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Determinants of synaptic information transfer: From Ca2+ binding proteins to Ca2+ signaling domains

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198344 Year: Pages: 133 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-834-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Abstract

The cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) is a key determinant of neuronal information transfer and processing. It controls a plethora of fundamental processes, including transmitter release and the induction of synaptic plasticity. This enigmatic second messenger conveys its wide variety of actions by binding to a subgroup of Ca2+ binding proteins (CaBPs) known as “Ca2+ sensors”. Well known examples of Ca2+ sensors are Troponin-C in skeletal muscle, Synaptotagmin in presynaptic terminals, and Calmodulin (CaM) in all eukaryotic cells. Since the levels of [Ca2+]i directly influence the potency of Ca2+ sensors, the Ca2+ concentration is tightly controlled by several mechanisms including another type of Ca2+ binding proteins, the Ca2+ buffers. Prominent examples of Ca2+ buffers include Parvalbumin (PV), Calbindin-D28k (CB) and Calretinin (CR), although for the latter two Ca2+ sensor functions were recently also suggested. Ca2+ buffers are distinct from sensors by their purely buffering action, i.e. they influence the spatio-temporal extent of Ca2+ signals, without directly binding downstream target proteins. Details of their action depend on their binding kinetics, mobility, and concentration. Thus, neurons can control the range of action of Ca2+ by the type and concentration of CaBPs expressed. Since buffering strongly limits the range of action of free Ca2+, the structure of the Ca2+ signaling domain and the topographical relationships between the sites of Ca2+ influx and the location of the Ca2+ sensors are central determinants in neuronal information processing. For example, postsynaptic dendritic spines act to compartmentalize Ca2+ depending on their geometry and expression of CaBPs, thereby influencing dendritic integration. At presynaptic sites it has been shown that tight, so called nanodomain coupling between Ca2+ channels and the sensor for vesicular transmitter release increases speed and reliability of synaptic transmission. Vice versa, the influence of an individual CaBP on information processing depends on the topographical relationships within the signaling domain. If e.g. source and sensor are very close, only buffers with rapid binding kinetics can interfere with signaling. This Research Topic contains a collection of work dealing with the relationships between different [Ca2+]i controlling mechanisms in the structural context of synaptic sites and their functional implications for synaptic information processing as detailed in the Editorial.

Single-Laser Multi-Terabit/s Systems

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Book Series: Karlsruhe Series in Photonics and Communications / Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Photonics and Quantum Electronics (IPQ) ISSN: 18651100 ISBN: 9783866449916 Year: Volume: 9 Pages: XVIII, 184 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000033390 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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Optical communication systems carry the bulk of all data traffic worldwide. This book introduces multi-Terabit/s transmission systems and three key technologies for next generation networks. A software-defined multi-format transmitter, an optical comb source and an optical processing scheme for the fast Fourier transform for Tbit/s signals. Three world records demonstrate the potential: The first single laser 10 Tbit/s and 26 Tbit/s OFDM and the first 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM experiments.

Signal Processing and Analysis of Electrical Circuit

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ISBN: 9783039282944 9783039282951 Year: Pages: 604 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-295-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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This Special Issue with 35 published articles shows the significance of the topic “Signal Processing and Analysis of Electrical Circuit”. This topic has been gaining increasing attention in recent times. The presented articles can be categorized into four different areas: signal processing and analysis methods of electrical circuits; electrical measurement technology; applications of signal processing of electrical equipment; fault diagnosis of electrical circuits. It is a fact that the development of electrical systems, signal processing methods, and circuits has been accelerating. Electronics applications related to electrical circuits and signal processing methods have gained noticeable attention in recent times. The methods of signal processing and electrical circuits are widely used by engineers and scientists all over the world. The constituent papers represent a significant contribution to electronics and present applications that can be used in industry. Further improvements to the presented approaches are required for realizing their full potential.

Keywords

VMD --- signal analysis --- ICEEMD --- IMF --- random noise --- attenuation --- commutator motor --- fault diagnosis --- method --- technique --- signal processing --- acoustic --- Inner and outer product --- tensor --- FPGA --- hardware --- direct digital synthesizer (DDS) --- frequency tuning word (FTW) --- stability --- accuracy --- demodulation --- phase-locked loop --- Chebyshev filter --- measurement noise suppression --- class AB operation --- CMOS --- current mirror --- current buffer --- quasi floating gate --- low power --- CMOS --- dynamic comparator --- offset calibration --- high speed --- low noise --- low power --- ADC --- all-pass filter --- CMOS --- time delay --- broadband --- true-time-delay --- electrochemical impedance spectroscopy --- FRA --- multichannel acquisition --- impedance spectrometry --- microcontroller --- intelligent vehicles --- LiDAR odometry --- range sensing --- simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) --- tilt sensor --- sensor data fusion --- complementary filters --- overlap-add processing --- spectral analysis --- variational mode decomposition (VMD) --- duffing chaotic oscillator (DCO) --- permutation entropy (PE) --- feature extraction --- frequency characteristic --- underwater acoustic signal --- ship-radiated noise --- PM/PWM --- capacitance-to-time conversion --- differential capacitive sensor --- brick-wall filter --- fuzzy logic --- induction motor --- Shannon entropy --- short-circuit fault --- APF --- CNFET --- pole-frequency --- chirality --- phase angle --- tuning --- DC–DC converter --- switched capacitor --- power management integrated circuit --- CMOS technology --- frequency standard comparator --- dual Mixing Time difference --- phase difference --- correlation function --- chebyshev polynomial --- compressed sensing --- estimated sparsity --- least squares solution --- stochastic gradient --- reconstruction probability --- direct position determination --- array signal processing --- Doppler shifts --- matrix eigen-perturbation theory --- system errors --- Cramér–Rao bound --- differential power analysis (DPA), SIMON --- fault injection --- double rate --- power randomization --- intention of movement classification --- EMG-Signals --- Support Vector Machines --- asynchronous --- delay cell --- passive resistor --- SAR ADC --- loop delay circuit --- Resistance-to-Period converter --- robust read-out circuits --- ratiometric technique --- Fresnel lens --- wingbeat --- insects --- optoelectronics --- bees --- wasps --- fruit flies --- e-traps --- analog-to-digital converter --- successive approximation register --- direct sampling --- time-interleaved --- channel-selection-embedded bootstrap --- segmented pre-quantization and bypass --- LVDS --- high-speed serial interface --- transmitter --- receiver --- low-power --- image fusion --- multi-sensor fusion --- night vision --- hierarchical heterogeneous multi-DAG workflow --- multigroup scan --- ultrasonic phased array --- heterogeneous earliest finish time --- resolver --- discrete wavelet transform --- singular value decomposition --- automatic calibration --- noise reduction --- ripple voltage measurement --- DAC --- comparator --- peak-ripple estimation --- binary search --- low-cost --- secret image sharing --- digital image --- n-out-of-n scheme --- color palette --- colluder attack --- image restoration --- impulse noise --- ADMM --- HOCTVL1 --- spatially adapted regularization parameter --- rod electrode --- electrostatic induction --- method of images --- induced charge --- induced current --- 3D-IC design --- NILT --- TSV noise coupling --- RDL --- chain matrix --- interconnect line --- n/a

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