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Wet and Dry Periods in Regions Surrounding the Atlantic Ocean Basin

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198245 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-824-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physics (General) --- Geography --- Environmental Sciences --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceanic divisions. It is bounded by the continents of America, Europe and Africa and at its polewards margins by the Arctic and the Southern Oceans. Different climatic patterns can be observed along its large latitudinal domain, which extends from the equator to sub-polar regions. Thus, different tropical and extra-tropical meteorological systems may have some influence on the characterization of precipitation regimes observed surrounding the basin, such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), tropical monsoon systems, westerly storm tracks and atmospheric rivers. The subtropical regions of the Azores and South Atlantic high pressure systems are large evaporative areas which act as important moisture sources for the adjacent continents. Variations in the oceanic characteristics may influence the moisture transport towards the neighboring landmasses and alter the precipitation. The influence of climatic variability modes manifest not only over the Atlantic Ocean, but also over other oceanic regions, may also interact with the regional hydrological budget, thereby generating long periods of drought or excessive precipitation over the Atlantic rim landmasses. This Research Topic intends to highlight the advances of the scientific community in investigating the continental precipitation surrounding the Atlantic Ocean and its variability on various temporal and spatial scales.

Challenges to Mean-Based Analysis in Psychology: The Contrast Between Individual People and General Science

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450435 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-043-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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In a recent paper we (Speelman & McGann, 2013) argued that psychology’s reliance on data analysis methods that are based on group averages has resulted in a science of group phenomena that may be misleading about the nature of and reasons for individual behaviour. The paper highlighted a tension between a science in search of general laws on the one hand, and the individual, variable, and diverse nature of human behaviour on the other. This Research Topic explored this concern about the pitfalls of using the mean for the basis of psychological science. The problem is universal in its applicability to psychology, and opinion papers, reviews, and original empirical research from all areas of the discipline were invited. A total of 16 authors contributed 9 articles to the Topic. The range of issues that the authors viewed through the lens provided is impressive. The papers in this collection include a range of perspectives that provide concrete examples of how to approach research design, data collection, and analysis differently. No one contribution will provide a solution to our multifarious challenges, but nor should it. Our subject matter is complex and subtle, our investigations and methodological techniques will need to be equally so.

Keywords

mean --- Average --- variability --- inference --- groups --- Individuals

The Variable Mind? How Apparently Inconsistent Effects Might Inform Model Building

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198597 Year: Pages: 135 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-859-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Model building is typically based on the identification of a set of established facts in any given field of research, insofar as the model is then evaluated on how well it accounts for these facts. Psychology – and specifically visual word identification and reading – is no exception in this sense (e.g., Amenta & Crepaldi, 2012; Coltheart et al., 2001; Grainger & Jacobs, 1996). What counts as an established fact, however, was never discussed in great detail. It was typically considered, for example, that experimental effects need to replicate across, e.g., individuals, experimental settings, and languages if they are to be believed. The emphasis was on consistency, perhaps under a tacit assumption that the universal principles lying behind our cognitive structures determine our behaviour for the most part (or at least for that part that is relevant for model building). There are signs that a different approach is growing up in reading research. On a theoretical ground, Dennis Norris’ Bayesian reader (2006, 2009) has advanced the idea that models can dispense of static forms of representation (i.e., fixed architectures), and process information in a way that is dynamically constrained by context-specific requirements. Ram Frost (2012) has focused on language-specific constraints in the development of general theories of reading. On an empirical ground, the most notable recent advance in visual word identification concern the demonstration that some previously established (in the classic sense) effects depend heavily on language (Velan and Frost, 2011), task (e.g., Duñabeitia et al., 2011; Marelli et al., 2013; Kinoshita and Norris, 2009), or even individual differences (Andrews & Lo, 2012, 2013). Variability has become an intrinsic and informative aspect of cognitive processing, rather than a sign of experimental weakness. This Research Topic aims at moving forward in this new direction by providing an outlet for experimental and theoretical papers that: (i) explore more in depth the theoretical basis for considering variability as an intrinsic property of the human cognitive system; (ii) highlight new context-dependent experimental effects, in a way that is informative on the dynamics of the underlying cognitive processing; (iii) shed new light on known context-dependent experimental effects, again in a way that enhances their theoretical informativeness.

The lichen genus Opegrapha s. l. in Poland: morphological variability, ecology, and distribution

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Book Series: Monographiae Botanicae ISSN: 00770655/23922923 ISBN: 9788395017117/9788395017100 Year: Volume: 107 Pages: 162 DOI: 10.5586/mb.2018.001 Language: English
Publisher: Polish Botanical Society
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-09 13:20:56
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Modeling and Selection of Software Service Variants

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ISBN: 9783731503491 Year: Pages: VIII, 232 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000045936 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:57
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Providers and consumers have to deal with variants of software services, which are alternative instances of a services design, implementation, deployment, or operation. This work develops the service feature modeling language to represent software service variants and a suite of methods to select variants for development or delivery. An evaluation describes the systems implemented to make use of service feature modeling and its application to two real-world use cases.

