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Transkulturelle Begegnungen - Südpazifik und Sahara - Begleitband zur Ausstellung

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ISBN: 9783863952501 Year: DOI: 10.17875/gup2016-893 Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2016-06-21 11:02:32
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Es sind die Begegnungen mit Menschen, die unser Leben prägen. Dabei beeinflussen die kulturellen, gesellschaftlichen und sozialen Umstände oder persönlichen Neigungen die Qualität und Intensität dieser Begegnungen und wirken sich auf unser weiteres Handeln und Verhalten aus. Wie sich Begegnungen und Beziehungen gestalten und verändern, wird in der Ausstellung anhand der Sammlungen zweier Göttinger Ethnologen dargestellt, die knapp drei Jahrzehnte am Institut für Ethnologie gewirkt haben. Der Ozeanist Erhard Schlesier führte Feldforschungen im Südpazifik durch. Sein regionaler Schwerpunkt lag dabei auf Südost-Neuguinea. Die Forschungen des Afrikanisten Peter Fuchs erstreckten sich auf das Gebiet der Sahara und des Sahel. Beide Ethnologen betrachteten Begegnungen als einen Prozess von wechselseitigen kulturellen Beeinflussungen, denen man im Hinblick auf ihre jeweilige Dynamik und Wirksamkeit auf die Spur kommen sollte.

Probabilistic Models for 3D Urban Scene Understanding from Movable Platforms

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe / Institut für Mess- und Regelungstechnik, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 16134214 ISBN: 9783731500810 Year: Volume: 025 Pages: V, 162 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000036064 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58
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This work is a contribution to understanding multi-object traffic scenes from video sequences. All data is provided by a camera system which is mounted on top of the autonomous driving platform AnnieWAY. The proposed probabilistic generative model reasons jointly about the 3D scene layout as well as the 3D location and orientation of objects in the scene. In particular, the scene topology, geometry as well as traffic activities are inferred from short video sequences.

Self-Organization in the Nervous System

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453405 Year: Pages: 135 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-340-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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This special issue reviews state-of-the-art approaches to the biophysical roots of cognition. These approaches appeal to the notion that cognitive capacities serve to optimize responses to changing external conditions. Crucially, this optimisation rests on the ability to predict changes in the environment, thus allowing organisms to respond pre-emptively to changes before their onset. The biophysical mechanisms that underwrite these cognitive capacities remain largely unknown; although a number of hypotheses has been advanced in systems neuroscience, biophysics and other disciplines. These hypotheses converge on the intersection of thermodynamic and information-theoretic formulations of self-organization in the brain. The latter perspective emerged when Shannon’s theory of message transmission in communication systems was used to characterise message passing between neurons. In its subsequent incarnations, the information theory approach has been integrated into computational neuroscience and the Bayesian brain framework. The thermodynamic formulation rests on a view of the brain as an aggregation of stochastic microprocessors (neurons), with subsequent appeal to the constructs of statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. In particular, the use of ensemble dynamics to elucidate the relationship between micro-scale parameters and those of the macro-scale aggregation (the brain). In general, the thermodynamic approach treats the brain as a dissipative system and seeks to represent the development and functioning of cognitive mechanisms as collective capacities that emerge in the course of self-organization. Its explicanda include energy efficiency; enabling progressively more complex cognitive operations such as long-term prediction and anticipatory planning. A cardinal example of the Bayesian brain approach is the free energy principle that explains self-organizing dynamics in the brain in terms of its predictive capabilities – and selective sampling of sensory inputs that optimise variational free energy as a proxy for Bayesian model evidence. An example of thermodynamically grounded proposals, in this issue, associates self-organization with phase transitions in neuronal state-spaces; resulting in the formation of bounded neuronal assemblies (neuronal packets). This special issue seeks a discourse between thermodynamic and informational formulations of the self-organising and self-evidencing brain. For example, could minimization of thermodynamic free energy during the formation of neuronal packets underlie minimization of variational free energy?

