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Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging

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ISBN: 9783038971276 9783038971283 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-128-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-21 09:01:06
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Among medical imaging modalities, such as computed tomography (CT) andmagnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound imaging stands out due to itstemporal resolution. Owing to the nature of medical ultrasound imaging, it has beenused for not only observation of the morphology of living organs but also functionalimaging, such as blood flow imaging and evaluation of the cardiac function. Ultrafastultrasound imaging, which has recently become widely available, significantlyincreases the opportunities for medical functional imaging. Ultrafast ultrasoundimaging typically enables imaging frame-rates of up to ten thousand frames persecond (fps). Due to the extremely high temporal resolution, this enablesvisualization of rapid dynamic responses of biological tissues, which cannot beobserved and analyzed by conventional ultrasound imaging. This Special Issueincludes various studies of improvements to the performance of ultrafast ultrasound

Fatigue crack detection on structural steel members by using ultrasound excited thermography = Erkennung von Ermüdungsrissen in Stahlbauteilen durch ultraschallangeregte Thermografie

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Book Series: Berichte zum Stahl- und Leichtbau / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Versuchsanstalt für Stahl, Holz und Steine, Stahl- und Leichtbau ISSN: 21987912 ISBN: 9783731504177 Year: Volume: 3 Pages: XVI, 334 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000048191 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 19:59:17
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Ultrasound excitation of structural steel members leads to localised energy dissipation at existent fatigue cracks and thus allows for thermographic flaw detection. Essential effects on the defect-selective heating, such as flaw size, plate thickness, crack mouth opening or static preload, are systematically investigated. Laser vibrometry measurements of the crack edges, theoretical modelling of frictional heating and numerical simulations contribute to the understanding of the involved physics.

Ultrasound Elastography

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ISBN: 9783038979104 / 9783038979111 Year: Pages: 144 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-911-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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The comparison between methods, evaluation of portal hypertension and many other questions are still open issues in liver elastography. New elastographic applications are under evaluation and close to being used in clinical practice. Strain imaging has been incorporated into many disciplines and EFSUMB guidelines are under preparation. More research is necessary for improved evidence for clinical applications in daily practice. The Special Issue published papers on recent advances in development and application of Ultrasound Elastography.

In Vivo Imaging in Pharmacological Research

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452378 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-237-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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The discovery and development of a biological active molecule with therapeutic properties is an ever increasing complex task, highly unpredictable at the early stages and marked, in the end, by high rates of failure. As a consequence, the overall process leading to the production of a successful drug is very costly. The improvement of the net outcome in drug discovery and development would require, amongst other important factors, a good understanding of the molecular events that characterize the disease or pathology in order to better identify likely targets of interest, to optimize the interaction of an active agent (small molecule or macromolecule of natural or synthetic origin) with those targets, and to facilitate the study of the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and toxicity of an active agent in suitable models and in human subjects. The objective of this Research Topic is to highlight new developments and applications of imaging techniques with the objective of performing pharmacological studies in vivo, in animal models and in humans. In the domain of drug discovery, the pharmacological and biomedical questions constitute the center of attention. In this sense, it is fundamental to keep in mind the strengths and limitations of each analytical or imaging technique. At the end, the judicious application of the technique with the aim of supporting the search for answers to manifold questions arising during a long and painstaking path provides a continuous role for imaging within the complex area of drug discovery and development.

