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4 Workshop-Didaktik for Cooperation in a Contingent World (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 16 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch4 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:09
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"Based on the idea that contingency frames people’s view of the world, the text examines how cooperation is still possible. It is argued that cooperation is a human constant (Tomsello), as well as a skill and craft to be unfolded again (Sennett). In order to facilitate teaching and learning processes focussing on the emergence of cooperation, a “Workshop Didactic” is developed. Such a didactic is particularly powerful in enabling people to deal with the challenges of unforeseen situations."

2 Defining the Term Samhandling (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 16 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch2 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:09
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"In this chapter we will demonstrate that samhandling has a different qualitative meaning from other similar concepts. The term “samhandling” is used by many organizations, researchers and textbook authors without clarifying the rationale for its use (Torgersen & Steiro, 2009). The word samhandling is built on a distinct cultural foundation. Therefore, we think it is necessary to describe Norwegian culture briefly, to enable the reader to understand the basis of samhandling. The chapter presents a definition of samhandling that was originally presented by Torgersen & Steiro (2009). Samhandling is distinguished from cooperation/teamwork by three core attributes which we can call the identity of samhandling: focus on complementarity, exchange and utilization of the participants’ various skills, experiences, backgrounds and cultures, and coordination of these factors in efforts towards a common goal in a work situation or meeting. Samhandling has a higher relative ambition level than the corresponding processes covered by the expressions “collaboration”, “cooperation” and “coordination”. Increased complexity and relations between stakeholders call for a focus on complementary handling in action, that is, samhandling. The following competencies were identified in order for good samhandling to occur: trust, assurance, well-being, belonging, clarity, time and tolerance."

25 Military Strategies for Samhandling in Unforeseen Situations (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 14 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch25 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"The purpose of this chapter is twofold. Firstly, a rather paradoxical situation will be discussed. Even though most military practitioners seem to agree on the characteristics of war, two almost diametrically-opposed norms for how to samhandle have arisen: a centralized one and a decentralized one. We argue that the decentralized approach, called Auftragstaktik, is the most effective. In the second part of the chapter we discuss the pedagogical challenge of educating personnel to thrive in a decentralized organization, which must operate effectively in unforeseen and threatening environments. Based on the teachings of Moltke the Elder (1800– 1891) and the much more recent writings of Torgersen, Steiro and Saeverot (2015), we argue that a crucial step in educating for the unforeseen is to give the students the opportunity to solve new problems by themselves, gaining experience that is, as far as possible, self-generated and thereby becoming more aware and confident in dealing with new situations."

24 Working Together in the Aftermath of an Unforeseen Event (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 16 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch24 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:08
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"The frame of this chapter is how clinicians and leaders employed in psychiatric departments in hospitals experience and cope with patients who commit suicide while undergoing treatment. The major focus is the phenomenon which in the Bow-tie model is called “stabilization”. To explore this phenomenon in an empirical analysis, two concepts of samhandling are introduced, these being coordination and cooperation. These two concepts are used in an interpretation of what eight leaders and clinicians report on how they handle working together after a patient during treatment in a psychiatric hospital has unexpectedly committed suicide. The findings are that leaders and clinicians have different views on what stabilization is. Stabilization to the leaders seems to be something they can handle by using mandatory organizational procedures of coordination. To the clinicians (psychologists and psychiatrists) however, stabilization is less straightforward. Professional stabilization is, to them, more important than organizational stabilization, and it requires another form of interaction – namely, cooperation. Cooperation is, in its simplest and purest form, a symmetrical way of working together, based on equality in competence and an unforced relation between the parties. For the purpose of professional stabilization, this is the form of interaction preferred by the clinicians. However, these findings are tentative and more research is needed to elaborate why leaders and clinicians respond as they do after a patient suicide."

22 Learning from Sports (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 16 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch22 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"This study shows some generic characteristics from sports that are of relevance to samhandling structures under risk. The findings are based on a case study of the concept of “Total Football” and the Rosenborg Football Club (RBK) in Norway. Football is a dynamic sport with several factors that come into play and where flexible solutions are demanded. The case is also of relevance for organizations in handling risk. RBK’s samhandling is based on “Total Football” and flow theory. In analyzing RBK, we also apply theories of improvisation. RBK created a platform that gave both direction to choices and a clear playing pattern. This platform further ensured that tasks could be executed at high speed and high intensity, described as “flow”. Flow contributed to both speed and precision in the playing pattern. It is concluded that the following is relevant for other organizations: 1) Forming a deeper understanding of samhandling and ensuring top management commitment; 2) Creating, establishing and maintaining samhandling in a manner that suits the organization; and 3) Minimal structures can be of great importance for organizations in unforeseen and risky situations."

