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Metal economy in host-microbe interactions

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194971 Year: Pages: 215 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-497-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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From simple inorganic catalysts to vital biological cofactors, divalent transition metals are instrumental to electron transfers, catalysis and signaling. Their natural ability to bind, exchange and react with organic molecules including oxygen requires from living cells to regulate uptake with metabolic activities, sensing and chaperoning, distributing and storing, or excreting excess to prevent detrimental biochemical reactions. Since transition metal deficiency and overload both limit cell growth it is no surprise that the immune system evolved a dual strategy, of metal starvation or intoxication, to thwart microbial invasions. Like environmental metal availability determined biological use it also shaped host-microbe metal economy: Fe and Mn, available early in evolution and still required rather ubiquitously, are generally withheld by host in response to infection; Zn and Cu, which became bioavailable later, essentially to eukaryotic cells may be bombarded toward invaders. Successful microbial pathogens have evolved elaborate counter-measures to cope with host metal defenses. This research topic aims to review and discuss metal currencies in host-microbe interactions focusing on new findings about micro-organism pathogenesis determinants in the face of host innate strategies to interfere with microbial physiology.

Keywords

metal --- Virulence --- host --- pathogen --- transporter --- exporter --- regulation

Thyroid hormone in brain and brain cells

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197026 Year: Pages: 106 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-702-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Thyroid hormone signaling has been known for a long time to be required for proper neurodevelopment and the maintenance of cognitive functions in the adult brain. As thyroid hormone excess or deficiency is usually well handled by clinicians, research dedicated to the neural function of thyroid hormone, have not been a priority within the field. This is changing mainly for two reasons. First, new genetic diseases have been discovered, altering thyroid hormone signaling in brain (THRA, MCT8, SBP2), with neurodevelopmental consequences which are currently incurable. Second, there is a growing concern that exposition of the general population to environmental chemicals able to interfere with thyroid hormone signaling compromises children neurodevelopment or induces central disorders in adults. Finally thyroid hormone is acting directly on gene transcription, by binding nuclear receptors, and therefore is an interesting entry point to identify genetic programs controlling brain development and function. Reaching a broad understanding of the multiple processes involving thyroid hormone in brain is a tremendous task which will necessitate a multidisciplinary approach: animal genetics, molecular biology, brain imaging, developmental biology, genomics, etc... This topic will be the occasion to combine recent contributions in the field and to identify priorities for future investigations. Due to devastating consequences of congenital hypothyroidism, the neurodevelopmental consequences of altered thyroid hormone signaling have been extensively studied over the years. The discovery of new genetic diseases, the concern about the possible neurotoxicity of environmental thyroid hormone disruptors, recently renewed the interest for an important research field. This Ebook gathers reviews and original data from experts in various disciplines. It provides a broad view of ongoing research and outlines key issues for future investigation.

Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Signaling in Neuroprotection

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9789811084874 9789811084881 Year: Pages: 191 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-8488-1 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: Smoking Research Foundation
Subject: Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-29 14:19:40
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This open access book presents the roles and mechanisms of signal transduction triggered by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) stimulation in neuroprotection against toxic effects of risk factors of neurodegenerative diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests that nAChRs in the CNS play important roles not only in excitatory neurotransmission but also in neuronal survival and related functions. Neuroprotection mediated by nAChRs in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease is the major topic of this book. In response to rapidly evolving areas in clinical and laboratory neuropharmacology and neurochemistry, this volume provides in-depth coverage of neuroprotection in basic research and future developments in the clinical application of effective neuroprotective strategies in neurodegenerative diseases. This work appeals to both basic and clinical researchers in several fields, such as neuroscience, neurology, and pharmacology.

