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A Typological Perspective on Latvian Grammar

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ISBN: 9783110411317 9783110426984 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.2478/9783110411317 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Linguistics --- Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2015-04-13 10:28:34
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Theoretical studies of Latvian grammar have a great deal to offer to contemporary linguistics. Although traditionally Lithuanian has been the most widely studied Baltic language in diachronic and synchronic linguistics alike, Latvian has a number of distinctive features that can prove valuable both for historical, and perhaps even more so, for synchronic language research. Therefore, at the very least, contemporary typological, areal, and language contact studies involving Baltic languages should account for data from Latvian. Typologically, Latvian grammar is a classic Indo-European (Baltic) system with well-developed inflection and derivation. However, it also bears certain similarities to the Finno-Ugric languages, which can be reasonably explained by its areal and historical background. This applies, for example, to the mood system and its connections with modality and evidentiality in Latvian, also to the correlation between aspect and quantity as manifested in verbal and nominal (case) forms. The relations between debitive mood, certain constructions with reflexive verbs, and voice in Latvian are intriguing examples of unusual morphosyntactic features. Accordingly, the book focuses on the following topics: case system and declension (with emphasis on the polyfunctionality of case forms), gender, conjugation, tense and personal forms, aspect, mood, modality and evidentiality, reflexive verbs, and voice. The examples included in this book have been taken from the Balanced Corpus of Modern Latvian (Lidzsvarots musdienu latviešu valodas tekstu korpuss, available at www.korpuss.lv), www.google.lv, mass media, and fiction texts (see the List of language sources) without regard to relative frequency ratios.

Aspects of Linguistic Variation

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Book Series: Trends in Linguistics. Studies and Monographs [TiLSM] ISSN: 1861-4302 ISBN: 9783110607963 Year: Volume: 324 Pages: 285 DOI: 10.1515/9783110607963 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-12-19 16:52:49
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This volume brings together papers on linguistic variation. It takes a broad perspective, covering not only crosslinguistic and diachronic but also intralinguistic and interspeaker variation, and examines phenomena ranging from negation and TAM over connectives and the lexicon to definite articles and comparative concepts in well- and lesser-known languages. The collection thus contributes to our understanding of variation in general.

The Expression of Gender

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ISBN: 9783110307337 9783110354140 Year: Pages: 230 DOI: 10.1515/9783110307337 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter Grant: FP7 Ideas: European Research Council
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-02 11:21:05

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Gender is a fascinating category, which has grown steadily in importance across the humanities and social sciences. The book centres on the core of the category within language. Each of the seven contributions provides an independent account of a key part of the topic, ranging from gender and sex, gender and culture, to typology, dialect variation and psycholinguistics.

Chapter All typologies leak (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9783110219050 Year: DOI: 10.1515/9783110219067.5.343 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter Grant: FP7 Ideas: European Research Council - 230310
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-15 11:21:17

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In his (1921) book, Language, Sapir made the famous observation, “All grammars leak” (38). By this he meant that within the systematic paradigms, rules and routinized patterns of any grammar, we always find a few irregularities and surprises. The same can be said for linguistic typologies. Typological theories are critical tools for linguists, for exploring differences and similarities among languages, for learning about the cognitive factors and social practices that make languages the way they are, and for making predictions about other properties of languages that are members of a certain type. So what do we do when a typology leaks? This paper follows the spirit of such work as Aske (1989) on path types and Mithun and Chafe (1999) on grammatical relations types to understand the grammatical and functional motivations of language-internal typological diversity: that is, why and how a single language uses patterns and constructions of more than one type.&#xD;

Modal and Focus Particles in Sign Languages. A Cross-Linguistic Study

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Book Series: Sign Languages and Deaf Communities [SLDC] ISSN: 2192-516X ISBN: 9781614511816 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: 419 DOI: 10.1515/9781614511816 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-14 18:42:56
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Bringing together the research fields of sign language linguistics and information structure, this bookfocuses onthe realization of modal particles and focus particles in three European sign languages: German Sign Language, Sign Language of the Netherlands, and Irish Sign Language. As a cross-linguistic investigation based on a systematic methodological approach, thestudy analyzes the results particularly with regard to nonmanual features expressed by articulators such as the body, head, and face. The analyses of the data provide interesting insights into the syntax-prosody interface in sign languages and the interaction of syntax and prosody in general. Modal and focus particles have not been thoroughly investigated in sign languages. This volumepresents the first studyon this phenomenonand is thus an innovative contribution to the field. From a methodological and theoretical perspective, it draws onup-to-date linguistic tools and provides professionally elicited and annotated data. The bookaccounts for theresultswithin existing theoretical models. Given its specific focus on nonmanuals, the book contributes to recent debates on information structure and the syntax-prosody interface and will be of special interest to both sign and spoken language linguists.

