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Sociocultural Systems: Principles of Structure and Change

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ISBN: 9781927356203 9781927356210 9781927356227 Year: Pages: 404 Language: English
Publisher: Athabasca University Press
Subject: Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2013-07-15 10:35:10
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Macrosociology—the study of large-scale social structures and the fundamental principles of social organization—was the style of sociology practiced by the founders of the discipline. Today, the social theories of Karl Marx, Max Weber, Émile Durkheim, and Herbert Spencer (among others) are commonly studied as part of the history of the field, but, although the macrosociological approach that these thinkers advocated is still employed, it no longer dominates the discipline. Instead, sociologists typically adopt a narrower focus, specializing in areas such as social psychology, medicine, religion, or the study of social stratification. Examining the bigger picture is a task often left to public intellectuals.Sociocultural Systems aims to reinstate macrosciology as the heart of the discipline by demonstrating that both classical and contemporary macrosociologists stand upon common ground. Focusing on the broad issues that concerned the founders, Elwell addresses questions such as: Historically, what factors accounted for the origin, survival, and evolution of sociocultural systems? Why were some societies more technologically advanced than others? What is the origin of capitalism? What factors determine the allocation of goods and services within and among societies? What effects do changes in government and economic institutions have on communities?Elwell argues that, as evolution does for biology, the macrosociological paradigm offers an analytical strategy that can be used both to guide and prioritize research in all of the myriad specialties within sociology and to lay forth an orderly body of knowledge for students. Clearly articulating important sociological principles, Sociocultural Systems provides a critical understanding of social institutions and issues, while also furnishing a framework for possible solutions to the perennial social crises that are part and parcel of the development of human societies.

Public Policy: Why ethics matters

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9781921666759 Year: Pages: 311 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_459474 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2012-06-14 11:46:24
License: ANU Press

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Ethics is a vigorously contested field. There are many competing moral frameworks, and different views about how normative considerations should inform the art and craft of governmental policy making. What is not in dispute, however, is that ethics matters. The ethical framework adopted by policy analysts and decision makers not only shapes how policy problems are defined, framed and analysed, but also influences which ethical principles and values are taken into account and their weighting. As a result, ethics can have a profound impact, both on the character of the policy process and the choices made by decision makers. Public Policy – Why Ethics Matters brings together original contributions from leading scholars and practitioners with expertise in various academic disciplines, including economics, philosophy, physics, political science, public policy and theology. The volume addresses three main issues: fist, the ethical considerations that should inform the conduct of public officials and the task of policy analysis; second, the ethics of climate change; and third, ethics and economic policy. While the contributors have varying views on these important issues, they share a common conviction that the ethical dimensions of public policy need to be better understood and given proper attention in the policy-making process.

Generations in Estonia: Contemporary Perspectives on Turbulent Times

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Book Series: Approaches to Culture Theory ISBN: 9789949770557 9789949770564 Year: Pages: 350 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_606515 Language: English
Publisher: University of Tartu Press
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-21 11:01:18
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This book provides the international reader with the first study of different generations and intergenerational relations in Estonia. The chapters highlight generational patterns in the 20th and 21st centuries, with the volume as a whole taking an interdisciplinary approach. Sharing the idea that generations are dynamic, that their borders are blurred and change over time, and that their construction is interdependent, the authors have each chosen a specific perspective on and framework for generations. Several studies take an interest in how and by whom generations are constructed, and how generational identity has been perceived and reshaped over time. Others use generation as a concept or an analytical tool with which to investigate different social processes, or as a community of experience and carrier of memory. The volume suggests novel and diverse approaches to the definition of generation and the formation of generational consciousness, as well as to generational theory.