Deciphering serotonin's role in neurodevelopment

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192762 Year: Pages: 131 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-276-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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One of the most challenging questions in neurobiology to tackle is how the serotonergic system steers neurodevelopment. With the increase in serotonergic anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs, serotonin was thought to signal adversity or to serve as an emotional signal. However, a vast amount of literature is accumulating showing that serotonin rather mediates neuroplasticity and plays a key role in early developmental processes. For instance, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serving as antidepressants, increase neurogenesis and trigger autism-related brain and behavioural changes during embryonic and perinatal exposure. Moreover, serotonin transporter gene variation is associated with alterations in corticolimbic neuroplasticity, autism-related neuroanatomical changes, as well alterations in social behaviour. Hence, the view is emerging that early life changes in serotonin levels influence the developmental course of socio-emotional brain circuits that are relevant for autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders. It is particularly exciting that the effects of embryonic and perinatal SSRI exposure and serotonin transporter gene variation on neurodevelopment seem to overlap to a large extent, at the cellular as well as the behavioural level. Yet, the precise mechanisms by which serotonin mediates neurodevelopment in the normal and ´autistic´ brain is unclear. Whereas serotonin has a placental origin during early gestation, serotonergic neurons develop during midgestation under the control of a cascade of transcription factors determining the fate of mid-hindbrain neurons that together for the Raphe nuclei. These neurons are among the earliest neurons to be generated, and because serotonin is released before any conventional synapses are formed, serotonin is suspected to influence crucial neurodevelopmental processes such as proliferation,migration and network formation. During late gestation they target their final destinations in, for instance, the cortex, where they affect the secretion of reelin. Reelin is a secreted extracellular matrix glycoprotein that helps to regulate processes of neuronal migration and positioning in the developing cortex by controlling cell–cell interactions. During the late prenatal and early postnatal phase (in rodents) serotonin further shapes the outgrowth of projecting neurons, synaptic connectivity, and the morphology of white fiber tracts. This is under the influence of transient serotonin transporter expression in (thalamo)cortical projections, sensory and prefrontal cortices and the hippocampus, as well as the local expression patterns of 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B and 5-HT3A receptors that each exert their specific roles in neuronal migration, remodeling of axons, and controlling dendritic complexity. There is also evidence that serotonin influences neural activity in locus ceroeleus neurons. Hence, serotonin appears to influence the development of both short- and long-distance connections in the brain. This Research Topic is devoted to studies pinpointing the neurodevelopmental effects of serotonin in relation to prenatal SSRI exposure, serotonin transporter gene variation, and autism/neurodevelopmental disorders, using a wide-variety of cellular and molecular neurobiological techniques like, (epi)genetics, knockout, knockdown, neuroanatomy, physiology, MRI and behaviour in rodents and humans. We especially encouraged attempts to cross-link the neurodevelopmental processes across the fields of prenatal SSRI exposure, serotonin transporter gene variation, and autism/neurodevelopmental disorders, as well as new views on the positive or beneficial effects on serotonin-mediated neurodevelopmental changes.

Role of Silicon in Plants

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453528 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-352-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Silicon (Si) is gaining increased attention in the farming sector because of its beneficial effects observed in several crop species, particularly under stress conditions. The magnitude of benefits is predominantly observed in plant species that can accumulate Si above a certain threshold. Therefore, deciphering the molecular mechanisms and genetic factors conferring a plant ability to take up silicon is necessary. Along these lines, several efforts have been made to identify the specific genes regulating Si uptake and distribution in plant tissues. This information finds its usefulness in identifying Si-competent species, and could eventually lead to improving this ability in low-accumulating species. The successful exploitation of Si in agriculture depends highly on the understanding of different Si properties including plant-available Si from the soil, transport within tissues, deposition in planta, and Si effect on different metabolic and physiological processes. In addition, a better comprehension of external factors influencing Si uptake and deposition in plant tissue remains important. A plant can take up Si efficiently only in the form of silicic acid and most soils, despite containing high concentrations of Si, are deficient in plant-available Si. Consequently, soil amendment with fertilizers rich in plant-available Si is now viewed as an affordable option to protect plants from the biotic and abiotic stresses and achieve more sustainable cropping management worldwide. Articles compiled in the present research topic touch upon several aspects of Si properties and functionality in plants. The information will be helpful to further our understanding of the role of Si and contribute to exploit the benefits plants derive from it.