A typology of marked-S languages

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Book Series: Studies in Diversity Linguistics ISBN: 9783944675190 Year: Pages: 281 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_533871 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2014-09-24 15:01:43
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Case-systems all over the world exhibit striking similarities. In most lan- guages intransitive subjects (S) receives less overt marking than one of the&#xD;two transitive arguments (agent-like A or patient-like P); the other one of&#xD;these two arguments is usually encoded by the same form as S. In some&#xD;languages the amount of overt marking is identical between S, A, and P.&#xD;But hardly ever does the S argument receive more overt marking than A&#xD;or P. Yet there are some languages that do not follow this general pattern.&#xD;This book is about those languages that behave differently, the marked-S&#xD;languages.&#xD;Marked-S languages are well-known to be found in East Africa, where&#xD;they occur in two different language families, Afro-Asiatic and Nilo-Sa-&#xD;haran. They can also be found in North-Western America and the Pacific&#xD;region. This book is the first investigation of marked S-languages that&#xD;treats the phenomenon on a global scale.&#xD;The study examines the functional distribution of the two main case-&#xD;forms, the form used for S (S-case) and the case-form of the transitive ar-&#xD;gument which receives less marking (the zero-case). It offers a very fine-&#xD;grained perspective considering a wide range of constructions. The con-&#xD;texts in which the case-marking patterns are investigated include nom-&#xD;inal, existential and locational predication, subjects in special discourse&#xD;function (e. g. focused constituents), subjects of passives and dependent&#xD;clauses, as well as the forms used for addressing someone (vocative form)&#xD;and for using a noun in isolation (citation form).&#xD;Apart from the functional distribution of case forms, the formal means&#xD;of marking are also considered. The main focus is on the synchronic de-&#xD;scription and comparison of marked-S languages, but historical explana-&#xD;tions for the unusual case-marking pattern are also discussed.

Further investigations into the nature of phrasal compounding

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Book Series: Morphological Investigations ISBN: 9783961100125 9783961100132 Year: Pages: 280 DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.885113 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-13 11:01:57
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This collection of papers on phrasal compounding is part of a bigger project whose aims are twofold: First, it seeks to broaden the typological perspective by providing data for as many different languages as possible to gain a better understanding of the phenomenon itself. Second, based on these data which clearly show interaction between syntax and morphology it aims to discuss theoretical models which deal with this kind of interaction in different ways. Models like Generative Grammar assume components of grammar and a clear-cut distinction between the lexicon (often including morphology) and grammar. Other models, like construction grammar, do not assume such components and are rather based on a lexicon including constructs. A comparison of these models on the basis of this phenomenon on the morphology-syntax interface makes it possible to assess their descriptive and explanatory power.

Sign Languages in Village Communities. Anthropological and Linguistic Insights

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Book Series: Sign Language Typology [SLT] ISSN: 2192-5186 ISBN: 9781614511496 Year: Volume: 4 Pages: 420 DOI: 10.1515/9781614511496 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-14 18:42:56
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The book is a unique collection of research on sign languages that have emerged in rural communities with a high incidence of, often hereditary, deafness. These sign languages represent the latest addition to the comparative investigation of languages in the gestural modality, and the book is the first compilation of a substantial number of different village sign languages.Written by leading experts in the field, the volume uniquely combines anthropological and linguistic insights, looking at both the social dynamics and the linguistic structures in these village communities. The book includes primary data from eleven different signing communities across the world, including results from Jamaica, India, Turkey, Thailand, and Bali. All known village sign languages are endangered, usually because of pressure from larger urban sign languages, and some have died out already. Ironically, it is often the success of the larger sign language communities in urban centres, their recognition and subsequent spread, which leads to the endangerment of these small minority sign languages. The book addresses this specific type of language endangerment, documentation strategies, and other ethical issues pertaining to these sign languages on the basis of first-hand experiences by Deaf fieldworkers.

The Use of Signing Space in a Shared Sign Language of Australia

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Book Series: Sign Language Typology [SLT] ISSN: 2192-5186 ISBN: 9781614515470 Year: Volume: 5 Pages: 303 DOI: 10.1515/9781614515470 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-14 18:42:56
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In this book, an Australian Aboriginal sign language used by Indigenous people in the North East Arnhem Land (Northern Territory) is described on the level of spatial grammar. Topics discussed range from properties of individual signs to structure of interrogative and negative sentences. The main interest is the manifestation of signing space - the articulatory space surrounding the signers - for grammatical purposes in Yolngu Sign Language.

Livestock Science

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ISBN: 9789535128632 9789535128649 Year: Pages: 162 DOI: 10.5772/62514 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Anthropology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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There has been a great increase in the consumption of animal products. The intention of agricultural activities is to provide safety and adequate food by respecting the environment. Although many questions are being raised concerning the sustainability of the world's food-animal agricultural resources. This book presents some in-depth reviews of selected topics in livestock science written by experts in their respective areas. The book is divided into eight chapters, consisting of topics in food-animal production systems, management of several animal products, health-threaten example by ticks in animals, and contaminants that may be found in animal foods. We hope that a wide variety of scientists, researchers, and others may benefit from this book.

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