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Domestic and international trials, 1700-2000: The trial in history, vol. II

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ISBN: 9781526137326 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Manchester University Press
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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How does the trial function? What are the tools, in terms of legal principle, scientific knowledge, social norms, and political practice, which underpin this most important decision-making process? This collection of nine essays by an international group of scholars explores these crucial questions. Focusing both on English criminal, military, and parliamentary trials, and upon national and international trials for war crimes, this book illuminates the diverse forces that have shaped trials during the modern era. The contributors approach their subject from a variety of perspectives - legal history, social history, political history, sociology, and international law. With an appreciation and understanding of the relevant legal procedures, they address wider issues of psychology, gender, bureaucracy, and international relations within the adjudicative setting. Their inter-disciplinary approach imparts to this book a breadth not usually seen in studies of the courtroom. Scholars and students of modern British history, political science, and international law, as well as legal history, will find these essays stimulating and informative. Judicial tribunals in England and Europe, 1200-1700: The trial in history, vol. I, edited by Dr Maureen Mulholland and Professor Brian Pullan, is also published by Manchester University Press.

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trial --- law --- legal --- judicial

Metastable Dynamics of Neural Ensembles

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454372 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-437-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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A classical view of neural computation is that it can be characterized in terms of convergence to attractor states or sequential transitions among states in a noisy background. After over three decades, is this still a valid model of how brain dynamics implements cognition? This book provides a comprehensive collection of recent theoretical and experimental contributions addressing the question of stable versus transient neural population dynamics from complementary angles. These studies showcase recent efforts for designing a framework that encompasses the multiple facets of metastability in neural responses, one of the most exciting topics currently in systems and computational neuroscience.

Videovernehmung kindlicher Zeugen - zur Praxis des Zeugenschutzgesetzes

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ISBN: 9783938616833 Year: DOI: 10.17875/gup2007-167 Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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The author examines the practice of video interrogation for children witnesses. Starting point for their empirical investigation is the question of whether the law reform is not only meant well, but can be implemented practically. Here the author builds on the regulations of the 1998 established law for witness protection, to its feasibility in terms of the intended effective protection of victims, particularly the avoidance of so-called secondary victimization (trauma), experts from the federal state of Lower Saxony - prosecutors, police and courts - report by their own experiencees. In five selected district courts of Lower Saxony, the author has also conducted an extensive document analysis on the use of video testimony, and concluded that the video technology in criminal proceedings is used rarely. In specific reform proposals „de lege ferenda“ also the recent regulations of the Law Reform Act of 2003 victims are included in the evaluative study.

Evidence in Civil Law - Poland

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Book Series: Law & Society ISBN: 9789616842549 Year: Pages: 50 DOI: 10.4335/978-961-6842-54-9 Language: English
Publisher: Institute for Local Self-Government and Public Procurement Maribor
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-09 21:53:00
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The text presents legal issues concerning evidence and evidence taking in Polish civil proceedings. General principles of Polish civil proceedings are discussed, as well as the principles concerning evidence. The evolution of Polish proceedings is obvious: it is getting more and more formal. The provisions about preclusion are presented in this context and the contradictory model of the proceedings is expressed strongly. There are some doubts if the evolution of Polish Code of Civil Proceedings goes in right direction. The problem of possible adoption of pre-trial regulations is also mentioned.

Attention, predictions and expectations and their violation: attentional control in the human brain

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193677 Year: Pages: 211 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-367-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
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In the burdened scenes of everyday life, our brains must select from among many competing inputs for perceptual synthesis - so that only the most relevant receive full attention and irrelevant (distracting) information is suppressed. At the same time, we must remain responsive to salient events outside our current focus of attention - and balancing these two processing modes is a fundamental task our brain constantly needs to solve. Both the physical saliency of a stimulus, as well as top-down predictions about imminent sensations crucially influence attentional selection and consequently the response to unexpected events. Research over recent decades has identified two separate brain networks involved in predictive top-down control and reorientation to unattended events (or oddball stimuli): the dorsal and ventral fronto-parietal attention systems of the human brain. Moreover, specific electrophysiological brain responses are known to characterize attentional orienting as well as the processing of deviant stimuli. However, many key questions are outstanding. What are the exact functional differences between these cortical attention systems? How are they lateralised in the two hemispheres? How do top-down and bottom-up signals interact to enable flexible attentional control? How does structural damage to one system affect the functionality of the other in brain damaged patients? Are there sensory-specific and supra-modal attentional systems in the brain? In addition to these questions, it is now accepted that brain responses are not only affected by the saliency of external stimuli, but also by our expectations about sensory inputs. How these two influences are balanced, and how predictions are formed in cortical networks, or generated on the basis of experience-dependent learning, are intriguing issues. In this Research Topic, we aim to collect innovative contributions that shed further light on the (cortical) mechanisms of attentional control in the human brain. In particular, we would like to encourage submissions that investigate the behavioural correlates, functional anatomy or electrophysiological markers of attentional selection and reorientation. Special emphasis will be given to studies investigating the context-sensitivity of these attentional processes in relation to prior expectations, trial history, contextual cues or physical saliency. We would like to encourage submissions employing different research methods (psychophysical recordings, neuroimaging techniques such as fMRI, MEG, EEG or ECoG, as well as neurostimulation methods such as TMS or tDCS) in healthy volunteers or neurological patients. Computational models and animal studies are also welcome. Finally, we also welcome submission of meta-analyses and reviews articles that provide new insights into, or conclusions about recent work in the field.