The Chemistry of Imaging Probes

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455980 Year: Pages: 129 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-598-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Over the past decades, the field of molecular imaging has been rapidly growing involving multiple disciplines such as medicine, biology, chemistry, pharmacology and biomedical engineering. Any molecular imaging procedure requires an imaging probe that is an agent used to visualize, characterize and quantify biological processes in living systems. Such a probe typically consists of an agent that usually produces signal for imaging purpose, a targeting moiety, and a linker connecting the targeting moiety and the signaling agent.Many challenging problems of molecular imaging can be addressed by exploiting the great possibilities offered by modern synthetic organic and coordination chemistry and the powerful procedures provided by conjugation chemistry. Thus, chemistry plays a decisive role in the development of this cutting-edge methodology.Currently, the diagnostic imaging modalities include Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Computed Tomography (CT), Ultrasound (US), Nuclear Imaging (PET, SPECT), Optical Imaging (OI) and Photoacoustic Imaging (PAI). Each of these imaging modalities has its own advantages and disadvantages, and therefore, a multimodal approach combining two techniques is often adopted to generate complementary anatomical and functional information of the disease. The basis for designing imaging probes for a given application is dictated by the chosen imaging modality, which in turn is dependent upon the concentration and localization profile (vascular, extracellular matrix, cell membrane, intracellular, near or at the cell nucleus) of the target molecule. The development of high-affinity ligands and their conjugation to the targeting vector is also one of the key steps for pursuing efficient molecular imaging probes. Other excellent reviews, text and monographs describe the principles of biomedical imaging, focusing on molecular biology or on the physics behind the techniques. This Research Topic aims to show how chemistry can offer molecular imaging the opportunity to express all its potential.

Wine Aging Technologies

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ISBN: 9783038977483 Year: Pages: 120 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-749-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Wine aging is a desirable and valuable process, commonly used to improve wine quality, and traditionally carried out in oak wooden casks. The correct use of oak barrels and the ever-increasing demand for barrels in the different production areas of the world has led to a constant search for technological alternatives to reproduce the chemical and physical processes undergone by wines during their stay in barrels.The aim of this Special Issue is to publish a compilation of original research and revision works that cover different aspects of the ageing processes of wine in casks and other alternative systems that reproduce, with different technologies, the transformations that take place in the barrel.Important aspects to be addressed are:the type of technological solutions that exist for wine agingthe impact of these new technologies on the final productcomparison of the effect of emerging and traditional technologies on the wine ageddifferentiation of wines undergoing different systems to avoid fraudcharacterization of the new materials used in barrel productionaccelerated aging of wines with wood and oxygen

Breastfeeding and Human Lactation

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ISBN: 9783038979302 / 9783038979319 Year: Pages: 450 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-931-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Human lactation has evolved to produce a milk composition that is uniquely-designed for the human infant. Not only does human milk optimize infant growth and development, it also provides protection from infection and disease. More recently, the importance of human milk and breastfeeding in the programming of infant health has risen to the fore. Anchoring of infant feeding in the developmental origins of health and disease has led to a resurgence of research focused in this area. Milk composition is highly variable both between and within mothers. Indeed the distinct maternal human milk signature, including its own microbiome, is influenced by environmental factors, such as diet, health, body composition and geographic residence. An understanding of these changes will lead to unravelling the adaptation of milk to the environment and its impact on the infant. In terms of the promotion of breastfeeding, health economics and epidemiology is instrumental in shaping public health policy and identifying barriers to breastfeeding. Further, basic research is imperative in order to design evidence-based interventions to improve both breastfeeding duration and women’s breastfeeding experience.

