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Simulation von Fahrspielen und Energieflüssen in Nahverkehrssystemen

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Book Series: Karlsruher Schriftenreihe Fahrzeugsystemtechnik / Institut für Fahrzeugsystemtechnik ISSN: 18696058 ISBN: 9783731507406 Year: Volume: 66 Pages: XXX, 323 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000077162 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-28 18:37:01
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For ecological und economic reasons, special attention is paid to the energy balance of rail-bound, local, direct current-based transport systems. With the tram and urban railway network of Karlsruhe being used as an example, 16 simulation scenarios with different measures for energy optimization are analysed in a coupled computation of driving cycles and energy flows.

Aquaporins: Dynamic Role and Regulation

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452897 Year: Pages: 183 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-289-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Aquaporins (AQPs), a class of integral membrane proteins, form channels facilitating movement of water and many other solutes. In solute transport systems of all living organisms including plants, animals and fungi, AQPs play a vital role. Plants contain a much higher number of AQP genes compared to animals, the likely consequence of genome duplication events and higher ploidy levels. As a result of duplication and subsequent diversification, plant AQPs have evolved several subfamilies with very diverse functions. Plant AQPs are highly selective for specific solutes because of their unique structural features. For instance, ar/R selectivity filters and NPA domains have been found to be key elements in governing solute permeability through the AQP channels. Combination of conserved motifs and specific amino acids influencing pore morphology appears to regulate the permeability of specific solutes such as water, urea, CO2, H2O2, boric acid, silicic acid and many more. The discovery of novel AQPs has been accelerated over the last few years with the increasing availability of genomic and transcriptomic data. The expanding number of well characterised AQPs provides opportunities to understand factors influencing water transport, nutritional uptake, and elemental balance. Homology-based search tools and phylogenetic analyses offer efficient strategies for AQP identification. Subsequent characterization can be based on different approaches involving proteomics, genomics, and transcriptomic tools. The combination of these technological advances make it possible to efficiently study the inter-dependency of AQPs, regulation through phosphorylation and reversible phosphorylation, networking with other transporters, structural features, pH gating systems, trafficking and degradation. Several studies have supported the role of AQPs in differential phenotypic responses to abiotic and biotic stress in plants. Crop improvement programs aiming for the development of cultivars with higher tolerance against stresses like drought, flooding, salinity and many biotic diseases, can explore and exploit the finely tuned AQP-regulated transport system. For instance, a promising approach in crop breeding programs is the utilization of genetic variation in AQPs for the development of stress tolerant cultivars. Similarly, transgenic and mutagenesis approaches provide an opportunity to better understand the AQP transport system with subsequent applications for the development of climate-smart drought-tolerant cultivars. The contributions to this Frontiers in Plant Science Research Topic have highlighted the evolution and phylogenetic distribution of AQPs in several plant species. Numerous aspects of regulation that seek to explain AQP-mediated transport system have been addressed. These contributions will help to improve our understanding of AQPs and their role in important physiological aspects and will bring AQP research closer to practical applications.

Polyamine Metabolism in Disease and Polyamine-Targeted Therapies

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ISBN: 9783039211524 9783039211531 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-153-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Polyamines are ubiquitous polycations essential for all cellular life. The most common polyamines in eukaryotes, spermine, spermidine, and putrescine, exist in millimolar intracellular concentrations that are tightly regulated through biosynthesis, catabolism, and transport. Polyamines interact with, and regulate, negatively charged macromolecules, including nucleic acids, proteins, and ion channels. Accordingly, alterations in polyamine metabolism affect cellular proliferation and survival through changes in gene expression and transcription, translation, autophagy, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Dysregulation of these multifaceted polyamine functions contribute to multiple disease processes, thus their metabolism and function have been targeted for preventive or therapeutic intervention. The correlation between elevated polyamine levels and cancer is well established, and ornithine decarboxylase, the rate-limiting biosynthetic enzyme in the production of putrescine, is a bona fide transcriptional target of the Myc oncogene. Furthermore, induced polyamine catabolism contributes to carcinogenesis that is associated with certain forms of chronic infection and/or inflammation through the production of reactive oxygen species. These and other characteristics specific to cancer cells have led to the development of polyamine-based agents and inhibitors aimed at exploiting the polyamine metabolic pathway for chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive benefit. In addition to cancer, polyamines are involved in the pathologies of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, parasitic and infectious diseases, wound healing, ischemia/reperfusion injuries, and certain age-related conditions, as polyamines are known to decrease with age. As in cancer, polyamine-based therapies for these conditions are an area of active investigation. With recent advances in immunotherapy, interest has increased regarding polyamine-associated modulation of immune responses, as well as potential immunoregulation of polyamine metabolism, the results of which could have relevance to multiple disease processes. The goal of this Special Issue of Medical Sciences is to present the most recent advances in polyamine research as it relates to health, disease, and/or therapy.

