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The Second Life of Natural Killer (NK) Cells

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455461 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-546-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Abstract

Natural Killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes, now recognized as members of a larger family of “Innate lymphoid cells” (ILCs). Both murine and human NK cells are well characterized effector cells with cytotoxic as well as cytokine production ability which mainly react in response to microbial and cell stress stimuli, thus playing a central role in the defense against pathogen infection, in tumor surveillance and in regulating immune homeostasis. Despite these established concepts, our understanding of the complexity of NK cells, also in view of their developmental and functional relationship with other ILC subsets, is only recently emerging. This Research Topic highlights the recent advances in NK cell (and ILC) research in human and mouse from basic research to clinical applications.

Family Iridoviridae Molecular and Ecological Studies of a Family Infecting Invertebrates and Ectothermic Vertebrates

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ISBN: 9783039215164 / 9783039215171 Year: Pages: 234 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-517-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Abstract

Ranaviruses and other viruses within the family Iridoviridae, infect a wide range of ecologically and commercially important ectothermic vertebrates, i.e., bony fish, amphibians, and reptiles, and invertebrates, including agricultural and medical pests and cultured shrimp and crayfish, and are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality. Understanding the impact of these various agents on diverse host species requires the combined efforts of ecologists, veterinarians, pathologists, comparative immunologists and molecular virologists. Unfortunately, investigators involved in these studies often work in discipline-specific silos that preclude interaction with others whose insights and approaches are required to comprehensively address problems related to ranavirus/iridovirus disease. Our intent here is to breakdown these silos and provide a forum where diverse researchers with a common interest in ranavirus/iridovirus biology can profitably interact. As a colleague once quipped, “Three people make a genius.” We are hoping to do something along those lines by presenting a collection of research articles dealing with issues of anti-viral immunity, identification of a potentially novel viral genus exemplified by erythrocytic necrosis virus, viral inhibition of innate immunity, identification of novel hosts for lymphocystivirus and invertebrate iridoviruses, and modelling studies of ranavirus transmission. Collectively these and others will exemplify the breadth of ongoing studies focused on this virus family.

Keywords

amphibians --- histopathology --- immunohistochemistry --- Mexico --- outbreak --- ranavirus --- risk assessment --- Iridoviridae --- frog virus 3 --- FV3 --- ranavirus --- immunofluorescence --- intracellular localization --- iridovirus --- ranavirus --- epidemiology --- antibody --- ELISA --- virus isolation --- prevalence --- native-fish conservation --- biosecurity --- endemic disease --- Unconventional T cell --- nonclassical MHC --- antiviral immunity --- interferon --- DIV1 --- SHIV --- CQIV --- Macrobrachium rosenbergii --- Macrobrachium nipponense --- Procambarus clarkii --- white head --- susceptible species --- viral load --- erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) --- viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) --- Pacific salmon --- Pacific herring --- British Columbia --- SHIV --- DIV1 --- Decapodiridovirus --- Exopalaemon carinicauda --- susceptibility --- host --- ISDL --- amphibian --- Ranavirus --- frog virus 3 --- mathematical models --- Bayesian inference --- viral immune evasion --- immunomodulators --- NF-?B --- Imd --- DNA virus --- host-pathogen interactions --- IIV-6 --- Rana grylio virus (RGV) --- iridovirus core proteins --- protein interaction --- aquatic animals --- cross-species transmission --- yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) --- co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) --- megalocytivirus --- iridovirus --- European chub --- Lymphocystis disease virus --- Artemia spp. --- viral infection --- Sparus aurata --- viral transmission --- eDNA --- Ranavirus --- Common frog --- Rana temporaria --- early detection --- virus surveillance --- n/a --- transmission modelling --- susceptible-infected (SI) models --- emerging infection --- ranavirosis --- Iridoviridae --- disease dynamics --- ranavirus --- virus binding --- heparan sulfate --- Andrias davidianus ranavirus --- Rana grylio virus --- envelope protein --- lizard --- bearded dragon --- Pogona vitticeps --- cricket --- Gryllus bimaculatus

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