Speaking Power to Truth: Digital Discourse and the Public Intellectual

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Book Series: Cultural Dialectics ISSN: 19158378 ISBN: 9781771990332 9781771990349 9781771990356 9781771990363 Year: Pages: 216 DOI: 10.15215/aupress/9781771990332.01 Language: English
Publisher: Athabasca University Press
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-10 20:14:58
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Online discourse has created a new media environment for contributions to public life, one that challenges the social significance of the role of public intellectuals—intellectuals who, whether by choice or by circumstance, offer commentary on issues of the day. The value of such commentary is rooted in the assumption that, by virtue of their training and experience, intellectuals possess knowledge—that they understand what constitutes knowledge with respect to a particular topic, are able to distinguish it from mere opinion, and are in a position to define its relevance in different contexts. When intellectuals comment on matters of public concern, they are accordingly presumed to speak truth, whether they are writing books or op-ed columns or appearing as guests on radio and television news programs. At the same time, with increasing frequency, discourse on public life is taking place online. This new digital environment is characterized by abundance—an abundance of speakers, discussion, and access. But has this abundance of discourse—this democratization of knowledge, as some describe it—brought with it a corresponding increase in truth?Casting doubt on the assertion that online discourse, with its proliferation of voices, will somehow yield collective wisdom, Speaking Power to Truth raises concerns that this wealth of digitally enabled commentary is, in fact, too often bereft of the hallmarks of intellectual discourse: an epistemological framework and the provision of evidence to substantiate claims. Instead, the pursuit of truth finds itself in competition with the quest for public reputation, access to influence, and enhanced visibility. But as knowledge is drawn into the orbit of power, and as the line between knowledge and opinion is blurred, what role will the public intellectual play in the promotion and nurturing of democratic processes and goals? In exploring the implications of the digital transition, the contributors to Speaking Power to Truth provide both empirical evidence of, and philosophical reflection on, the current and future role of the public intellectual in a technologically mediated public sphere.

Doing the Right Thing

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ISBN: 9781909188921 9781909188938 9781909188945 9781909188952 Year: Pages: 266 DOI: 10.5334/bbb Language: English
Publisher: Ubiquity Press
Subject: Economics --- Social Sciences --- Arts in general
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-11 11:02:03
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"This book is for all those who are seeking a human perspective on economic and organizational processes. It lays the foundations for a value based approach to the economy. The key questions are: “What is important to you or your organization?” “What is this action or that organization good for?”&#xD;The book is directed at the prevalence of instrumentalist thinking in the current economy and responds to the calls for another economy.&#xD;Another economy demands another economics. The value based approach is another economics; it focuses on values and on the most important goods such as families, homes, communities, knowledge, and art. It places economic processes in their cultural context.&#xD;What does it take to do the right thing, as a person, as an organization, as a society? What is the good to strive for? This book gives directions for the answers.&#xD;The value based approach restores the ancient idea that quality of life and of society is what the economy is all about. It advocates shifting the focus from quantities (“how much?”) to qualities (“what is important?”).

The Idea of Europe: Enlightenment Perspectives

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Book Series: Open Book Classics ISBN: 9781783743803 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0123 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-22 11:01:03
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"In view of the challenges—many of which are political—that different European countries are currently facing, scholars who work on the eighteenth century have compiled this anthology which includes earlier recognitions of common values and past considerations of questions which often remain pertinent nowadays. During the Enlightenment, many men and women of letters envisaged the continent’s future in particular when stressing their hope that peace could be secured in Europe. The texts gathered here, and signed by major thinkers of the time (Rousseau, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Kant, Hume or Staël for instance), as well as by writers history has forgotten, present the reflections, with a couple of chronological extensions (from Sully to Victor Hugo) of authors from the long eighteenth century—the French Empire and the fall of Napoleon generated numerous upheavals—on Europe, its history, its diversity, but also on what the nations, which, in all their diversity, make up a geographical unit, have in common. They show the historical origins of the project of a European union, the desire to consolidate the continent’s ties to the Maghreb or to Turkey, the importance granted to commerce and the worries engendered by history’s convulsions, but also the hope vested in future generations. The Idea of Europe follows its sister edition in French, L’idée de l’Europe au Siècle des Lumières, also published by Open Book."

