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Novel Therapeutic Targets and Emerging Treatments for Fibrosis

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453726 Year: Pages: 162 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-372-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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For decades we have known that the overgrowth, hardening and scarring of tissues (so-called fibrosis) represents the final common pathway and best histological predictor of disease progression in most organs. Fibrosis is the culmination of both excess extracellular matrix deposition due to ongoing or severe injury, and a failure to regenerate. An inadequate wound repair process ultimately results in organ failure through a loss of function, and is therefore a major cause of morbidity and mortality in disease affecting both multiple and individual organs.Whilst the pathology of fibrosis and its significance are well understood, until recently we have known little about its molecular regulation. Current therapies are often indirect and non-specific, and only slow progression by a matter of months. The recent identification of novel therapeutic targets, and the development of new treatment strategies based on them, offers the exciting prospect of more efficacious therapies to treat this debilitating disorder.This Research Topic therefore compromises several up-to-date mini-reviews on currently known and emerging therapeutic targets for fibrosis including: the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-family; epigenetic factors; Angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptors; mineralocorticoid receptors; adenosine receptors; caveolins; and the sphingosine kinase/sphingosine 1-phosphate and notch signaling pathways. In each case, mechanistic insights into how each of these factors contribute to regulating fibrosis progression are described, along with how they can be targeted (by existing drugs, small molecules or other mimetics) to prevent and/or reverse fibrosis and its contribution to tissue dysfunction and failure. Two additional reviews will discuss various anti-fibrotic therapies that have demonstrated efficacy at the experimental level, but are not yet clinically approved; and the therapeutic potential vs limitations of stem cell-based therapies for reducing fibrosis while facilitating tissue repair. Finally, this Research Topic concludes with a clinical perspective of various anti-fibrotic therapies for cardiovascular disease (CVD), outlining limitations of currently used therapies, the pipeline of anti-fibrotics for CVD and why so many anti-fibrotic drugs have failed at the clinical level.

Bilateral Vestibulopathy - Current Knowledge and Future Directions to Improve its Diagnosis and Treatment

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456284 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-628-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Many patients with bilateral vestibulopathy experience chronic oscillopsia due to failure of the vestibulo-ocular reflex and gait instability due to failure of vestibulo-spinal reflexes. There are numerous potential contributing factors, however, many cases remain idiopathic. The diagnosis of bilateral vestibulopathy is often delayed, placing patients at risk for unnecessary diagnostic tests and late initiation of treatment. Novel diagnostic tests offer new opportunities to characterize patterns of vestibular impairment. With the advent of new therapies, there is urgency to define and better understand patients with bilateral vestibulopathy. This collection includes topics such as an exploration of the large class of patients with bilateral vestibulopathy currently considered idiopathic, by identifying novel pathophysiologic mechanisms. Other topics include a historical perspective on early recognition, the impact of bilateral vestibular impairment on quality of life, and how advances in diagnostics are refining our understanding of what it means to have bilateral vestibulopathy. New developments in treatment strategies for patients with bilateral vestibulopathy are also featured.

Monitoring Pathophysiology in the Injured Brain

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454815 Year: Pages: 301 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-481-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Pathophysiological processes in brain-injured patients can be assessed with an array of methods, with a goal to identify potentially deleterious events, guide treatments and avoid further deterioration. This eBook provides an in-depth exploration into different aspects of neuro-critical care monitoring and how new tools and strategies may be utilized to improve patient outcomes.

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2018 (3)