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Biofilms: Extracellular Bastions of Bacteria

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ISBN: 9783906980942 9783906980959 Year: Pages: 300 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-906980-95-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 06:42:46
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Biofilms are attached forms of bacteria and other microorganisms enclosed in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and comprise a microbial lifestyle that is quite different from that of free-living planktonic cells. The biofilm state is now universally-recognized for its complexity and resiliency to stresses, and importance in natural environments, as well its roles in comensal flora and infection processes. However, the EPS matrix, which occur just ‘outside of cells’, is poorly understood, and has been understated in the literature. Yet this extracellular milieu is crucial to the functioning and resiliency of the biofilm. Recently, exciting new advances have emerged that are helping to understand the EPS matrix, its processes, ultrastructure, and importance to cells in nature and disease.

The regulated secretory pathway in neuroendocrine cells

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192465 Year: Pages: 157 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-246-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General) --- Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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The regulated secretory pathway is a hallmark of neuroendocrine cells. This process comprises many sequential steps, which include ER-associated protein synthesis, post-translational modification of proteins in the Golgi complex, sorting and packing of secretory proteins into carrier granules, cytoskeleton-based granule transport towards the plasma membrane and tethering, docking and fusion of granules with specialized releasing zones. Each stage is subjected to a rigorous regulation by a plethora of factors that function in a spatially and temporarily coordinated fashion. Much effort has been devoted to characterize the precise role of the regulatory proteins participating in the different steps of this process and to identify new factors in order to obtain a unifying picture of the secretory pathway. In spite of this and given the enormous complexity of the process, certain stages are not fully understood yet and many players remain to be identified. The aim of this Research Topic is to gather review articles and original research papers on the molecular mechanisms that govern and ensure the correct release of neuropeptides.

Novel clinical applications of extracellular vesicles

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196456 Year: Pages: 66 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-645-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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During the last years, the research on extracellular vesicles (EVs) has raised giving new insights into pathophysiology of several diseases. EVs are membrane-bound particles secreted by almost all cell types. Depending on their biogenesis and size they include exosomes, microparticles / microvesicles and apoptotic bodies. Characteristically, EVs carry markers from the source cell membrane and contain genetic material, lipids and proteins inside. They are known to play a role in cell-to-cell communication and to produce genotypic and phenotypic modifications in the target cell including: antigen presentation, apoptosis induction, cellular activation, inhibition or differentiation. In particular, increasing concentrations of EVs have been found in many diseases such as cancer, autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases, among others. Most of the studies in EVs are focused on the characterization of EVs compounds, identifying mechanism of action, their potential use as biomarkers, and few of them investigate a therapeutic usage. However, there are some issues to be achieved on the path to their clinical application. This research topic offers a common place to discuss current and novel clinical applications of EVs pointing on future directions. We encouraged the submission of original articles, reviews, hypothesis, controversies, future perspectives and personal viewpoints on the following topics of interest, but not limited to: • Contribution of EVs to better understand the pathology of immunological diseases. • Standardization of isolation and quantification protocols in the daily clinical practice. • Possible applications of EVs as clinical biomarkers (diagnostic, prognostic and evolution marker). • Therapeutic role of EVs being vehicles of specific cargo: current clinical trials? • Novel immunological functions of EVs.

Microenvironment-Derived Stem Cell Plasticity

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453443 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-344-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Plasticity is the hallmark of stem cells. At the same time, stem cells, like any other cell type, are influenced by their microenvironment and respond to it accordingly. A specific microenvironment is defined by a variety of factors, including biological and chemical factors, cell-cell interactions, but also metabolic and mechanical cues. Such dynamic and specialized microenvironment where the stem cells reside is considered a stem cell niche. Tissue injury as well as malignant tissue alterations lead to changes in the niche influencing the plasticity and biology of residing stem cells. Similarly, the niche changes upon tissue damage, which eventually induces differentiation of stem cells and ultimately regeneration of the tissue.

Extracellular Vesicle-Mediated Processes in Cardiovascular Diseases

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456208 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-620-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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It is long known that many cells can shed extracellular vesicles, small membrane-enclosed cell fragments. Although the existence of extracellular vesicles has been recognized for many years, researchers are only beginning to understand their physiologic significance. Several recent studies have demonstrated that extracellular vesicles released from cells serve as a mode of cellular communication. They can carry diverse molecular payload (e.g. nucleic acids, bioactive lipids and proteins) to distal organs and recipient cells. Extracellular vesicles can be classified into three major groups: exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies. All these types of extracellular vesicles can be found in a variety of biologic specimen and their numbers, distribution and composition may serve as biomarkers for various disorders, including cardiovascular disease. Although extracellular vesicle-mediated processes are currently best characterized in the fields of cancer biology and neurobiology, evidence is accumulating that extracellular vesicles play a key role in the pathophysiology of diabetes, thrombosis, inflammation and cardiovascular calcification.In this Research Topic, we invited review and methodological articles that advance our understanding of extracellular vesicle-related processes in vascular biology.