Keywords

polyamine transport inhibitor --- Drosophila imaginal discs --- difluoromethylorthinine --- DFMO --- polyamine --- cancer --- metabolism --- difluoromethylornithine --- polyamine transport inhibitor --- pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma --- curcumin --- diferuloylmethane --- ornithine decarboxylase --- polyamine --- NF-?B --- chemoprevention --- carcinogenesis --- polyphenol --- ornithine decarboxylase --- polyamines --- untranslated region --- polyamines --- ?-difluoromethylornithine --- polyamine transport system --- melanoma --- mutant BRAF --- spermine --- spermidine --- putrescine --- polyamine metabolism --- mast cells --- eosinophils --- neutrophils --- M2 macrophages --- airway smooth muscle cells --- Streptococcus pneumoniae --- polyamines --- pneumococcal pneumonia --- proteomics --- capsule --- complementation --- metabolism --- cadaverine --- polyamines --- ornithine decarboxylase --- difluoromethylornithine --- eflornithine --- DFMO --- African sleeping sickness --- hirsutism --- colorectal cancer --- neuroblastoma --- aging --- atrophy --- autophagy --- oxidative stress --- polyamines --- skeletal muscle --- spermidine --- spermine oxidase --- transgenic mouse --- immunity --- T-lymphocytes --- B-lymphocytes --- tumor immunity --- metabolism --- epigenetics --- autoimmunity --- polyamines --- ornithine decarboxylase --- polyamine analogs --- spermidine/spermine N1-acetyl transferase --- spermine oxidase --- bis(ethyl)polyamine analogs --- breast cancer --- MCF-7 cells --- transgenic mice --- polyamines --- MYC --- protein synthesis in cancer --- neuroblastoma --- protein expression --- antizyme 1 --- ornithine decarboxylase --- CRISPR --- human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) --- cell differentiation --- DFMO --- ornithine decarboxylase --- osteosarcoma --- polyamines --- polyamines --- polyamine metabolism --- antizyme --- antizyme inhibitors --- ornithine decarboxylase --- Snyder-Robinson Syndrome --- spermine synthase --- X-linked intellectual disability --- polyamine transport --- spermidine --- spermine --- transglutaminase

Multi-Sensor Information Fusion

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039283026 9783039283033 Year: Pages: 602 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-303-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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This book includes papers from the section “Multisensor Information Fusion”, from Sensors between 2018 to 2019. It focuses on the latest research results of current multi-sensor fusion technologies and represents the latest research trends, including traditional information fusion technologies, estimation and filtering, and the latest research, artificial intelligence involving deep learning.