Carbonic Anhydrases and Metabolism

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ISBN: 9783038978008 9783038978015 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-801-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Carbonic anhydrases (CAs; EC 4.2.1.1) are metalloenzymes present in all kingdoms of life, as they equilibrate the reaction between three simple but essential chemical species: CO2, bicarbonate, and protons. Discovered more than 80 years ago, in 1933, these enzymes have been extensively investigated due to the biomedical application of their inhibitors, but also because they are an extraordinary example of convergent evolution, with seven genetically distinct CA families that evolved independently in Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. CAs are also among the most efficient enzymes known in nature, due to the fact that the uncatalyzed hydration of CO2 is a very slow process and the physiological demands for its conversion to ionic, soluble species is very high. Inhibition of the CAs has pharmacological applications in many fields, such as antiglaucoma, anticonvulsant, antiobesity, and anticancer agents/diagnostic tools, but is also emerging for designing anti-infectives, i.e., antifungal, antibacterial, and antiprotozoan agents with a novel mechanism of action. Mitochondrial CAs are implicated in de novo lipogenesis, and thus selective inhibitors of such enzymes may be useful for the development of new antiobesity drugs. As tumor metabolism is diverse compared to that of normal cells, ultimately, relevant contributions on the role of the tumor-associated isoforms CA IX and XII in these phenomena have been published and the two isoforms have been validated as novel antitumor/antimetastatic drug targets, with antibodies and small-molecule inhibitors in various stages of clinical development. CAs also play a crucial role in other metabolic processes connected with urea biosynthesis, gluconeogenesis, and so on, since many carboxylation reactions catalyzed by acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase or pyruvate carboxylase use bicarbonate, not CO2, as a substrate. In organisms other than mammals, e.g., plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, CAs are involved in photosynthesis, whereas in many parasites (fungi, protozoa), they are involved in the de novo synthesis of important metabolites (lipids, nucleic acids, etc.). The metabolic effects related to interference with CA activity, however, have been scarcely investigated. The present Special Issue of Metabolites aims to fill this gap by presenting the latest developments in the field of CAs and their role in metabolism.

AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Signalling

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ISBN: 9783038976622 Year: Pages: 452 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-663-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 14:08:22
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Starting from a kinase of interest, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has gone far beyond an average biomolecule. Being expressed in all mammalian cell types and probably having a counterpart in every eukaryotic cell, AMPK has attracted interest in virtually all areas of biological research. Structural and biophysical insights have greatly contributed to a molecular understanding of this kinase. From good old protein biochemistry to modern approaches, such as systems biology and advanced microscopy, all disciplines have provided important information. Thus, multiple links to cellular events and subcellular localizations have been established. Moreover, the crucial involvement of AMPK in human health and disease has been evidenced. AMPK accordingly has moved from an interesting enzyme to a pharmacological target. However, despite our extensive current knowledge about AMPK, the growing community is busier than ever. This book provides a snapshot of recent and current AMPK research with an emphasis on work providing molecular insight, including but not limited to novel physiological and pathological functions, or regulatory mechanisms. Up-to-date reviews and research articles are included.

Keywords

exercise --- glucose uptake --- AMP-activated protein kinase --- TBC1D4 --- AS160 --- AMP-activated protein kinase --- developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) --- hypertension --- kidney disease --- nutrient-sensing signals --- oxidative stress --- renin-angiotensin system --- AMPK --- autophagy --- co-expression --- microarrays --- 3T3-L1 --- adipocyte --- differentiation --- AMPK --- tight junctions --- epithelial cells --- ZO-1 --- par complex --- MDCK --- nectin-afadin --- adherent junctions --- TAK1 --- AMPK --- phosphorylation --- AMPK kinase --- endothelial nitric-oxide synthase --- vasodilation --- phenylephrine --- vasoconstriction --- endothelial cells --- ionomycin --- AMPK --- liver --- lipid metabolism --- fatty acid oxidation --- indirect calorimetry --- atrophy --- regrowth --- sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) --- peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-? (PGC1?) --- heat shock protein --- fiber-type --- AMPK --- monocytes --- macrophages --- differentiation --- autophagy --- AML --- MDS --- CML --- CMML --- pregnancy --- catechol-O-methyltransferase --- 2-methoxyestradiol --- preeclampsia --- gestational diabetes mellitus --- AMPK --- IL-1? --- NLRP3 --- nutrition --- dietary fatty acids --- metabolic-inflammation --- nutrigenomics --- AMPK --- LKB1 --- autophagy --- proteasome --- hypertrophy --- atrophy --- skeletal muscle --- AICAR --- mTOR --- protein synthesis --- AMPK --- epigenetics --- chromatin remodeling --- histone modification --- DNA methylation --- medulloblastoma --- sonic hedgehog --- AMPK --- AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) --- spermatozoa --- motility --- mitochondria --- membranes --- signaling --- stress --- assisted reproduction techniques --- AMP-activated protein kinase --- epigenetics --- protein acetylation --- KATs --- HDACs --- acetyl-CoA --- NAD+ --- AMP-activated protein kinase --- glycogen --- exercise --- metabolism --- cellular energy sensing --- energy utilization --- liver --- skeletal muscle --- metabolic disease --- glycogen storage disease --- resveratrol --- AMPK --- hepatocyte --- liver --- steatosis --- transporter --- carrier --- pump --- membrane --- energy deficiency --- AMPK --- infection --- mycobacteria --- host defense --- energy metabolism --- AMPK --- activation loop --- AID --- ?-linker --- ?-linker --- CBS --- LKB1 --- CaMKK2 --- ?RIM --- hypothalamus --- adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase --- adipose tissue --- food intake --- adaptive thermogenesis --- beiging --- AMPK --- HDAC4/5 --- p70S6K --- MyHC I(?), motor endplate remodeling --- soleus muscle --- mechanical unloading --- hindlimb suspension --- AMPK --- synaptic activation --- PKA --- CREB --- soluble Adenylyl cyclase --- Immediate early genes --- transcription --- AMPK --- autophagy --- metabolism --- mTOR --- ULK --- AMP-activated protein kinase --- protein kinase B --- Akt --- insulin signalling --- A769662 --- endothelial function --- n/a