New treatment perspectives in autism spectrum disorders

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195305 Year: Pages: 161 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-530-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Pediatrics --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Developing novel and more effective treatments that improve quality of life for individuals with autism spectrum disorders is urgently needed. To date a wide range of behavioral interventions have been shown to be safe and effective for improving language and cognition and adaptive behavior in children and adolescents with ASD. However many people with ASD can receive additional benefit from targeted pharmacological interventions. One of the major drawback in setting up therapeutics intervention is the remarkable individual differences found across individuals with ASD. As a matter of fact the medications that are currently available address only symptoms associated with ASD and not the core domains of social and communication dysfunction. The pathogenesis paradigm shift of ASD towards synaptic abnormalities moved the research to pathway to disease that involve multiple systems and that are becoming the forefront of ASD treatment and are pointing toward the development of new targeted treatments. Some new therapeutics have been tested and others are being studied. In this context single gene disorders frequently associated with ASD such as Rett Syndrome, Fragile X and Tuberous Sclerosis have been of significant aid as neurobiology of these disorders is more clear and has a potential to shed light on the altered signaling in ASD. However much research is needed to further understand the basic mechanisms of disease and the relationship to idiopathic ASD. Clinical trials in children are underway with agents directed to core symptoms and to the associated disorders in the search of new therapeutics and progress are expected with possible new option for therapeutics in ASD in the upcoming future. Children and Adolescents with ASD and their families can provide important information about their experience with new treatments and this should be a priority for future research. In addition, research performed on genetic mouse models of ASD will keep on providing useful information on the molecular pathways disrupted in the disease, thus contributing to identify novel drug targets.

Evidence in Civil Law - Denmark

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Book Series: Law & Society ISBN: 9789616842464 Year: Pages: 31 DOI: 10.4335/978-961-6842-46-4 Language: English
Publisher: Institute for Local Self-Government and Public Procurement Maribor
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-09 10:57:16
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Danish civil procedure is based on a number of procedural law principles that affect the taking of evidence, including the principle of party presentation, the principle of disposition, and the principle of free assessment of evidence. The nature of Danish procedural law tends towards the adversarial model rather than the inquisitorial model. Evidence is taken during the hearing and the principle of directness applies to the procedure. Danish civil procedure is governed by the 1916 Administration of Justice Act, which was originally strongly influenced by German law. The role of the judge is to lead the process and also to intervene in proceedings when uncertainty exists, rather than just to facilitate the process by ensuring the parties abide by the laws of civil procedure.

Evidence in Civil Law - Finland

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Book Series: Law & Society ISBN: 9789616842471 Year: Pages: 46 DOI: 10.4335/978-961-6842-47-1 Language: English
Publisher: Institute for Local Self-Government and Public Procurement Maribor
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-09 20:25:35
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Finnish civil procedure has a close connection with other Scandinavian legal systems and co-operation between the States is active. In addition, the legislation, case-law and scholarly doctrine are more and more influenced by European co-operation through the EU and Council of Europe. The principles of free disposition, free assessment of evidence, audiatur altera pars, and burden of proof form the basis for an oral and direct public hearing. It follows from these due process principles that no methods of proof are forbidden but their relevance depends on the court’s assessment. The procedural doctrine in Finland is well established and has roots in the Swedish code of civil procedure of 1734, although it has gone through extensive reforms. On February 10, 2015 the Parliament of Finland passed the reform of chapter 17 of code of civil procedure, which contains the legislation on law of evidence. The extensive reform systematically updates and streamlines the previous legislation on evidence in addition to introducing new regulation e.g. on anonymous witnesses and banning invocation of evidence, which has been obtained by illegal means. The reform of chapter 17 concludes the systematic reform.