Golgi Pathology in Neurodegenerative Diseases

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197576 Year: Pages: 119 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-757-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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The Golgi apparatus is a central organelle that lies at the heart of the secretory pathway. It ensures post-translational protein modifications such as glycosylation and cleavage as well as protein sorting to neuronal axons and dendrites. Structural and functional alterations of the Golgi apparatus (fragmentation and atrophy), which are collectively termed Golgi pathology, are now recognized as a constant feature of many neuro-degenerative diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes and their precise relevance to neurodegeneration have not yet been completely elucidated. This eBook contains 13 reviews that address the molecular mechanisms of Golgi pathology in Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophies, and discuss their potential relevance to the pathological loss of neuronal cell bodies, axons and synapses.

Regulatory microRNA

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ISBN: 9783038977681 9783038977698 Year: Pages: 348 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-769-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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This book includes updated information about microRNA regulation, for example, in the fields of circular RNAs, multiomics analysis, biomarkers and oncogenes. The variety of topics included in this book reaffirms the extent to which microRNA regulation affects biological processes. Although microRNAs are not translated to proteins, their importance for biological processes is not less than proteins. An understanding of their roles in various biological processes is critical to understanding gene function in these biological processes. Although non-coding RNAs other than microRNAs have recently come under investigation, microRNA still remains the front runner as the subject of genetic and biological studies. In reading the collection of papers, readers can grasp the most updated information regarding microRNA regulation, which will continue to be an important topic in genetics and biology.

Keywords

tensor decomposition --- miRNA transfection --- sequence-nonspecific off-target regulation --- extracellular vesicles --- cancer --- therapeutics --- miRNA --- virus --- host --- Cross-Kingdom --- target prediction --- microRNAs --- autophagy --- mitophagy --- cardiac diseases --- biomarker --- calf --- Ileum --- miRNA-mRNA integration --- miRNA sequencing --- growth --- development --- microRNA --- myelodysplastic syndromes --- acute myeloid leukemia --- azacitidine --- 14q32 --- MEG3 --- autophagy regulator --- transcriptional factor --- non-coding RNA --- regulatory network --- RWR algorithm --- circular RNA --- circFGFR2 --- FGFR2 --- miR-133a-5p --- miR-29b-1-5p --- skeletal muscle --- proliferation --- differentiation --- breast cancer --- CAFs --- estrogens --- GPER --- miR-338-3p --- c-Fos --- Cyclin D1 --- amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) --- biomarker --- microRNA --- cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) --- muscle biopsy --- circulating miRNAs --- RNA interference --- small interfering RNA --- microRNA --- oncolytic virotherapy --- conditionally replicating adenovirus (CRAd) --- biomarker --- gene --- microRNA --- parkinson’s disease --- miRNA --- bioinformatic analysis --- ischemic stroke --- miRNA-gene target interaction --- network --- biomarker --- diagnosis --- prognosis --- microRNAs --- epigenetic biomarker --- sepsis --- inflammation --- Teleostei --- embryogenesis --- tissue-enriched miRNAs --- post-transcriptional gene regulation --- miRNA expression and regulation --- passenger miRNA --- biomarker --- vascular injury --- smooth muscle cells --- porcine vein graft and stent models --- bone angiogenesis --- osteogenesis --- angiogenic-osteogenic coupling --- microRNAs --- bone regeneration --- bone formation --- bone tissue-engineering --- angiomiRs --- osteomiRs --- hypoxamiRs --- circular RNA --- circHIPK3 --- microRNA --- miR-30a-3p --- skeletal muscle --- proliferation --- differentiation

Cow's Milk and Allergy

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ISBN: 9783039280285 / 9783039280292 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-029-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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The purpose of this Special Issue “Cow’s Milk and Allergy” is to provide an overview of the association of cow’s milk with allergy. This topic has two quite different faces. On the one hand, we are all aware of the importance of cow’s milk allergy in early life. What is less known is that the consumption of raw, unprocessed milk is associated with a lower incidence of asthma and rhinitis. This Special Issue takes a closer look at all of these aspects of cow’s milk and allergy and focus on the following questions:

