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Neural Circuits Revealed

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195619 Year: Pages: 181 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-561-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Abstract

Deciphering anatomical and functional maps in the nervous system is a main challenge for both clinical and basic neuroscience. Modern approaches to mark and manipulate neurons are bringing us closer than ever to better understand nervous system wiring diagrams. Here we present both original research and review material on current work in this area. Together, this eBook aims to provide a comprehensive snapshot of some of the tools and technologies currently available to investigate brain wiring and function, as well as discuss ongoing challenges the field will be confronted with in the future.

Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine

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ISBN: 9783038977827 9783038977834 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-783-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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Abstract

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several fungal species. They can contaminate human food and animal feed, and have been a threat for thousands of years. The gastrointestinal tract is the first target when ingesting mycotoxin-contaminated food or feed. As unlikely as it sounds, the investigations concerning the effects of mycotoxins on the intestine are still in their early stages. This book gathers the most recent advances related to the characterization of the intestinal toxicity of mycotoxins. Substantial data assembled on the damage caused to a number of histological structures and functions of the intestine remove any remaining doubt about this organ being a primary target for the toxicity of mycotoxins. An interesting overview of the detrimental effects of mycotoxins on the gut-hosted microbiota—now regarded as a fully-fledged organ associated with the gut—is also given. Finally, outstanding contributions in this book address questions relating to the suitability of current regulations to protect against alterations of the intestine, and to the efficacy assessment of new detoxification strategies using the intestinal toxicity of mycotoxins as a relevant endpoint.

Keywords

mice --- aflatoxin B1 --- intestinal bacterial flora --- response --- Clostridium sp. WJ06 --- deoxynivalenol --- pig --- intestinal morphology --- microbial diversity --- aflatoxin M1 --- ochratoxin A --- intestinal epithelial cells --- tight junction --- permeability --- ileum --- jejunum --- deoxynivalenol --- piglet --- contaminated feed --- tight junction --- aflatoxin B1 --- small intestine --- histopathological lesions --- ultrastructural changes --- toll-like receptors --- T-2 toxin --- enteric nervous system --- pig --- vasoactive intestinal polypeptide --- mycotoxins --- zearalenone --- deoxynivalenol --- histology --- ultrastructure --- large intestine --- pig --- Claviceps --- liver --- digestive tract --- mycotoxin --- sclerotia --- ergot alkaloids --- toxicity --- deoxynivalenol --- Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii CNCM I-1079 --- intestine --- transcriptome --- inflammation --- oxidative stress --- lipid metabolism --- fumonisin --- microbiota --- pigs --- MiSeq 16S rDNA sequencing --- intestinal microbiota --- hydrogen-rich water --- lactulose --- Fusarium mycotoxins --- piglets --- functional oligosaccharides --- mycotoxins --- swine --- explant technique --- intestinal morphology --- goblet cells --- deoxynivalenol --- zearalenone --- pig --- colon microbiota --- Lactobacillus --- detoxification --- zearalenone --- doses --- caecal water --- genotoxicity --- pre-pubertal gilts --- atlantic salmon --- deoxynivalenol --- feed --- intestine --- PCR --- proliferating cell nuclear antigen --- suppressor of cytokine signaling --- tight junctions --- Zearalenone --- N-acetylcysteine --- SIEC02 cells --- Mitochondrial apoptosis --- n/a

Plant Innate Immunity 2.0

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ISBN: 9783038975809 Year: Pages: 386 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-581-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Abstract

Plants possess a rather complex and efficient immune system. During their evolutionary history, plants have developed various defense strategies in order to recognize and distinguishing between self and non-self, and face pathogens and animal pests. Accordingly, to study the plant innate immunity represents a new frontier in the plant pathology and crop protection fields. This book is structured in 6 sections. The first part introduces some basic and general aspects of the plant innate immunity and crop protection. Sections 2–5 focus on fungal and oomycete diseases (section 2), bacterial and phytoplasma diseases (section 3), virus diseases (section 4), and insect pests (section 5), with a number of case studies and plant–pathogen/pest interactions. The last section deals with plant disease detection and control. The book aims to highlight new trends in these relevant areas of plant sciences, providing a global perspective that is useful for future and innovative ideas.

