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Water Resources in a Variable and Changing Climate

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783038420835 9783038420828 Year: Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Geography --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-05 14:58:28
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Climate change will bring about significant changes to the capacity of, and the demand on, water resources. The resulting changes include increasing climate variability that is expected to affect hydrologic conditions. The effects of climate variability on various meteorological variables have been extensively observed in many regions around the world. Atmospheric circulation, topography, land use and other regional features modify global changes to produce unique patterns of change at the regional scale. As the future changes to these water resources cannot be measured in the present, hydrological models are critical in the planning required to adapt our water resource management strategies to future climate conditions. Such models include catchment runoff models, reservoir management models, flood prediction models, groundwater recharge and flow models, and crop water balance models. In water-scarce regions such as Australia, urban water systems are particularly vulnerable to rapid population growth and climate change. In the presence of climate change induced uncertainty, urban water systems need to be more resilient and multi-sourced. Decreasing volumetric rainfall trends have an effect on reservoir yield and operation practices. Severe intensity rainfall events can cause failure of drainage system capacity and subsequent urban flood inundation problems. Policy makers, end users and leading researchers need to work together to develop a consistent approach to interpreting the effects of climate variability and change on water resources.This Special Edition includes papers by international experts who have investigated climate change impacts on a variety of systems including irrigation and water markets, land use changes and vegetation growth, lake water levels and quality and sea level rises. These investigations have been conducted in many regions of the world including the USA, China, East Africa, Australia, Taiwan and the Sultanate of Oman.

Neuronal and Psychological Underpinnings of Pathological Gambling

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193202 Year: Pages: 132 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-320-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Like in the case of drugs, gambling hijacks reward circuits in a brain which is not prepared to receive such intense stimulation. Dopamine is normally released in response to reward and uncertainty in order to allow animals to stay alive in their environment – where rewards are relatively unpredictable. In this case, behavior is regulated by environmental feedbacks, leading animals to persevere or to give up. In contrast, drugs provide a direct, intense pharmacological stimulation of the dopamine system that operates independently of environmental feedbacks, and hence causes “motivational runaways”. With respect to gambling, the confined environment experienced by gamblers favors the emergence of excitatory conditioned cues, so that positive feedbacks take over negative feedbacks. Although drugs and gambling may act differently, their abnormal activation of reward circuitry generates an underestimation of negative consequences and promotes the development of addictive/compulsive behavior. In Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease, dopamine-related therapies may disrupt these feedbacks on dopamine signalling, potentially leading to various addictions, including pathological gambling. The goal of this Research Topic is to further our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the development of pathological gambling. This eBook contains a cross-disciplinary collection of research and review articles, ranging in scope from animal behavioral models to human imaging studies.

Mistrust

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Book Series: Malinowski Monographs ISBN: 9780997367522 Year: Language: English
Publisher: HAU Books Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 101684
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-16 11:02:30
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Trust occupies a unique place in contemporary discourse. Seen as both necessary and good, it is variously depicted as enhancing the social fabric, lowering crime rates, increasing happiness, and generating prosperity. It allows for complex political systems, permits human communication, underpins financial instruments and economic institutions, and holds society itself together. There is scant space within this vision for a nuanced discussion of mistrust. With few exceptions, it is treated as little more than a corrosive absence. This monograph, instead, proposes an ethnographic and conceptual exploration of mistrust as a legitimate epistemological stance in its own right. It examines the impact of mistrust on practices of conversation and communication, friendship and society, as well as politics and cooperation, and suggests that suspicion, doubt, and uncertainty can also ground ways of organizing human society and cooperating with others.

Time Predictions: Understanding and Avoiding Unrealism in Project Planning and Everyday Life

Authors: ---
Book Series: Simula SpringerBriefs on Computing ISBN: 9783319749525 9783319749532 Year: Volume: 5 Pages: 110 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-74953-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: Simula Research Laboratory
Subject: Statistics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-20 18:40:07
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Predicting the time needed to complete a project, task or daily activity can be difficult and people frequently underestimate how long an activity will take. This book sheds light on why and when this happens, what we should do to avoid it and how to give more realistic time predictions. It describes methods for predicting time usage in situations with high uncertainty, explains why two plus two is usually more than four in time prediction contexts, reports on research on time prediction biases, and summarizes the evidence in support of different time prediction methods and principles. Based on a comprehensive review of the research, it is the first book summarizing what we know about judgment-based time predictions.Large parts of the book are directed toward people wishing to achieve better time predictions in their professional life, such as project managers, graphic designers, architects, engineers, film producers, consultants, software developers, or anyone else in need of realistic time usage predictions. It is also of benefit to those with a general interest in judgment and decision-making or those who want to improve their ability to predict and plan ahead in daily life.