Keywords

allergic march --- cow’s milk allergy --- genome-wide association --- polygenic risk score --- food allergy --- cow’s milk --- camel milk --- infant formula --- animal models --- raw milk --- allergy --- asthma --- protection --- cow’s milk allergy --- casein --- cell-mediated reactions --- delayed-type hypersensitivity --- extracellular vesicles --- miRNA-150 --- cow’s milk allergy --- epidemiology --- natural history --- prevalence --- Cow’s milk allergy (CMA), anaphylaxis --- sensitization pattern --- cow’s milk allergens --- CAP-FEIA (Fluorescence Enzyme Immunoassay) --- multiplex dot test --- basophil activation test (BAT), human breast milk --- cow’s milk allergy --- immune system --- dietary intervention --- bioactive peptides --- gut microbiota --- prebiotics --- probiotics --- aggregation --- allergenicity --- ?-lactoglobulin --- CML --- glycation --- sRAGE --- IgE binding --- partial hydrolysate --- cow’s milk protein allergy --- hydrolysate --- infant feeding --- Middle-East --- step-down --- infant allergy --- cow’s milk allergy --- cow’s milk allergens --- diagnosis of cow’s milk allergy --- molecular diagnosis --- treatment of cow’s milk allergy --- prevention of cow’s milk allergy --- alkaline phosphatase --- allergic diseases --- food allergy --- immune regulation --- milk processing --- raw cow’s milk --- milk allergen --- baked milk --- cow’s milk --- allergenicity modulation --- proteomics --- epigenetics --- farming effect --- food allergy --- histone acetylation --- milk processing --- raw milk --- cow’s milk allergy --- milk --- hydrolysate --- asthma --- processing --- tolerance --- allergy --- cow’s milk --- formula --- therapy --- immune cells --- Immunoglubuline E

Cell-Free Nucleic Acids

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ISBN: 9783039280742 / 9783039280759 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-075-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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The deficits of mammography and the potential of noninvasive diagnostic testing using circulating miRNA profiles are presented in our first review article. Exosomes are important in the transfer of genetic information. The current knowledge on exosome-associated DNAs and on vesicle-associated DNAs and their role in pregnancy-related complications is presented in the next article. The major obstacle is the lack of a standardized technique for the isolation and measurement of exosomes. One review has summarized the latest results on cell-free nucleic acids in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Despite the extensive research, the etiology and exact pathogenesis are still unclear, although similarity to the cell-free ribonucleic acids (cfRNAs) observed in other autoimmune diseases seems to be relevant in IBD. Liquid biopsy is a useful tool for the differentiation of leiomyomas and sarcomas in the corpus uteri. One manuscript has collected the most important knowledge of mesenchymal uterine tumors and shows the benefits of noninvasive sampling. Microchimerism has also recently become a hot topic. It is discussed in the context of various forms of transplantation and transplantation-related advanced therapies, the available cell-free nucleic acid (cfNA) markers, and the detection platforms that have been introduced. Ovarian cancer is one of the leading serious malignancies among women, with a high incidence of mortality; the introduction of new noninvasive diagnostic markers could help in its early detection and treatment monitoring. Epigenetic regulation is very important during the development of diseases and drug resistance. Methylation changes are important signs during ovarian cancer development, and it seems that the CDH1 gene is a potential candidate for being a noninvasive biomarker in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Preeclampsia is a mysterious disease—despite intensive research, the exact details of its development are unknown. It seems that cell-free nucleic acids could serve as biomarkers for the early detection of this disease. Three research papers deal with the prenatal application of cfDNA. Copy number variants (CNVs) are important subjects for the study of human genome variations, as CNVs can contribute to population diversity and human genetic diseases. These are useful in NIPT as a source of population specific data. The reliability of NIPT depends on the accurate estimation of fetal fraction. Improvement in the success rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) is an important goal. The measurement of embryo-specific small noncoding RNAs in culture media could improve the efficiency of ET.

Keywords

breast cancer --- screening --- liquid biopsy --- omics --- multi-level diagnostics --- individualized patient profile --- miRNA --- mammography --- predictive and preventive approach --- personalized medicine --- cell-free DNA --- exosomes --- extracellular vesicles --- fetal DNA --- preeclampsia --- growth retardation --- gestational diabetes mellitus --- miRNA --- piRNA --- NGS --- RT-PCR --- embryo culture medium --- C19MC microRNA --- expression --- exosomes --- fetal growth restriction --- gestational hypertension --- plasma --- prediction --- preeclampsia --- pregnancy-related complications --- screening --- non-invasive prenatal testing --- statistical models --- z-score --- cell-free nucleic acids --- circulating nucleic acids --- cell-free DNAs --- cell-free RNAs --- exosomes --- inflammatory bowel disease --- neutrophil extracellular traps --- NETosis --- liquid biopsy --- cell-free nucleic acids --- circulating tumor cells --- leiomyomas --- sarcomas --- leiomyosarcomas --- exosomes --- NIPT --- fetal fraction --- statistical methods --- DNA --- maternal serum screening --- fetal cells --- liquid biopsy --- pyrosequencing --- ovarian cancer --- CDH1 --- PTEN --- PAX1 --- RASSF1 --- cfDNA --- cell-free DNA --- nuclease activity --- aging --- obesity --- gender differences --- copy number variants --- next generation sequencing --- non-invasive prenatal testing --- population study --- microchimerism --- solid organ transplantation --- hematopoietic stem cell transplantation --- genetic marker --- single nucleotide polymorphism --- deletion/insertion polymorphism --- ovarian cancer --- circulating miRNA --- blood plasma --- NanoString --- network analysis --- biomarker --- n/a

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