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4 Workshop-Didaktik for Cooperation in a Contingent World (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 16 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch4 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:09
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"Based on the idea that contingency frames people’s view of the world, the&#xD;text examines how cooperation is still possible. It is argued that cooperation is a human&#xD;constant (Tomsello), as well as a skill and craft to be unfolded again (Sennett).&#xD;In order to facilitate teaching and learning processes focussing on the emergence&#xD;of cooperation, a “Workshop Didactic” is developed. Such a didactic is particularly&#xD;powerful in enabling people to deal with the challenges of unforeseen situations."&#xD;

2 Defining the Term Samhandling (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 16 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch2 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"In this chapter we will demonstrate that samhandling has a different&#xD;qualitative meaning from other similar concepts. The term “samhandling” is used&#xD;by many organizations, researchers and textbook authors without clarifying the&#xD;rationale for its use (Torgersen & Steiro, 2009). The word samhandling is built on&#xD;a distinct cultural foundation. Therefore, we think it is necessary to describe Norwegian&#xD;culture briefly, to enable the reader to understand the basis of samhandling.&#xD;The chapter presents a definition of samhandling that was originally presented by&#xD;Torgersen & Steiro (2009). Samhandling is distinguished from cooperation/teamwork&#xD;by three core attributes which we can call the identity of samhandling: focus&#xD;on complementarity, exchange and utilization of the participants’ various skills,&#xD;experiences, backgrounds and cultures, and coordination of these factors in efforts&#xD;towards a common goal in a work situation or meeting. Samhandling has a higher&#xD;relative ambition level than the corresponding processes covered by the expressions&#xD;“collaboration”, “cooperation” and “coordination”. Increased complexity and&#xD;relations between stakeholders call for a focus on complementary handling in action,&#xD;that is, samhandling. The following competencies were identified in order for&#xD;good samhandling to occur: trust, assurance, well-being, belonging, clarity, time&#xD;and tolerance."&#xD;

25 Military Strategies for Samhandling in Unforeseen Situations (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 14 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch25 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"The purpose of this chapter is twofold. Firstly, a rather paradoxical situation&#xD;will be discussed. Even though most military practitioners seem to agree&#xD;on the characteristics of war, two almost diametrically-opposed norms for how to&#xD;samhandle have arisen: a centralized one and a decentralized one. We argue that the&#xD;decentralized approach, called Auftragstaktik, is the most effective. In the second&#xD;part of the chapter we discuss the pedagogical challenge of educating personnel to&#xD;thrive in a decentralized organization, which must operate effectively in unforeseen&#xD;and threatening environments. Based on the teachings of Moltke the Elder (1800–&#xD;1891) and the much more recent writings of Torgersen, Steiro and Saeverot (2015),&#xD;we argue that a crucial step in educating for the unforeseen is to give the students&#xD;the opportunity to solve new problems by themselves, gaining experience that is, as&#xD;far as possible, self-generated and thereby becoming more aware and confident in&#xD;dealing with new situations."&#xD;

24 Working Together in the Aftermath of an Unforeseen Event (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 16 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch24 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"The frame of this chapter is how clinicians and leaders employed in psychiatric&#xD;departments in hospitals experience and cope with patients who commit&#xD;suicide while undergoing treatment. The major focus is the phenomenon which in&#xD;the Bow-tie model is called “stabilization”. To explore this phenomenon in an empirical&#xD;analysis, two concepts of samhandling are introduced, these being coordination&#xD;and cooperation. These two concepts are used in an interpretation of what eight&#xD;leaders and clinicians report on how they handle working together after a patient&#xD;during treatment in a psychiatric hospital has unexpectedly committed suicide.&#xD;The findings are that leaders and clinicians have different views on what stabilization&#xD;is. Stabilization to the leaders seems to be something they can handle by using&#xD;mandatory organizational procedures of coordination. To the clinicians (psychologists&#xD;and psychiatrists) however, stabilization is less straightforward. Professional&#xD;stabilization is, to them, more important than organizational stabilization, and it&#xD;requires another form of interaction – namely, cooperation. Cooperation is, in its&#xD;simplest and purest form, a symmetrical way of working together, based on equality&#xD;in competence and an unforced relation between the parties. For the purpose of&#xD;professional stabilization, this is the form of interaction preferred by the clinicians.&#xD;However, these findings are tentative and more research is needed to elaborate why&#xD;leaders and clinicians respond as they do after a patient suicide."&#xD;

22 Learning from Sports (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 16 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch22 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"This study shows some generic characteristics from sports that are of relevance to&#xD;samhandling structures under risk. The findings are based on a case study of the&#xD;concept of “Total Football” and the Rosenborg Football Club (RBK) in Norway.&#xD;Football is a dynamic sport with several factors that come into play and where&#xD;flexible solutions are demanded. The case is also of relevance for organizations in&#xD;handling risk. RBK’s samhandling is based on “Total Football” and flow theory. In&#xD;analyzing RBK, we also apply theories of improvisation. RBK created a platform&#xD;that gave both direction to choices and a clear playing pattern. This platform further&#xD;ensured that tasks could be executed at high speed and high intensity, described as&#xD;“flow”. Flow contributed to both speed and precision in the playing pattern. It is&#xD;concluded that the following is relevant for other organizations: 1) Forming a deeper&#xD;understanding of samhandling and ensuring top management commitment; 2)&#xD;Creating, establishing and maintaining samhandling in a manner that suits the organization;&#xD;and 3) Minimal structures can be of great importance for organizations&#xD;in unforeseen and risky situations."&#xD;