Neuronal Stochastic Variability: Influences on Spiking Dynamics and Network Activity

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198849 Year: Pages: 156 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-884-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Stochastic fluctuations are intrinsic to and unavoidable at every stage of neural dynamics. For example, ion channels undergo random conformational changes, neurotransmitter release at synapses is discrete and probabilistic, and neural networks are embedded in spontaneous background activity. The mathematical and computational tool sets contributing to our understanding of stochastic neural dynamics have expanded rapidly in recent years. New theories have emerged detailing the dynamics and computational power of the balanced state in recurrent networks. At the cellular level, novel stochastic extensions to the classical Hodgkin-Huxley model have enlarged our understanding of neuronal dynamics and action potential initiation. Analytical methods have been developed that allow for the calculation of the firing statistics of simplified phenomenological integrate-and-fire models, taking into account adaptation currents or temporal correlations of the noise. This Research Topic is focused on identified physiological/internal noise sources and mechanisms. By "internal", we mean variability that is generated by intrinsic biophysical processes. This includes noise at a range of scales, from ion channels to synapses to neurons to networks. The contributions in this Research Topic introduce innovative mathematical analysis and/or computational methods that relate to empirical measures of neural activity and illuminate the functional role of intrinsic noise in the brain.

Dysregulation of Autonomic Cardiac Control by Traumatic Stress and Anxiety

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199150 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-915-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Current understanding of the interplay between sympathetic and parasympathetic influences on cardiac response to environmental stimuli and subsequent response selection (e.g. maintenance of resting homeostasis, mobilization of defensive response, task performance, tonic immobilization, and/or affiliation) will be explored. Reference will be made to how these processes conjoin with proposed polyvagal theory. Cardiac adjustments to environmental stimuli affect the internal physiological state of the organism as well as the quality of information processing that the individual can perform during the stimulus appraisal stage of the orienting response. Bradyrdia is adaptive in early stages of orientation to novel or potential threat, while greater HRV power serves to facilitate self-regulation, stimulus information processing and appraisal, and appropriate response selection. This issue is devoted to current research findings on how normal patterns of cardiac autonomic regulation of HRV are disrupted in PTSD, impairing sustained attention to the environment and increasing the rate of inappropriate responding to stimuli. Origins of our current state of understanding in the ‘intake-rejection’ hypothesis will be considered, and how the intake-rejection hypothesis has morphed into present-day Optimal Performance practice. Additionally, empirical data where available will be presented on how dysregulation of the normal pattern of cardiac autonomic regulation by PTSD impairs sustained attention to the environment, and increases the rate of inappropriate responding to stimuli through disinhibition, poor impulse control, emotional withdrawal, over-arousal, and attentional bias. Current research findings are sought that address in controlled, experimental and clinical trials the restorative effects of HRV biofeedback on HRV power, and how increases in HRV power relate to improved attention / immediate memory and self-regulation of affect using outcome measures of cognition, symptoms of PTSD and depression, stress perception, and level of adaptive function.

Recent insights into perceptual and motor skill learning (The computational and neural substrates of skill learning)

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194469 Year: Pages: 132 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-446-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Improvements in task performance following practice can occur as a result of changes in distinct cognitive and neural processes. In some cases, we can improve our performance by selecting a more successful behavior that is already part of our available repertoire. Skill learning, on the other hand, refers to a slower process that results in improving the ability to perform a behavior, i.e., it involves the acquisition of a behavior that was not available to the controller before training. Skill learning can take place both in the sensory and in the motor domains. Sensory skill acquisition in perceptual learning tasks is measured by improvements in sensory acuity through practice-induced changes in the sensitivity of relevant neural networks. Motor skill is harder to define as the term is used whenever a motor learning behavior improves along some dimension. Nevertheless, we have recently argued that as in perceptual learning, acuity is an integral component in motor skill learning. In this special topic we set out to integrate experimental and theoretical work on perceptual and motor skill learning and to stimulate a discussion regarding the similarities and differences between these two kinds of learning.

Forest Pathology and Plant Health

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ISBN: 9783038426714 9783038426721 Year: Pages: VIII, 234 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-672-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-24 13:57:31
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Every year, a number of new forest pathosystems are discovered as the result of introduction of alien pathogens, host shifts and jumps, hybridization and recombination among pathogens, etc. Disease outbreaks may also be favored by climate change and forest management. The mechanisms driving the resurgence of native pathogens and the invasion of alien ones need to be better understood in order to draft sustainable control strategies. For this Special Issue, we welcome population biology studies providing insights on the epidemiology and invasiveness of emergent forest pathogens possibly by contrasting different scenarios varying in pathogen and host populations size, genetics, phenotype and phenology, landscape fragmentation, occurrence of disturbances, management practices, etc. Both experimental and monitoring approaches are welcome. In summary, this special issue focuses on how variability in hosts, pathogens, or ecology may affect the emergence of new threats to plant species.

Coastal Morphodynamics

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ISBN: 9783038426769 9783038426752 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-675-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-24 14:00:59
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Every year, a number of new forest pathosystems are discovered as the result of introduction of alien pathogens, host shifts and jumps, hybridization and recombination among pathogens, etc. Disease outbreaks may also be favored by climate change and forest management. The mechanisms driving the resurgence of native pathogens and the invasion of alien ones need to be better understood in order to draft sustainable control strategies. For this Special Issue, we welcome population biology studies providing insights on the epidemiology and invasiveness of emergent forest pathogens possibly by contrasting different scenarios varying in pathogen and host populations size, genetics, phenotype and phenology, landscape fragmentation, occurrence of disturbances, management practices, etc. Both experimental and monitoring approaches are welcome. In summary, this special issue focuses on how variability in hosts, pathogens, or ecology may affect the emergence of new threats to plant species.

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