Vaccination Against Mycobacterial Diseases in Animals

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194766 Year: Pages: 94 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-476-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:33
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The two most prominent mycobacterial diseases in animals include bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis and Johne’s disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Erradication of both diseases has been hampered by a variety of factors. In many countries, the persistence of tuberculosis in cattle has been attributed to reservoirs of M. bovis in wildlife species. Brushtail possums, deer and badgers are notable examples of wildlife reservoirs for M. bovis. The difficulties in eliminating the wildlife reservoir for M. bovis further suggest the need for vaccination of farmed livestock. Vaccination of wildlife species has also been attempted with mixed results. Delivery of the vaccine to wildlife species appears to be a chief obstacle. Vaccination itself leads to complications for diagnostics. For example, when cattle are vaccinated with both BCG and a commercial Johne’s vaccine there is a biased toward the avian tuberculin skin test reaction. Despite these issues, BCG seems to be the clear standard for vaccination against M. bovis, yet many laboratories are investigating ways to improve on BCG. For Johne’s disease, the available commercial vaccines consist of whole-cell preparations in one form or another. But with the ability to generate directed knockouts of specific genes, a number of defined mutants have been constructed in a few laboratories. These should be tested and directly compared with each other and alongside commercial vaccine formulations to determine not only which vaccine is most protective, but which animal model is best for predicting protection in the target host. To this end, there has been a nation-wide, multi-institutional effort to test the best live, attenuated vaccine against Johne's disease in cattle, sheep and goats. This vaccine trial has spanned six years and was conducted in three phases. The first phase examined attenuation in bovine macrophages, the second phase was colonization of spleen and liver in mice and the third phase was protection from bacterial challenge in goats. Many new ideas and retrospective approaches have emerged from this unprecedented effort. These aspects will be captured in this Research Topic. In this Research Topic, we will seek articles on these above topics, but other issues surrounding vaccination of animals against mycobacteria will also be explored. These include immune parameters, correlates of protection, adjuvants and other vaccine formulations, etc.

Rechtsschutz und Grenzen des Rechtsschutzes in der Verwaltung und in der Verfassung

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ISBN: 9783902638519 Year: Pages: 140 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_437230 Language: German
Publisher: Jan Sramek Verlag Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 4368
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:50:04
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The starting point for my thesis, or rather the revised version of my thesis, was the fact that parties in a civil, criminal or administrative case have no legal entitlement either to the launch of judicial review proceedings (Normprüfungsverfahren) by the Austrian constitutional court (VfGH) or to the submission of questions of interpretation to the ECJ. The absence of any such legal entitlement raises the question of whether a party could not obtain a remedy by taking the direct route using an Individualantrag or individual application to the constitutional court in accordance with Art 139 or Art 140 B-VG (Austrian Federal Constitutional Act). In practice, however, this route is frequently blocked by the strict prerequisites for admissibility and formal requirements governing an individual application. This paper analyses whether the rigid admission procedure truly reflects the aim of the constitution/legislator. The focus of this paper is thus a detailed analysis of the Individualantrag. In the event of failure to obtain a mandatory preliminary ruling from the ECJ, VfGH practice recognises that this constitutes violation of the Austrian right to a hearing before an impartial and competent judge (Recht auf den gesetzlichen Richter). The thesis/the revised version of this thesis highlights a further interpretation of the above right to a hearing, an interpretation under which unlawful failure to launch a judicial review also constitutes breach of this right. Furthermore, the paper examines whether Art 13 ECHR (Right to an effective remedy) and Art 6 ECHR (Right to a fair trial) are also violated in the two aforementioned cases. Established case law states that claims for state liability on the grounds of state contravention of Community law are to be brought under the constitutional court's Kausalgerichtsbarkeit or jurisdiction for monetary claims against public bodies for which there is no other remedy, in accordance with Art 137 B-VG. In the light of this, this paper looks in detail at why unlawful failure to launch judicial review proceedings can also result in claims for state liability.It also uncovers shortcomings in legal remedy in the implementation of EU law. In the context of the above topics, which form the core of my thesis/the revised version of my thesis, the paper will introduce the system of legal remedy under the Austrian federal constitution including the key ordinary and extraordinary remedies under sovereign, public administration (Hoheitsverwaltung), briefly address legal remedy under private law administration (Privatwirtschaftsverwaltung), and finally outline other institutions with responsibility for legal relief such as the Volksanwaltschaft (Austrian Ombudsman Board) and the Rechnungshof (Austrian Court of Auditors).

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