21 Effective Cooperation Between Strangers in Unexpected and Dangerous Situations (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 14 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch21 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"This chapter aims to discuss what it takes to make people or groups that&#xD;do not know each other previously establish effective cooperation during unforeseen&#xD;events. The focus is on the formation process of “swift trust”, and the potential&#xD;prerequisites and outcomes of such trust, seen as an alternative to traditional,&#xD;history-based trust approaches that dominate the research literature of today. “Swift&#xD;trust” may enable effective cooperation even among people that are unfamiliar with&#xD;each other. This is seen as a relevant perspective because such temporal groups often&#xD;handle unforeseen and critical events. Given the limited amount of research on “swift&#xD;trust”, the chapter also aims to identify future research questions. In the analysis, I&#xD;utilize different theoretical perspectives, including the social sciences, experimental&#xD;psychology and leadership, and seek to conclude the investigation by identifying different&#xD;leadership strategies that may stimulate the formation of “swift trust”."&#xD;

20 The Relationship Between Stress and Samhandling (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 26 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch20 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"Military operations are very often accompanied by various levels of stress.&#xD;This chapter aims to discuss the concepts and factors of stress and samhandling. The&#xD;main factors are social support, self-efficacy, resilience and hardiness, implicit coordination,&#xD;and character strengths. Individual factors are self-efficacy, resilience and&#xD;hardiness, and character strengths. Team factors are social support, team efficacy,&#xD;and implicit coordination. A model describing stress and samhandling, including&#xD;the above-mentioned individual and team factors and their relations, is introduced&#xD;and discussed. The conclusion is that four individual and two team factors are seen&#xD;as important if one wishes to counteract the effects of stress and increase both the&#xD;individual’s and the team’s ability to conduct samhandling when facing unforeseen&#xD;incidents."&#xD;

18 Didactics and Innovation in Collaboration for the Unforeseen in Training Practice Preparation (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 16 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch18 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"The objective of this chapter is to improve collaborative practices and exercises,&#xD;taking the unforeseen into account. The major focus is on the process of making&#xD;collaboration exercises and the planning phase of these potential learning situations.&#xD;Two educational perspectives will be explored in order to improve the planning&#xD;work itself and, possibly, also training for the unforeseen. The use of social&#xD;technology, together with didactic thinking, may enhance the extent and quality&#xD;of collaboration training. Planners also need to deliberate upon the importance&#xD;of “standard” or traditional exercises in combination with collaboration, seeing&#xD;the whole picture and the exercise as a program. On the other hand, it is of vital&#xD;importance to train in the realms of the unforeseen, entering the uncharted waters&#xD;of learning outside known territory."&#xD;

17 Samhandling and Trust in Military Leadership Structures (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 20 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch17 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the importance of trust in military&#xD;samhandling. Trust serves as one of the main prerequisites for effective collaboration&#xD;(Kouzes & Posner, 2003). The Norwegian Armed Forces’ (NAF) core business is&#xD;the planning and execution of military operations (Forsvarsstaben, 2014). One of&#xD;the main tasks of the NAF is to plan for the unexpected and, ultimately, for war. The&#xD;chapter further discuss trust in military leadership, and leadership and situational&#xD;awareness. Leadership as a social interaction process that builds trust is discussed,&#xD;and samhandling is seen in a military context. A basic “trust-based model” of samhandling&#xD;is introduced and viewed in terms of internal and external framework factors.&#xD;The chapter concludes that trust is still quite an open concept, and that trust&#xD;is essential for the effective accomplishment of military missions. The basic trust&#xD;model is an attempt to underline understanding of the importance of trust in a&#xD;military planning and leadership context."&#xD;

16 Military Samhandling (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 18 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch16 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"The chapter describes and discusses interaction within the Norwegian&#xD;Armed Forces. Military interaction is understood as the dynamic and sometimes unpredictable&#xD;action undertaken when two or more services interact. The chapter explores&#xD;why interaction between military services, such as land, sea and air forces, is&#xD;difficult – and, in some circumstances, completely absent. How can inadequate interaction&#xD;between the military branches be explained? As Europe’s armed forces become&#xD;increasingly complex and sophisticated, two perspectives from organisational theory&#xD;are applied. First, an instrumental perspective is used to comprehend the problem.&#xD;Particular attention is paid to the tension between hierarchical authority and the division&#xD;of labour. Thereafter, a cultural perspective is used to comprehend inter-service&#xD;rivalry. Here, attention is paid to informal rules and regulations, or habitual ‘rules of&#xD;thumb’ that have become institutionalised over time. These ‘the behavioural patterns’&#xD;affect the way military services perceive themselves in contrast to others. The main&#xD;finding is that Norway’s Armed Forces suffer from ‘limited rationality’. This is because&#xD;Norway’s military units operate within a fragmented command structure that consists&#xD;of many different sub-organisations; individually, in times of peace in Norway, they&#xD;pursue their own myopic agendas rather than a comprehensive national objective. In&#xD;this process, the branches are also forced to compromise with each other to reach their&#xD;individual objectives. A form of limited rationality therefore arises because the Army,&#xD;Navy and Air Force act rationally. This is, however, not on the basis of what serves&#xD;Norwegian security best, but on the basis of what is rational for their specific branch."&#xD;

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