11 The Triad of Uncertainty (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 14 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch11 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:09
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"This chapter sheds light on interaction (samhandling) between scientists&#xD;and politicians. What happens when the latter gives the former a role in an effort to&#xD;ensure that society is not exposed to an unforeseen calamity? The chapter has two&#xD;objectives – one conceptual and one pertaining to the analysis of public policy in a&#xD;particular context. First, distinctions are drawn between three dimensions of uncertainty&#xD;about the consequences of action. The aim is to create a clearer understanding&#xD;of what is meant by assertions that policy is made under conditions of uncertainty.&#xD;Secondly, the political implications of uncertainty are charted with particular reference&#xD;to the choice of climate policy. The analysis targets the way the Intergovernmental&#xD;Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has handled the task of publicizing the&#xD;effect that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases have on the atmosphere.&#xD;The conclusion is that the IPCC’s communication with politicians and the public&#xD;has contributed to, rather than ameliorated, the problem of uncertainty that stands&#xD;in the way of resolute political action."&#xD;

Decision Support for Biomass Value Chains for the Production of Biochemicals Considering Uncertainties

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Book Series: Produktion und Energie / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Institut für Industriebetriebslehre und industrielle Produktion u. Deutsch-Französisches Institut für Umweltforschung ISSN: 21942404 ISBN: 9783731508205 Year: Volume: 26 Pages: XXVII, 429 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000084346 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-28 18:37:01
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Value chains of bio-based chemicals are very complex. Hence, a strategic decision support tool for bioeconomic site and logistics planning is developed. It includes an integrated model and three sub-models: optimization for the locations and capacities of pretreatment plants, technical for technical and economic evaluations, risk for the evaluation of uncertainties. As a result, the model suggests a nearly optimal location and the associated logistic network for the production of biochemicals.

Theory and Applications of Ordered Fuzzy Numbers: A Tribute to Professor Witold Kosiński

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing ISSN: 1434-9922 / 1860-0808 ISBN: 9783319596136 9783319596143 Year: Pages: 322 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-59614-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Mathematics --- Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-24 16:56:25
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This open access book offers comprehensive coverage on Ordered Fuzzy Numbers, providing readers with both the basic information and the necessary expertise to use them in a variety of real-world applications. The respective chapters, written by leading researchers, discuss the main techniques and applications, together with the advantages and shortcomings of these tools in comparison to other fuzzy number representation models. Primarily intended for engineers and researchers in the field of fuzzy arithmetic, the book also offers a valuable source of basic information on fuzzy models and an easy-to-understand reference guide to their applications for advanced undergraduate students, operations researchers, modelers and managers alike.

Decision making under uncertainty

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194667 Year: Pages: 143 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-466-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Most decisions in life are based on incomplete information and have uncertain consequences. To successfully cope with real-life situations, the nervous system has to estimate, represent and eventually resolve uncertainty at various levels. A common tradeoff in such decisions involves those between the magnitude of the expected rewards and the uncertainty of obtaining the rewards. For instance, a decision maker may choose to forgo the high expected rewards of investing in the stock market and settle instead for the lower expected reward and much less uncertainty of a savings account. Little is known about how different forms of uncertainty, such as risk or ambiguity, are processed and learned about and how they are integrated with expected rewards and individual preferences throughout the decision making process. With this Research Topic we aim to provide a deeper and more detailed understanding of the processes behind decision making under uncertainty.

The Institutional Practice

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ISBN: 9788202549138 Year: DOI: 10.17585/noasp.12.38 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-09-30 11:02:15
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The nursing home resident of today is old and frail. Despite such a frailty, many residents are hospitalized, often with the intention of life-extension. Furthermore, rates of hospitalization varies considerably between countries, regions and institutions, even within smaller geographical areas. Even though relating to the same structural framework and conditions, distance to hospitals for instance, some nursing homes hospitalize considerably more than others.

12 Social Innovation and Collaboration (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 20 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch12 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:09
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"This chapter explores the link between social innovation and collaboration&#xD;among change agents and stakeholders. Social innovation is a field on the rise,&#xD;both practically and theoretically (Cajaiba-Santana, 2014), and involves new ideas&#xD;for tackling unmet social needs and solving current social problems (Mulgan et al.,&#xD;2007). Even though social innovation has great potential, confronting uncertainties,&#xD;risks and resistance are inevitable when engaging in this type of endeavor. Consequently,&#xD;it may be challenging to mobilize key stakeholders to commit to and engage&#xD;in relevant&#xD;actions and collaborative processes (Marcy, 2015). The problem that will&#xD;be addressed in this chapter concerns how to identify, target and mobilize key stakeholders&#xD;to collaborate in social innovation initiatives. It is viewed from the vantage&#xD;point of those initiating and leading social innovation efforts and aims to point&#xD;out some factors that must be overcome and others that may foster constructive&#xD;collaborative processes among change agents and stakeholders."&#xD;

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