical concepts are used to combat some diseases. The authors explain the interdisciplinary relationship of chemistry with biology, physics, pharmacy and medicine. The results of chemical research can be applied to understand chemical processes in cells and in the body, and new methods for drug transportation. Also, basic chemical ideas and determination of disease etiology are approached by developing techniques to ensure optimum interaction between drugs and human cells. This Book is an excellent resource for students and researchers in health-related fields with frontier topics in medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry, organic chemistry and biochemistry.

Biology-Driven Targeted Therapy of Pediatric Soft-Tissue and Bone Tumors: Current Opportunities and Future Challenges

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198191 Year: Pages: 147 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-819-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Recent advances in the understanding of the biological basis of pediatric soft-tissue and bone tumors, especially owing to the advent of “omics” technologies, have led to an exponential increase in the current knowledge on the genetic and cellular patho-mechanisms that drive these diseases. This offers the unprecedented opportunity to develop and implement targeted therapies such as monoclonal antibodies, small molecules, oncolytic viruses, and immunotherapies in standard and/or personalized treatment regimens. However, to date only a few examples document a successful translation of discoveries from the bench to the bedside. Recent international expert congresses such as the “Pediatric Cancer Translational Genomics” conference (Phoenix, Arizona, 2012), the ESF-EMBO workshop on “Molecular Biology and Innovative Therapies in Sarcomas” (Pultusk, Poland, 2012), and the AACR special meeting on “Pediatric Cancer at the Crossroads – Translating Discovery into Improved Outcomes” (San Diego, California, 2013) further emphasize the urgent need for a more rapid and especially more successful translational process. Hence, we strongly believe that a Frontiers Research Topic aiming at this aspect would fit just in time and that it would have great potential to receive numerous contributions of outstanding experts of the field. The proposed Frontiers Research Topic shall provide a platform for active and interdisciplinary discussion, summarize current state-of-the-art knowledge on all basic research and translational aspects in pediatric soft-tissue and bone tumors, and offer new perspectives of how to further promote and accelerate the translational process. We welcome high-quality original research articles, brief reports, as well as opinion, hypothesis, and review articles, and especially encourage submissions from early-career scientists.

Reward- and aversion-related processing in the brain: translational evidence for separate and shared circuits

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198368 Year: Pages: 181 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-836-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Affective brain circuits underpin our moods and emotions. Appetitive and aversive stimuli from our exteroceptive and interoceptive worlds play a key role in the activity of these circuits, but we still do not know precisely how to characterize these so-called reward-related and aversion-related systems. Moreover, we do we yet understand how they interact anatomically or functionally. The aim of the current project was to gather some translational evidence to help clarify the role of such circuits. A multi-dimensional problem in its own right, the book contains 14 works from authors exploring these questions at many levels, from the cellular to the cognitive-behavioral, and from both experimental and conceptual viewpoints. The editorial which introduces the book provides brief summaries of each perspective (Hayes, Northoff, Greenshaw, 2015). While questions of how to accurately define affect- and emotion-related concepts at the psychological level are far from answered, here we have attempted to provide some insight into the brain-based underpinnings of such processes. The near future will undoubtedly involve making new inroads and will require the joint efforts of behavioral, brain-based, and philosophical perspectives to do so.

The Functional Organization of the Auditory System

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450619 Year: Pages: 330 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-061-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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This eBook comprises s series of original research and review articles dealing with the anatomical, genetic, and physiological organization of the auditory system from humans to monkeys and mice.