Keywords

linear regression --- covariance matrix --- data association --- sensor fusing --- SLAM --- multi-sensor data fusion --- conflicting evidence --- Dempster–Shafer evidence theory --- belief entropy --- similarity measure --- data classification --- fault diagnosis --- Bar-Shalom Campo --- Covariance Projection method --- data fusion --- distributed architecture --- Kalman filter --- linear constraints --- inconsistent data --- user experience evaluation --- user experience measurement --- eye-tracking --- facial expression --- galvanic skin response --- EEG --- interaction tracker --- self-reporting --- user experience platform --- mix-method approach --- image fusion --- multi-focus --- weight maps --- gradient domain --- fast guided filter. --- Dempster-Shafer evidence theory (DST) --- uncertainty measure --- open world --- closed world --- Deng entropy --- extended belief entropy --- sensor data fusion --- orthogonal redundant inertial measurement units --- data fusion architectures --- sensors bias --- fire source localization --- dynamic optimization --- global information --- the Range-Point-Range frame --- the Range-Range-Range frame --- sensor array --- SINS/DVL integrated navigation --- unscented information filter --- square root --- state probability approximation --- most suitable parameter form --- deep learning --- data preprocessing --- Human Activity Recognition (HAR) --- Internet of things (IoT) --- Industry 4.0 --- trajectory reconstruction --- low-cost sensors --- embedded systems --- powered two wheels (PTW) --- safe trajectory --- data fusion --- health management decision --- grey group decision-making --- health reliability degree --- maintenance decision --- sensor system --- least-squares filtering --- least-squares smoothing --- networked systems --- random parameter matrices --- random delays --- packet dropouts --- multi-sensor system --- multi-sensor information fusion --- particle swarm optimization --- sensor data fusion algorithm --- distributed intelligence system --- multi-sensor time series --- deep learning --- machine health monitoring --- time-distributed ConvLSTM model --- spatiotemporal feature learning --- optimal estimate --- unknown inputs --- distributed fusion --- augmented state Kalman filtering (ASKF) --- soft sensor --- coefficient of determination maximization strategy --- expectation maximization (EM) algorithm --- Gaussian mixture model (GMM) --- alumina concentration --- multi-sensor joint calibration --- high-dimensional fusion data (HFD) --- supervoxel --- Gaussian density peak clustering --- sematic segmentation --- multisensor data fusion --- multitarget tracking --- GMPHD --- sonar network --- RFS --- attitude estimation --- Kalman filter --- land vehicle --- magnetic angular rate and gravity (MARG) sensor --- quaternion --- yaw estimation --- network flow theory --- multitarget tracking --- spectral clustering --- A* search algorithm --- RTS smoother --- integer programming --- Surface measurement --- multi-sensor measurement --- surface modelling --- data fusion --- Gaussian process --- multi-sensor network --- observable degree analysis --- information fusion --- nonlinear system --- hybrid adaptive filtering --- weighted fusion estimation --- square-root cubature Kalman filter --- information filter --- surface quality control --- multi-sensor data fusion --- cutting forces --- vibration --- acoustic emission --- signal feature extraction methods --- predictive modeling techniques --- attitude --- orientation --- estimation --- Kalman filter --- quaternion --- manifold --- image registration --- evidential reasoning --- belief functions --- uncertainty --- DoS attack --- industrial cyber-physical system (ICPS) --- security zones --- mimicry security switch strategy --- fixed-point filter --- extended Kalman filter --- nested iterative method --- Steffensen’s iterative method --- convergence condition --- vehicular localization --- target positioning --- high-definition map --- vehicle-to-everything --- intelligent and connected vehicles --- intelligent transport system --- image registration --- non-rigid feature matching --- local structure descriptor --- Gaussian mixture model --- aircraft pilot --- workload --- multi-source data fusion --- fuzzy neural network --- principal component analysis --- parameter learning --- drift compensation --- domain adaption --- feature representations --- electronic nose --- data fusion --- dual gating --- MEMS accelerometer and gyroscope --- cardiac PET --- out-of-sequence --- multi-target tracking --- random finite set --- gaussian mixture probability hypothesis density --- multisensor system --- Gaussian process regression --- Bayesian reasoning method --- Dempster–Shafer evidence theory (DST) --- uncertainty measure --- novel belief entropy --- multi-sensor data fusion --- decision-level sensor fusion --- electronic nose --- subspace alignment --- interference suppression --- transfer --- evidence combination --- time-domain data fusion --- object classification --- uncertainty --- multirotor UAV --- precision landing --- artificial marker --- pose estimation --- sensor fusion --- camera --- LiDAR --- calibration --- plane matching --- ICP --- projection --- data fusion --- data registration --- adaptive distance function --- complex surface measurement --- Gaussian process model --- Dempster–Shafer evidence theory --- conflict measurement --- mutual support degree --- Hellinger distance --- Pignistic vector angle --- multi-sensor data fusion --- multi-environments --- state estimation --- unmanned aerial vehicle

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