Molecular Computing and Bioinformatics

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039211951 / 9783039211968 Year: Pages: 390 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-196-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This text will provide the most recent knowledge and advances in the area of molecular computing and bioinformatics. Molecular computing and bioinformatics have a close relationship, paying attention to the same object but working towards different orientations. The articles will range from topics such as DNA computing and membrane computing to specific biomedical applications, including drug R&D and disease analysis.

Keywords

prostate cancer --- Mycoplasma hominis --- endoplasmic reticulum --- systems biology --- protein targeting --- biomedical text mining --- big data --- Tianhe-2 --- parallel computing --- load balancing --- bacterial computing --- bacteria and plasmid system --- Turing universality --- recursively enumerable function --- miRNA biogenesis --- structural patterns --- DCL1 --- protein–protein interaction (PPI) --- clustering --- protein complex --- penalized matrix decomposition --- avian influenza virus --- interspecies transmission --- amino acid mutation --- machine learning --- Bayesian causal model --- causal direction learning --- K2 --- brain storm optimization --- line graph --- Cartesian product graph --- join graph --- atom-bond connectivity index --- geometric arithmetic index --- P-glycoprotein --- efflux ratio --- in silico --- machine learning --- hierarchical support vector regression --- absorption --- distribution --- metabolism --- excretion --- toxicity --- image encryption --- chaotic map --- DNA coding --- Hamming distance --- Stenotrophomonas maltophilia --- iron acquisition systems --- iron-depleted --- RAST server --- NanoString Technologies --- siderophores --- gene fusion data --- gene susceptibility prioritization --- evaluating driver partner --- gene networks --- drug-target interaction prediction --- machine learning --- drug discovery --- microRNA --- environmental factor --- structure information --- similarity network --- bioinformatics --- identification of Chinese herbal medicines --- biochip technology --- DNA barcoding technology --- DNA strand displacement --- cascade --- 8-bit adder/subtractor --- domain label --- Alzheimer’s disease --- gene coding protein --- sequence information --- support vector machine --- classification --- adverse drug reaction prediction --- heterogeneous information network embedding --- stacking denoising auto-encoder --- meta-path-based proximity --- Panax ginseng --- oligopeptide transporter --- flowering plant --- phylogeny --- transcription factor --- multiple interaction networks --- function prediction --- multinetwork integration --- low-dimensional representation --- dihydrouridine --- nucleotide physicochemical property --- pseudo dinucleotide composition --- RNA secondary structure --- ensemble classifier --- diabetes mellitus --- hypoxia-inducible factor-1? --- angiogenesis --- bone formation --- osteogenesis --- protein transduction domain --- membrane computing --- edge detection --- enzymatic numerical P system --- resolution free --- molecular computing --- molecular learning --- DNA computing --- self-organizing systems --- pattern classification --- machine learning --- laccase --- Brassica napus --- lignification --- stress --- molecular computing --- bioinformatics --- machine learning --- protein --- DNA --- RNA --- drug --- bio-inspired

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