21 Effective Cooperation Between Strangers in Unexpected and Dangerous Situations (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 14 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch21 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:08
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"This chapter aims to discuss what it takes to make people or groups that do not know each other previously establish effective cooperation during unforeseen events. The focus is on the formation process of “swift trust”, and the potential prerequisites and outcomes of such trust, seen as an alternative to traditional, history-based trust approaches that dominate the research literature of today. “Swift trust” may enable effective cooperation even among people that are unfamiliar with each other. This is seen as a relevant perspective because such temporal groups often handle unforeseen and critical events. Given the limited amount of research on “swift trust”, the chapter also aims to identify future research questions. In the analysis, I utilize different theoretical perspectives, including the social sciences, experimental psychology and leadership, and seek to conclude the investigation by identifying different leadership strategies that may stimulate the formation of “swift trust”."

20 The Relationship Between Stress and Samhandling (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 26 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch20 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"Military operations are very often accompanied by various levels of stress. This chapter aims to discuss the concepts and factors of stress and samhandling. The main factors are social support, self-efficacy, resilience and hardiness, implicit coordination, and character strengths. Individual factors are self-efficacy, resilience and hardiness, and character strengths. Team factors are social support, team efficacy, and implicit coordination. A model describing stress and samhandling, including the above-mentioned individual and team factors and their relations, is introduced and discussed. The conclusion is that four individual and two team factors are seen as important if one wishes to counteract the effects of stress and increase both the individual’s and the team’s ability to conduct samhandling when facing unforeseen incidents."

18 Didactics and Innovation in Collaboration for the Unforeseen in Training Practice Preparation (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 16 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch18 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"The objective of this chapter is to improve collaborative practices and exercises, taking the unforeseen into account. The major focus is on the process of making collaboration exercises and the planning phase of these potential learning situations. Two educational perspectives will be explored in order to improve the planning work itself and, possibly, also training for the unforeseen. The use of social technology, together with didactic thinking, may enhance the extent and quality of collaboration training. Planners also need to deliberate upon the importance of “standard” or traditional exercises in combination with collaboration, seeing the whole picture and the exercise as a program. On the other hand, it is of vital importance to train in the realms of the unforeseen, entering the uncharted waters of learning outside known territory."

17 Samhandling and Trust in Military Leadership Structures (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 20 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch17 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the importance of trust in military samhandling. Trust serves as one of the main prerequisites for effective collaboration (Kouzes & Posner, 2003). The Norwegian Armed Forces’ (NAF) core business is the planning and execution of military operations (Forsvarsstaben, 2014). One of the main tasks of the NAF is to plan for the unexpected and, ultimately, for war. The chapter further discuss trust in military leadership, and leadership and situational awareness. Leadership as a social interaction process that builds trust is discussed, and samhandling is seen in a military context. A basic “trust-based model” of samhandling is introduced and viewed in terms of internal and external framework factors. The chapter concludes that trust is still quite an open concept, and that trust is essential for the effective accomplishment of military missions. The basic trust model is an attempt to underline understanding of the importance of trust in a military planning and leadership context."

16 Military Samhandling (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 18 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch16 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"The chapter describes and discusses interaction within the Norwegian Armed Forces. Military interaction is understood as the dynamic and sometimes unpredictable action undertaken when two or more services interact. The chapter explores why interaction between military services, such as land, sea and air forces, is difficult – and, in some circumstances, completely absent. How can inadequate interaction between the military branches be explained? As Europe’s armed forces become increasingly complex and sophisticated, two perspectives from organisational theory are applied. First, an instrumental perspective is used to comprehend the problem. Particular attention is paid to the tension between hierarchical authority and the division of labour. Thereafter, a cultural perspective is used to comprehend inter-service rivalry. Here, attention is paid to informal rules and regulations, or habitual ‘rules of thumb’ that have become institutionalised over time. These ‘the behavioural patterns’ affect the way military services perceive themselves in contrast to others. The main finding is that Norway’s Armed Forces suffer from ‘limited rationality’. This is because Norway’s military units operate within a fragmented command structure that consists of many different sub-organisations; individually, in times of peace in Norway, they pursue their own myopic agendas rather than a comprehensive national objective. In this process, the branches are also forced to compromise with each other to reach their individual objectives. A form of limited rationality therefore arises because the Army, Navy and Air Force act rationally. This is, however, not on the basis of what serves Norwegian security best, but on the basis of what is rational for their specific branch."

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