Learning in Social Context: The Nature and Profit of Living in Groups for Development

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451821 Year: Pages: 87 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-182-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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One of the distinctive features of humans is their unique sociality. Humans live in organized societies that are characterized by a high level of interdependence of group members in various aspects of life, ranging from the economic phenomenon of labour division to providing emotional support to others. Under these circumstances, the capacity to track social connections within and between groups has great adaptive value in managing everyday life. We may understand the importance and adaptive value of tracking the scope of culturally shared knowledge if we consider the importance of cultural norms in guiding behaviour. To become a competent member of their cultural group one must be able to conform to the group's specific behavioural norms and to accumulate culturally shared knowledge. Acquiring this knowledge is essential for successful social interactions. In contrast to current dominant explanatory theories emphasizing that social category formation is simply rooted in humans’ need to belong and affiliate with a group, the aim of this e-book is to provide evidence that, in addition to its affiliative role, children form social categories for epistemic purposes. We show that children use specific cues, like kinship, patterns of resource allocation and consensus to understand group cohesion (Section 1). Once children figured out who is in-group and who is out-group, they show a significant in-group bias in attention, acting and learning (Section 2). Yet, this in-group bias can be attenuated by induced synchronous behavior (Section 3).

The Role of Working Memory and Executive Function in Communication under Adverse Conditions

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198610 Year: Pages: 272 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-861-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Communication is vital for social participation. However, communication often takes place under suboptimal conditions. This makes communication harder and less reliable, leading at worst to social isolation. In order to promote participation, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms underlying communication in different situations. Human communication is often speech based, either oral or written, but may also involve gesture, either accompanying speech or in the form of sign language. For communication to be achieved, a signal generated by one person has to be perceived by another person, attended to, comprehended and responded to. This process may be hindered by adverse conditions including factors that may be internal to the sender (e.g. incomplete or idiosyncratic language production), occur during transmission (e.g. background noise or signal processing) or be internal to the receiver (e.g. poor grasp of the language or sensory impairment). The extent to which these factors interact to generate adverse conditions may differ across the lifespan. Recent work has shown that successful speech communication under adverse conditions is associated with good cognitive capacity including efficient working memory and executive abilities such as updating and inhibition. Further, frontoparietal networks associated with working memory and executive function have been shown to be activated to a greater degree when it is harder to achieve speech comprehension. To date, less work has focused on sign language communication under adverse conditions or the role of gestures accompanying speech communication under adverse conditions. It has been proposed that the role of working memory in communication under such conditions is to keep fragments of an incomplete signal in mind, updating them as appropriate and inhibiting irrelevant information, until an adequate match can be achieved with lexical and semantic representations held in long term memory. Recent models of working memory highlight an episodic buffer whose role is the multimodal integration of information from the senses and long term memory. It is likely that the episodic buffer plays a key role in communication under adverse conditions. The aim of this research topic is to draw together multiple perspectives on communication under adverse conditions including empirical and theoretical approaches. This will facilitate a scientific exchange among individual scientists and groups studying different aspects of communication under adverse conditions and/or the role of cognition in communication. As such, this topic belongs firmly within the field of Cognitive Hearing Science. Exchange of ideas among scientists with different perspectives on these issues will allow researchers to identify and highlight the way in which different internal and external factors interact to make communication in different modalities more or less successful across the lifespan. Such exchange is the forerunner of broader dissemination of results which ultimately, may make it possible to take measures to reduce adverse conditions, thus facilitating communication. Such measures might be implemented in relation to the built environment, the design of hearing aids and public awareness.

28 Basic Structures for a New Theory of Samhandling Under Risk (SUR) (Book chapter)

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 22 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch28 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:07
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"This final chapter aggregates experiences and findings from the other chapters of the book. The book’s overall research question is as follows: What are the basic structures of the concept of samhandling under risk and how can samhandling be created when the conditions are unpredictable? A number of SUR (Samhandling Under Risk) structures are derived based on semantic theory construction, and these are described in an overall definition and visualized in a model, which in turn can form the basis of a SUR theory. These are organized under educational, organizational and operational structures, as three superior competencies needed to facilitate effective SUR. The essence is that there is a different basis for this type of assessment than with traditional risk analysis, in order to achieve good samhandling under risk and unforeseen conditions. This is concerned with what is needed when little or nothing goes according to plan. It is then necessary to emphasize on such matters more in depth and addition address other factors to achieve SUR through samhandling where the conditions are predictable - where completed plans and clear objectives work. For the learning level, valuation of inaccurate knowledge and qualities is required to extract information from the disorder. For the organizational level, it is important to create and/or maintain shared leadership and at the operative level, improvisation is essential. When working with a SUR paradigm, one must be able to accept unclear goals, be prepared to lose control and create room for surprises. Leaders with SUR skills will be required to prepare organizations for this. Training and SUR should be incorporated into strategic plans, management training and leadership development. An expansion of established pedagogical models is also needed to achieve this aim. Invisible learning is one approach. Samhandling does not simply happen in a vacuum, and the chapter encourages further SUR research in a global perspective, where different languages and cultures can contribute to enhanced understanding of SUR issues. As a starting point for such an approach, we explore how the term is expressed in the Japanese language. A more global approach to SUR structures can contribute to a deeper understanding of what is needed, to avoid unwanted misunderstandings and crises, learn from each other and solve complex and unforeseen situations through samhandling."

