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Le palmier à huile en plantation villageoise

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ISBN: 9782759219872 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.35690/978-2-7592-1987-2 Language: French
Publisher: éditions Quae
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-10 11:21:04
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The oil palm food-processing sector relies hugely on village plantations. Intended especially for small oil palm planters, this book provides the technical and practical bases for creating and developing their palm stand. It is organised into 44 sheets covering all aspects: pre-nursery, nursery, creating the plantation, young crops, plantation in production, harvesting clusters, main accidents (diseases, pests, nutrition), safety.

Le palmier à huile

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ISBN: 9782759216796 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.35690/978-2-7592-1679-6 Language: French
Publisher: éditions Quae
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-10 11:21:04
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Palm oil, extracted from the pulp of oil palm fruit, is the main source of vegetable fats and oils on the world market. Its ability to adapt to different climates and its productivity make it a major food safety component in Asian countries and the tropical belt. The book seeks to give the practitioner the necessary elements for setting up and operating a palm stand by combining the basic scientific and technical knowledge required to understand technical choices with the sustainable development priorities of the crop. Special mention is therefore made of actions to limit the potentially negative aspects and highlight the positive aspects of proposed techniques and strategies without forgetting efficient protection of people working in the plantations. Lastly, the essential factual components are given in terms of the use of oil palm products and their impact on human health.

Geophysical and Geotechnical Methods for Diagnosing Flood Protection Dikes

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ISBN: 9782759200351 Year: Pages: 124 DOI: 10.35690/978-2-7592-0035-1 Language: English
Publisher: éditions Quae
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-10 11:21:07
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This book presents a three-phase methodology for the efficient diagnosis of “dry dikesâ€&#157; (i.e. dykes built above normal water levels of the rivers that provide protection at time of flood). Although the principles of the method described herein were developed on dikes in France, they may be applied with confidence to flood protection dikes and levees in other countries around the world. Phase one of the methodology involves gathering as much information as possible about the dike from archive analysis, interviews with managers and inspections of the structures. This phase is essential in ensuring the high quality of the final diagnosis. The main aim of the second phase – the geophysical survey – is to divide up the dike into zones in order to identify sections of the structure that are vulnerable to irreversible damage during a flood because of their particular physical characteristics. The geophysical methods used must be capable of surveying over long distances and of revealing heterogeneities both within the dike and in its foundation. The third phase – the geotechnical investigation – consists of various tests and drillings that ascertain in situ the principal mechanical characteristics and properties of the materials that make up the structure. This guide is invaluable for anyone involved in dike safety

Architecture et croissance des plantes

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9782759226221 Year: DOI: 10.19182/quae/00001 Language: French
Publisher: éditions Quae
Subject: Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2019-09-13 11:21:03
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This book, in epub format, is the result of 40 years of research on modeling the development and growth of plants. The authors reveal, step by step, the process leading up to the creation of the GreenLab model and the conditions under which it can now be applied.&#xD;

Studying Tree Responses to Extreme Events

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451920 Year: Pages: 466 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-192-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Trees are among the longest-living organisms. They are sensitive to extreme climatic events and document the effects of environmental changes in form of structural modifications of their tissues. These modifications represent an integrated signal of complex biological responses enforced by the environment. For example, temporal change in stem increment integrates multiple information of tree performance, and wood anatomical traits may be altered by climatic extremes or environmental stress. Recent developments in preparative tools and computational image analysis enable to quantify changes in wood anatomical features, like vessel density or vessel size. Thus, impacts on their functioning can be related to climatic forcing factors. Similarly, new developments in monitoring (cambial) phenology and mechanistic modelling are enlightening the interrelationships between environmental factors, wood formation and tree performance and mortality. Quantitative wood anatomy is a reliable indicator of drought occurrence during the growing season, and therefore has been studied intensively in recent years. The variability in wood anatomy not only alters the biological and hydraulic functioning of a tree, but may also influence the technological properties of wood, with substantial impacts in forestry. On a larger scale, alterations of sapwood and phloem area and their ratios to other functional traits provide measures to detect changes in a tree’s life functions, and increasing risk of drought-induced mortality with possible impacts on hydrological processes and species composition of plant communities. Genetic variability within and across populations is assumed to be crucial for species survival in an unpredictable future world. The magnitude of genetic variation and heritability of adaptive traits might define the ability to adapt to climate change. Is there a relation between genetic variability and resilience to climate change? Is it possible to link genetic expression and climate change to obtain deeper knowledge of functional genetics? To derive precise estimates of genetic determinism it is important to define adaptive traits in wood properties and on a whole-tree scale. Understanding the mechanisms ruling these processes is fundamental to assess the impact of extreme climate events on forest ecosystems, and to provide realistic scenarios of tree responses to changing climates. Wood is also a major carbon sink with a long-term residence, impacting the global carbon cycle. How well do we understand the link between wood growth dynamics, wood carbon allocation and the global carbon cycle? Papers contribution to this Research Topic will cover a wide range of ecosystems. However, special relevance will be given to Mediterranean-type areas. These involve coastal regions of four continents, making Mediterranean-type ecosystems extremely interesting for investigating the potential impacts of global change on growth and for studying responses of woody plants under extreme environmental conditions. For example, the ongoing trend towards warmer temperatures and reduced precipitation can increase the susceptibility to fire and pests. The EU-funded COST Action STREeSS (Studying Tree Responses to extreme Events: a SynthesiS) addresses such crucial tree biological and forest ecological issues by providing a collection of important methodological and scientific insights, about the current state of knowledge, and by opinions for future research needs.