Third-Generation Neuroimaging: Translating Research into Clinical Utility

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450442 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-044-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Psychiatry
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Psychiatric imaging needs to move away from simple investigations of the neurobiology underling the early phases of psychiatric diseases to translate imaging findings in the clinical field targeting clinical outcomes including transition, remission and response to preventative interventions. This research topic aims to bring psychiatric neuroimaging studies towards translational impacts in clinical practice, suggesting that brain abnormalities may be of potential use for detecting clinical outcomes as treatment response. First-generation psychiatric neuroimaging focused on simple structural brain alterations associated with the neurobiology of the illness. These early studies adopted imaging methods mainly including computerized tomography (CT) to investigate brain size. Second-generation psychiatric neuroimaging studies benefited from more sophisticated techniques which included structural methods (sMRI) coupled with whole-brain automated methods (voxel based morphometry, VBM), white-matter methods (diffusion tensor imaging, DTI and tractography), functional methods (functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI) and advanced neurochemical imaging (PET techniques addressing receptor bindings and pre/post synaptic functions, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, MRS) and sophisticated meta-analytical imaging methods. However, no consistent or reliable anatomical or functional brain alterations have been univocally associated with any psychiatric disorder and no clinical applications have been developed in psychiatric neuroimaging. There is thus urgent need of psychiatric imaging to move towards third-generation paradigms. In this research topic, these novel neuroimaging studies here requested to move away from simple investigations of the neurobiology to translate imaging findings in the clinical field targeting longitudinal outcomes including transition, remission and response to preventative interventions. With respect to methods, the most recent neuroimaging approaches (e.g. structural and functional MRI, EEG, DTI, spectroscopy, PET) are welcome. Third generation psychiatric imaging studies including multimodal approaches, multi-center analyses, mega-analyses, effective connectivity, dynamic causal modelling, support vector machines, structural equation modelling, or graph theory analysis are highly appreciated. Furthermore, these third-generation imaging studies may benefit from the incorporation of new sources of neurobiological information such as whole genome sequencing, proteomic, lipidomic and expression profiles and cellular models derived from recent induced pluripotent stem cells research. We collect Original Research, Reviews, Mini-Reviews, Book Review, Clinical Case Study, Clinical Trial, Editorial, General Commentary, Hypothesis & Theory, Methods, Mini Opinion, Perspective, and Technology Report from international researcher and clinicians in this field. The purpose of this research topic is intended to provide the field with current third-generation neuroimaging approaches in translational psychiatry that is hoped to improve and create therapeutic options for psychiatric diseases.

Regulation of Chemokine- Receptor Interactions and Functions

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ISBN: 9783038427285 9783038427278 Year: Pages: 228 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-26 15:44:06
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A hallmark of inflammation is the accumulation of leukocytes, which can serve to remove pathogens and necrotic tissue, but may also damage healthy tissue and exacerbate the inflammatory response. Our understanding of leukocyte recruitment in inflammation was revolutionized in the late 1980s by the discovery of chemokines (chemotactic cytokines), a family of small, secreted proteins that induce migration of selective subsets of leukocytes. Shortly afterwards, chemokines were found to exert their functions through the now familiar chemokine receptors, members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. As their physiological and pathological functions were elucidated, chemokine receptors have become popular targets for drug development in inflammatory diseases as well as cancer metastasis and HIV infection. Extensive research has revealed that the functions of chemokines and their receptors are regulated at numerous levels, including: genetic mutations/polymorphisms; control of expression levels; ligand internalization via functional or decoy receptors; intrinsic selectivity of chemokine-receptor binding; hetero- or homo-oligomerization of chemokines or of receptors; alternative signalling pathways; interaction of chemokines with glycosaminoglycans; post-translational modifications; and binding to pathogen-derived inhibitors. This Special Issue of IJMS focused on the natural and pharmacological mechanisms by which the activities of chemokines and their receptors can be regulated.

Challenging the Functional Connectivity Disruption in Neurodegenerative Diseases: New Therapeutic Perspectives through Non-Invasive Neuromodulation and Cutting-Edge Technologies

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455935 Year: Pages: 143 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-593-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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The neurorehabilitation field is increasingly focused on understanding how to efficiently revert the effects that acute (i.e., stroke or traumatic brain injury) or chronic (i.e., neurodegenerative diseases) insults play either on small or large-scale networks, encompassing motor, sensory and cognitive domains. The link between the disrupted neuronal pulse generators and their effectors is being re-shaped through a wide scenario that embraces biorobotics, robot-aided rehabilitation, non-invasive neurostimulation, nanoprosthetics and neuroengineering. For the past decade and at an amazing speed, large investments and efforts allowed enthusiastic and only apparently heterogeneous researchers to borrow theories from neurophysiology, pharmacology, physics and quantum mechanics in order to generate together highly sophisticated tools that restore, resemble or even substitute the basic biological architecture. The idea of actually reverting weakened functions and/or replacing the faulty parts either of the human body or the central and peripheral nervous system is becoming a new reality, opening a fascinating era in this field.In this Research Topic, several researchers showed how the above principles became reality, from theory to the bedside of patients, providing full explanations of the whole mechanistic processes and how they were implemented, up to the final stage.

Update in Pediatric Neuro-Oncology

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ISBN: 9783038975397 9783038975403 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-540-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics --- Pediatrics --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-28 10:38:34
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This Special Issue of Bioengineering explores topics in Pediatric Neuro-Oncology ranging from preclinical modeling to translational research and neurocognitive outcomes. The topics are as below. 1.Radiotherapy advances in pediatric brain tumors;2.Neurofibromatosis 1 and brain tumors in children;3.Molecular biology of pediatric gliomas and therapeutic insights;4.Embryonal tumors of the central nervous system in children-era of targeted therapeutics;5.Preclinical models in pediatric brain tumors—clinical relevance;6.Molecular neuroimaging of brain tumors;7.Palliative care for children with central nervous system malignancies;8.Neurocognitive and psychosocial outcomes following pediatric brain tumors.

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