10 Weltbürger Perspectives and Samhandling (Book chapter)

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 10 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch10 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:09
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"The chapter starts with a criticism of management and control concepts that have been rooted in economic or psychological theories and models, although society’s complexity and the pace of change will demand a broader and deeper foundation for the development of effective management systems in the future. Other voices need to be put forward. Immanuel Kant (1795/1991) argued for his idea of the Weltbürger (“world citizen”), also known as “The Cosmopolitan Ideal”. His fundamental philosophy is that all humans are welcome, regardless of time and place, and that all humans are world citizens, regardless of nationality and cultural belonging (Kant, 1795/1991). All people are co-citizens, independent of nationality and cultural affiliation, and the Weltbürger is concerned with global problems and solutions. Another central thinker is Jacques Derrida (1930–2004), a French philosopher and writer particularly known for the term “Deconstruction”, which is about splitting up words and phrases to find out what they really mean, in the light of the culture and underlying attitudes. Human comprehension requires common words and phrases (language), and a cultural and social context, both of which have formed the basis for conceptual analysis of the terms “hospitality” and “threshold of tolerance”. The conclusion is that the concepts of the Weltbürger and “hospitality” have important values in and of themselves, and are ideas that are universal and timeless, providing an important compass for samhandling."

Probabilistische Szenenmodelle für die Luftbildauswertung

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Book Series: Karlsruher Schriften zur Anthropomatik / Lehrstuhl für Interaktive Echtzeitsysteme, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ; Fraunhofer-Inst. für Optronik, Systemtechnik und Bildauswertung IOSB Karlsruhe ISSN: 18636489 ISBN: 9783731501671 Year: Volume: 16 Pages: XVIII, 151 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000038053 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:57
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The interpretation of aerial and satellite imagery requires significant experience and expert knowledge and therefore is mainly performed by professional image interpreters. So far, automatic methods are not able to provide comparable results but they can be used to support the manual image interpretation process. This work shows how the benefits of manual and automatic image interpretation can be adequately combined in an interactive image interpretation system.

Human Pose Estimation with Implicit Shape Models

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe Automatische Sichtprüfung und Bildverarbeitung ISSN: 18665934 ISBN: 9783731501848 Year: Volume: 6 Pages: XVIII, 264 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000039083 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58
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This work presents a new approach for estimating 3D human poses based on monocular camera information only. For this, the Implicit Shape Model is augmented by new voting strategies that allow to localize 2D anatomical landmarks in the image. The actual 3D pose estimation is then formulated as a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) where projected 3D pose hypotheses are compared with the generated landmark vote distributions.

Subject Learning in the Primary Curriculum

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9780203990247 9781138416307 9780415125376 9781134801619 9781134801602 9781134801565 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203990247 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Education
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:11
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The emphasis on subject knowledge in primary curricula is a world-wide phenomenon and has become increasingly the focus of attention in England, with the introduction of the National Curriculum and the appointment of subject co-ordinators in schools. Yet what exactly constitutes a subject and its practice remains controversial. The book is organised into five parts. Part one examines the general aims of primary education, in order to give a background for a more detailed exploration of UK curriculum development. Parts two, three and four examine the core subjects of Eng, science and mathematics, whilst constantly bearing in mind the full range of views about the purpose of education and the nature of knowledge. Part five introduces key debates about approaches to knowledge, and raises issues about the future organisation of the curriculum. Subject Learning in the Primary Curriculum is the OU reader for Module 832, Teaching and Learning in the Primary Core Curriculum in the MA in Education.

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