Keywords

human milk --- breastfed infants --- body composition --- anthropometrics --- milk intake --- bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy --- ultrasound skinfolds --- maternal factors --- infant --- feeding --- preterm --- premature --- bottle --- human milk --- breastfeeding --- nipple shield --- infant feeding --- choline --- phosphocholine --- glycerophosphocholine --- lactation --- human milk --- infants --- adequate intake --- dietary recommendations --- Canada --- Cambodia --- breast milk --- galactogogues --- mothers of preterm infants --- breastfeeding --- attitudes --- knowledge --- midwifery --- formula supplementation --- justification of supplementation --- maternal wellbeing --- maternal distress --- post-partum distress --- breastfeeding support --- paternal role --- partner support --- infant --- Ireland --- passive immunity --- antibodies --- lactation --- peptidomics --- prematurity --- proteolysis --- breast milk --- preterm infant --- enteral nutrition --- lipids --- omega-3 fatty acids --- omega-6 fatty acids --- Docosahexaenoic acid --- Arachidonic acid --- long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids --- pregnancy --- breast milk --- lactation --- maternal diet --- n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid --- docosahexaenoic acid --- zinc deficiency --- plasma zinc --- lactating women --- zinc supplementation --- Quito --- Ecuador --- Andean region --- GDM --- lactation --- thyroid --- triiodothyronine --- thyroxine --- thyroid antibodies --- breastfeeding --- knowledge --- practice --- barriers --- social support --- professional support --- raw breast milk --- cytomegalovirus --- milk-acquired infections --- preterm infant --- adipokines --- adiponectin --- leptin --- breastfeeding --- infant --- body composition --- bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy --- ultrasound skinfolds --- human milk --- lactation --- human lactation --- expressing --- milk synthesis --- fat synthesis --- human milk --- milk metabolites --- lactation --- milk metabolomics --- human milk --- breastfeeding --- lactation --- lipids --- lipidomics --- mass spectrometry --- chromatography --- NMR spectroscopy --- human milk --- sex-specificity --- infant growth --- early life nutrition --- postnatal outcomes --- breastfeeding --- breast milk --- human milk --- colostrum --- IgA --- HGF --- TGF-? --- growth factors --- geographical location --- human milk --- potassium --- sodium --- ICP-OES --- ion selective electrode --- lactoferrin --- human milk --- infection --- immunity --- antisecretory factor --- human milk --- breast milk --- breastfeeding --- inflammation --- lactoferrin --- candida --- human milk --- milk cells --- immune cells --- antimicrobial proteins --- human milk --- breastfeeding --- ethnicity --- composition --- diet --- responsive feeding --- breastfeeding --- breastmilk --- babywearing --- co-sleeping --- mother–infant interaction --- feeding cues --- maternal responsiveness --- mother–infant physical contact --- proximal care --- fatty acids --- long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids --- endocannabinoids --- infant health --- breast milk --- casein --- whey --- protein --- breastfeeding --- infant --- body composition --- bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy --- ultrasound skinfolds --- human milk --- calculated daily intakes --- lactation --- human milk --- metabolites --- microbiome --- mode of delivery --- caesarean section --- proton nuclear magnetic resonance --- breastfeeding --- human milk composition --- body composition --- maternal diet --- infant growth --- appetite regulation --- N-acylethanolamines --- OEA --- SEA --- PEA --- breastfeeding --- human milk composition --- obesity --- Breastfeeding --- human lactation --- lactation --- human milk --- breast milk --- milk composition

Wine Fermentation

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ISBN: 9783038976745 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-675-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biotechnology --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 11:07:22
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue Wine Fermentation that was published in Fermentation

Innovative Extraction Techniques and Hyphenated Instrument Configuration for Complex Matrices Analysis

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ISBN: 9783039210848 / 9783039210855 Year: Pages: 308 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-085-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The present Special Issue, “Innovative Extraction Techniques and Hyphenated Instrument Configuration for Complex Matrices Analysis”, aims to collect and to disseminate some of the most significant and recent contributions in the interdisciplinary area of innovative extraction procedures from complex matrices followed by validated analytical methods using hyphenated instrument configurations to support the optimization of the whole process and the scale-up possibility

Keywords

branched-chain keto acids --- serum --- muscle --- HPLC-Q-TOF/MS --- wood --- odor --- volatile organic compounds --- gas chromatography-olfactometry --- Wuyi Rock tea --- quality --- UPLC-QTOF MS --- UPLC-QqQ MS --- metabolite profiling --- metabolomics --- cluster analysis --- cultivars --- Lycium ruthenicun --- flavonoid --- ruthenicunoid A --- SIRT1 --- Asphodeline lutea --- HPLC-PDA --- heavy metals --- tyrosinase --- diabetes --- neurodegenerative disease --- color analysis --- pigments --- MAE --- HPLC-PDA --- SFE --- Thymus algeriensis --- rare earth elements --- flow injection --- inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry --- seawater --- Hericium erinaceuns mycelium --- high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) --- genistein --- daidzein --- Fe3O4 --- modification --- alginate --- alkaloid --- ultrasound assisted extraction --- gelatin --- actinidin --- bovine hide --- physicochemical properties --- gel strength --- Semen Cuscutae --- ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry --- chlorogenic acids --- flavonoids --- steamed Panax notoginseng --- saponins --- extraction --- optimization --- antioxidant activity --- response surface methodology --- hematopoiesis --- microwave processing --- response surface methodology --- minor ginsenosides --- blood-enriching activity --- hemostatic activity --- ionic liquids --- sample preparation --- microextraction --- solid-phase microextraction --- dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction --- single-drop microextraction --- stir bar sorptive extraction --- stir cake sorptive extraction --- rosuvastatin --- metformin --- HILIC --- LC-MS --- therapeutic drug monitoring --- oolong tea --- Tieguanyin tea cultivar --- metabolite profiling --- UPLC-QTOF MS --- metabolomics --- Ajuga genevensis --- near-infrared spectroscopy --- dry extract --- fluid bed process --- microNIR --- in-line monitoring --- total polyphenolic content --- antioxidant --- flavonoids --- mouse melanoma B16 cells --- Panax notoginseng --- surfactant --- n/a --- ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry --- GHB --- GHB glucuronide --- nails --- endogenous values --- walnut septum --- polyphenols --- phytosterols --- HPLC-MS/MS --- Ultra-Turrax extraction --- biological activity --- antioxidant activity --- experimental design --- optimization --- phytochemicals