Understanding and Managing Emerald Ash Borer Impacts on Ash Forests

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783038971641 9783038971658 Year: Pages: 296 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-165-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-12 11:19:31
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The emerald ash borer (EAB) is rapidly spreading throughout Eastern North America and devastating ecosystems where ash is a component tree. This rapid and sustained loss of ash trees has already resulted in ecological impacts on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and is projected to be even more severe as EAB invades ash dominated wetlands of the western Great Lakes region. We propose a Special Issue that will address current research documenting ecological impacts of EAB in forest ecosystems, as well as management approaches to mitigate those impacts. Prospective authors are invited to contribute original researches to this Special Issue of Forests. Topics may include, but are not limited to: Managements of ash forests and potential replacements, nutrient and vegetation dynamics, greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration and cycling, hydrologic impacts, and pre or post-infestation silvicultural approaches or management strategies.

Wind Turbines

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ISBN: 9783038973607 / 9783038973614 Year: Pages: 328 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-361-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Electrical and Nuclear Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-11 09:36:07
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This issue is a continuation of the previous successful Special Issue “Wind Turbines 2013”. Similarly, this issue also focuses on recent advances in the wind energy sector on a wide range of topics, including: wind resource mapping, wind intermittency issues, aerodynamics, foundations, aeroelasticity, wind turbine technologies, control of wind turbines, diagnostics, generator concepts including gearless concepts, power electronic converters, grid interconnection, ride-through operation, protection, wind farm layouts - optimization and control, reliability, operations and maintenance, effects of wind farms on local and global climate, wind power stations, smart-grid and micro-grid related to wind turbine operation.

Hardwood Reforestation and Restoration

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038977308 / 9783038977315 Year: Pages: 192 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-731-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:28
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Hardwood-dominated temperate forests (mostly in Eastern North America, Europe, North East Asia) provide valuable renewable timber and numerous ecosystem services. Many of these forests have been subjected to harvesting or conversion to agriculture, sometimes over centuries, that have greatly reduced their former extent and diversity. Natural regeneration following harvesting or during post-agricultural succession has often failed to restore these forests adequately. Past harvesting practices and the valuable timber of some species have led to a reduction in their abundance. The loss of apex predators has caused herbivore populations to increase and exert intense browsing pressure on hardwood regeneration, often preventing it. Particularly important are fruit, nut and acorn bearing species, because of their vital role in forest food webs and biodiversity. Restoring hardwood species to natural forests in which they were formerly more abundant will require a number of forest management actions (e.g., resistant hybrids, deer exclosures/protectors, enrichment planting, underplanting, etc.). Similarly, reforesting areas that were once natural forests will also require new silvicultural knowledge. Global warming trends will intensify the need for interventions to maintain the diversity and function of temperate hardwood forests, as well as for increase hardwood reforestation.

Growth and Ecosystem Services of Urban Trees

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ISBN: 9783039215928 / 9783039215935 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-593-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Numerous studies indicate an accelerated growth of forest trees, induced by ongoing climate change. Similar trends were recently found for urban trees in major cities worldwide. Studies frequently report about substantial effects of climate change and the urban heat island effect (UHI) on plant growth. The combined effects of increasing temperatures, changing precipitation patterns, and extended growing season lengths, in addition to increasing nitrogen deposition and higher CO2 concentrations, can increase but also reduce plant growth. Closely related to this, the multiple functions and services provided by urban trees may be modified. Urban trees generate numerous ecosystem services, including carbon storage, mitigation of the heat island effect, reduction of rainwater runoff, pollutant filtering, recreation effects, shading, and cooling. The quantity of the ecosystem services is often closely associated with the species, structure, age, and size of the tree as well as with a tree’s vitality. Therefore, greening cities, and particularly planting trees, seems to be an effective option to mitigate climate change and the UHI. The focus of this Special Issue is to underline the importance of trees as part of the urban green areas for major cities in all climate zones. Empirical as well as modeling studies of urban tree growth and their services and disservices in cities worldwide are included. Articles about the dynamics, structures, and functions of urban trees as well as the influence of climate and climate change on urban tree growth, urban species composition, carbon storage, and biodiversity are also discussed.

Grammatical theory: From transformational grammar to constraint-based approaches

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Book Series: Textbooks in Language Sciences ISBN: 9783944675213 9783946234296 9783946234401 9783946234302 9783946234418 Year: Pages: 831 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_611693 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-07-13 11:01:16
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"This book introduces formal grammar theories that play a role in current linguistic theorizing (Phrase Structure Grammar, Transformational Grammar/Government & Binding, Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar, Lexical Functional Grammar, Categorial Grammar, Head-​Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, Construction Grammar, Tree Adjoining Grammar). The key assumptions are explained and it is shown how the respective theory treats arguments and adjuncts, the active/passive alternation, local reorderings, verb placement, and fronting of constituents over long distances. The analyses are explained with German as the object language.&#xD;&#xD;The second part of the book compares these approaches with respect to their predictions regarding language acquisition and psycholinguistic plausibility. The nativism hypothesis, which assumes that humans posses genetically determined innate language-specific knowledge, is critically examined and alternative models of language acquisition are discussed. The second part then addresses controversial issues of current theory building such as the question of flat or binary branching structures being more appropriate, the question whether constructions should be treated on the phrasal or the lexical level, and the question whether abstract, non-visible entities should play a role in syntactic analyses. It is shown that the analyses suggested in the respective frameworks are often translatable into each other. The book closes with a chapter showing how properties common to all languages or to certain classes of languages can be captured.&#xD;&#xD;The book is a translation of the German book Grammatiktheorie, which was published by Stauffenburg in 2010. "

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