Keywords

anthology --- enlightenment --- peace --- hume --- european union --- rousseau --- voltaire --- kant --- europe --- common values

Die Europaidee im Zeitalter der Aufklärung

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Book Series: Open Book Classics ISBN: 9781783743988 Year: Pages: 180 DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0127 Language: German
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-02 11:01:49
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In view of the challenges—many of which are political—that different European countries are currently facing, scholars who work on the eighteenth century have compiled this anthology which includes earlier recognitions of common values and past considerations of questions which often remain pertinent nowadays. During the Enlightenment, many men and women of letters envisaged the continent’s future in particular when stressing their hope that peace could be secured in Europe. The texts gathered here, and signed by major thinkers of the time (Rousseau, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Kant, Hume or Staël for instance), as well as by writers history has forgotten, present the reflections, with a couple of chronological extensions (from Sully to Victor Hugo) of authors from the long eighteenth century—the French Empire and the fall of Napoleon generated numerous upheavals—on Europe, its history, its diversity, but also on what the nations, which, in all their diversity, make up a geographical unit, have in common. They show the historical origins of the project of a European union, the desire to consolidate the continent’s ties to the Maghreb or to Turkey, the importance granted to commerce and the worries engendered by history’s convulsions, but also the hope vested in future generations.

Religions and Psychotherapies

ISBN: 9783906980775 9783906980782 Year: Pages: 236 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-01-12 11:41:57
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The birth of modern psychotherapies—along with the birth of psychology as a science on one side and with psychoanalysis, other depth-psychological treatments and behavioral therapies in addition to medical treatments of psychological disorders on the other side—in the 19th and 20th centuries was accompanied by positivistic and mechanistic paradigms underlying empirical research and claims of scientific dignity [1]. Affirmations which could not be tested or observed empirically had to be excluded from science—including any kind of metaphysics and religious belief, notwithstanding pioneering studies by William James [2], Granville Stanley Hall, James Henry Leuba and Edwin Diller Starbuck [3] for psychology in general and for psychology of religion(s) in particular. In particular, the critique of religions by Sigmund Freud has continuously exerted a strong impact in the fields of psychiatry and psychotherapies; in addition, regarding psychodynamics and symptoms of psychic disorders, religious phenomena in the lives of patients may be just as affected as other cognitive and emotional aspects and behaviors [4]. Consequently, religious experience and religious behavior of patients in psychiatry and psychotherapies have rarely been object of research and teaching apart from predominantly symptomatic and pathogenic perspectives. [...]

Norge etter 22. juli

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9788202591007 9788202591007 Year: Pages: 241 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.37 Language: Norwegian|English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing) Grant: The Research Council of Norway
Subject: Political Science --- Media and communication --- Social Sciences --- Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-06 11:01:02
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"At the time of this book’s publication, almost seven years have passed since the dramatic and brutal terror attacks at Norway’s Government Headquarters in Oslo and the island of Utøya on 22 July 2011. How have we coped during this time? Which values have been important? Have we managed to protect the ideals of democracy, openness and humanity? And not least: Who is this ""we"" that we are referring to?&#xD;&#xD;This scholarly anthology includes articles from researchers associated with the project NECORE (Negotiating Values: Collective Identities and Resilience after 22 July) and other researchers whose work is closely associated with the project. They give us insights, opinions and sharp perspectives on not just 22 July, but also about Norway today, about values, identities and resilience in Norwegian society in the wake of the terror attacks. An important backdrop for the book and the project is the assertion that, as the events themselves recede into the past, it is even more important to focus on what the terror events have led to and how we can learn from them. In a world where terrorism has become an all too common part of political reality, it is crucial that we understand how we ought to think about terror, and how we as a society encounter it."&#xD;

Essays on Values and Practical Rationality

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Book Series: Lisbon Philosophical Studies – Uses of Languages in Interdisciplinary Fields ISBN: 9783034331531 9783034331548 9783034330589 Year: Pages: 392 Language: English
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:13
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The essays presented here are the outcome of research carried out by members of IFILNOVA (Institute for Philosophy of New University of Lisbon) in 2016.

The IFILNOVA Permanent Seminar seeks to show how values are relevant to humans (both socially and individually). This seminar is the ‘place’ where different research will converge towards a unified viewpoint. This includes the discussion of the following questions: What is the philosophical contribution to current affairs and decisions that depend crucially on values? Can philosophy make a difference, namely by bringing practical reason to bear on these affairs and decision? And how to do it? Which are our scientific ‘allies’ in this enterprise; psychology, communication sciences, even sociology and history?

This volume shows the connection between practical rationality and values and covers the dimensions ethics, aesthetics and politics.

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