Entropy in Image Analysis

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ISBN: 9783039210923 / 9783039210930 Year: Pages: 456 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-093-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Image analysis is a fundamental task for extracting information from images acquired across a range of different devices. Since reliable quantitative results are requested, image analysis requires highly sophisticated numerical and analytical methods—particularly for applications in medicine, security, and remote sensing, where the results of the processing may consist of vitally important data. The contributions to this book provide a good overview of the most important demands and solutions concerning this research area. In particular, the reader will find image analysis applied for feature extraction, encryption and decryption of data, color segmentation, and in the support new technologies. In all the contributions, entropy plays a pivotal role.

Keywords

image retrieval --- multi-feature fusion --- entropy --- relevance feedback --- chaotic system --- image encryption --- permutation-diffusion --- SHA-256 hash value --- dynamic index --- entropy --- keyframes --- Shannon’s entropy --- sign languages --- video summarization --- video skimming --- image encryption --- multiple-image encryption --- two-dimensional chaotic economic map --- security analysis --- image encryption --- chaotic cryptography --- cryptanalysis --- chosen-plaintext attack --- image information entropy --- blind image quality assessment (BIQA) --- information entropy, natural scene statistics (NSS) --- Weibull statistics --- discrete cosine transform (DCT) --- ultrasound --- hepatic steatosis --- Shannon entropy --- fatty liver --- metabolic syndrome --- multi-exposure image fusion --- texture information entropy --- adaptive selection --- patch structure decomposition --- image encryption --- time-delay --- random insertion --- information entropy --- chaotic map --- uncertainty assessment --- deep neural network --- random forest --- Shannon entropy --- positron emission tomography --- reconstruction --- field of experts --- additive manufacturing --- 3D prints --- 3D scanning --- image entropy --- depth maps --- surface quality assessment --- machine vision --- image analysis --- Arimoto entropy --- free-form deformations --- normalized divergence measure --- gradient distributions --- nonextensive entropy --- non-rigid registration --- pavement --- macrotexture --- 3-D digital imaging --- entropy --- decay trend --- discrete entropy --- infrared images --- low contrast --- multiscale top-hat transform --- image encryption --- DNA encoding --- chaotic cryptography --- cryptanalysis --- image privacy --- computer aided diagnostics --- colonoscopy --- Rényi entropies --- structural entropy --- spatial filling factor --- binary image --- Cantor set --- Hénon map --- Minkowski island --- prime-indexed primes --- Ramanujan primes --- Kapur’s entropy --- color image segmentation --- whale optimization algorithm --- differential evolution --- hybrid algorithm --- Otsu method --- image encryption --- dynamic filtering --- DNA computing --- 3D Latin cube --- permutation --- diffusion --- fuzzy entropy --- electromagnetic field optimization --- chaotic strategy --- color image segmentation --- multilevel thresholding --- contrast enhancement --- sigmoid --- Tsallis statistics --- q-exponential --- q-sigmoid --- q-Gaussian --- ultra-sound images --- person re-identification --- image analysis --- hash layer --- quantization loss --- Hamming distance --- cross-entropy loss --- image entropy --- Shannon entropy --- generalized entropies --- image processing --- image segmentation --- medical imaging --- remote sensing --- security

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