Keywords

dieback --- disease management --- Lasiodiplodia theobromae --- mango --- pathogenicity --- Bromoviridae --- plant–virus interactions --- plant defense response --- Prune dwarf virus --- replication process --- systemic and local movement --- plant proteases --- plant immunity --- MTI --- ETI --- SAR --- ISR --- RNA silencing --- RTNLB --- Agrobacterium --- biotic stress responses --- calcium --- calcium signature --- calmodulin --- CMLs --- CDPKs --- plant immunity --- symbiosis --- cell wall --- cellulose synthase --- hypersensitive response --- pathogenesis related-protein 2 --- plant-virus interaction --- Potato virus Y --- ultrastructure --- aphid resistance --- Arabidopsis thaliana --- hydroperoxide lyase --- Macrosiphum euphorbiae --- Myzus persicae --- Solanum lycopersicum --- ?-3 fatty acid desaturase --- Arabidopsis --- azelaic acid --- glycerol-3-phosphate --- light dependent signalling --- methyl salicylate --- N-hydroxypipecolic acid --- pipecolic acid --- salicylic acid --- SAR signalling --- spectral distribution of light --- tobacco --- rice --- Chilo suppressalis --- mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 --- jasmonic acid --- salicylic acid --- ethylene --- herbivore-induced defense response --- downy mildew --- grapevine --- PRRs --- PTI --- VaHAESA --- bismerthiazol --- rice --- induced defense responses --- chemical elicitors --- Sogatella furcifera --- defense-related signaling pathways --- tomato gray mold --- tomato leaf mold --- Bacillus subtilis --- biological control --- Capsicum annuum --- Ralstonia solanacearum --- CaWRKY40b --- immunity --- negative regulator --- transcriptional modulation --- Capsicum annuum --- CaWRKY22 --- immunity --- Ralstonia Solanacearum --- WRKY networks --- metabolomics --- plant defence --- plant–microbe interactions --- priming --- pre-conditioning --- citrus decline disease --- Citrus sinensis --- Bakraee --- “Candidatus Liberibacter” --- “Candidatus Phytoplasma” --- microbiota --- innate immunity --- basal defense --- rice blast --- Magnaporthe oryzae --- proteomics --- iTRAQ --- candidate disease resistance gene --- disease resistance --- downy mildew --- garden impatiens --- leaf transcriptome --- New Guinea impatiens --- RNA-Seq --- polyphenol oxidase --- Camellia sinensis --- Ectropis obliqua --- wounding --- regurgitant --- rice --- OsGID1 --- gibberellin --- herbivore-induced plant defenses --- Nilaparvata lugens --- plant protection products --- agrochemicals --- sustainable crop protection --- food security

Physiological Responses to Abiotic and Biotic Stress in Forest Trees

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039215140 / 9783039215157 Year: Pages: 294 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-515-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Abstract

As sessile organisms, plants have to cope with a multitude of natural and anthropogenic forms of stress in their environment. Due to their longevity, this is of particular significance for trees. As a consequence, trees develop an orchestra of resilience and resistance mechanisms to biotic and abiotic stresses in order to support their growth and development in a constantly changing atmospheric and pedospheric environment. The objective of this Special Issue of Forests is to summarize state-of-art knowledge and report the current progress on the processes that determine the resilience and resistance of trees from different zonobiomes as well as all forms of biotic and abiotic stress from the molecular to the whole tree level.

Keywords

drought --- mid-term --- non-structural carbohydrate --- soluble sugar --- starch --- Pinus massoniana --- salinity --- Carpinus betulus --- morphological indices --- gas exchange --- osmotic adjustment substances --- antioxidant enzyme activity --- ion relationships --- Populus simonii Carr. (poplar) --- intrinsic water-use efficiency --- tree rings --- basal area increment --- long-term drought --- hydrophilic polymers --- Stockosorb --- Luquasorb --- Konjac glucomannan --- photosynthesis --- ion relation --- Fagus sylvatica L. --- Abies alba Mill. --- N nutrition --- mixed stands --- pure stands --- soil N --- water relations --- 24-epiBL application --- salt stress --- ion contents --- chloroplast ultrastructure --- photosynthesis --- Robinia pseudoacacia L. --- elevation gradient --- forest type --- growth --- leaf properties --- Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc. --- Heterobasidion parviporum --- Heterobasidion annosum --- Norway spruce --- disturbance --- water availability --- pathogen --- infection --- Carpinus turczaninowii --- salinity treatments --- ecophysiology --- photosynthetic responses --- organic osmolytes --- ion homeostasis --- antioxidant enzymes --- glutaredoxin --- subcellular localization --- expression --- tapping panel dryness --- defense response --- rubber tree --- Ca2+ signal --- drought stress --- living cell --- Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) --- plasma membrane Ca2+ channels --- signal network --- Aleppo pine --- Greece --- photosynthesis --- water potential --- ?13C --- sap flow --- canopy conductance --- climate --- molecular cloning --- functional analysis --- TCP --- DELLA --- GA-signaling pathway --- Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. --- wood formation --- abiotic stress --- nutrition --- gene regulation --- tree --- bamboo forest --- cold stress --- physiological response --- silicon fertilization --- plant tolerance --- reactive oxygen species --- antioxidant activity --- proline --- Populus euphratica --- salt stress --- salicylic acid --- malondialdehyde --- differentially expressed genes --- n/a

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