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Molecular Biology of Bamboo mosaic Virus - A Type Member of the Potexvirus Genus

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454396 Year: Pages: 109 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-439-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Abstract

The flexible filamentous plant viruses are responsible for more than half of all agricultural loss worldwide. Potexvirus is one of the two most important flexible filamentous plant viruses. Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV), a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus, is a member of the Potexvirus genus of Alphaflexiviridae. It can infect at least 12 species of bamboo, causing a huge economic impact on the bamboo industry in Taiwan. The study of BaMV did not start extensively until the completion of the full-length sequencing of genomic RNA of BaMV and generation of the BaMV infectious cDNA clone in the early 1990s. Since then, BaMV has been extensively studied at the molecular, cellular and ecological level, covering both basic and applied researches, by a group of researchers in Taiwan. In this eBook, the content comprises 6 reviews and 4 articles. Seven of them are involved in the infection of BaMV covering viral RNA replication, viral RNA trafficking, and the host factors. Two of them are related to the vector transmission and the ecology of BaMV. The last one is the application of using BaMV as a viral vector to produce vaccines in plants.

Nucleic Acid Architectures for Therapeutics, Diagnostics, Devices and Materials

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ISBN: 9783039212590 / 9783039212606 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-260-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) and their chemical analogs have been utilized as building materials due to their biocompatibility and programmability. RNA, which naturally possesses a wide range of different functions, is now being widely investigated for its role as a responsive biomaterial which dynamically reacts to changes in the surrounding environment. It is now evident that artificially designed self-assembling RNAs, that can form programmable nanoparticles and supra-assemblies, will play an increasingly important part in a diverse range of applications, such as macromolecular therapies, drug delivery systems, biosensing, tissue engineering, programmable scaffolds for material organization, logic gates, and soft actuators, to name but a few. The current exciting Special Issue comprises research highlights, short communications, research articles, and reviews that all bring together the leading scientists who are exploring a wide range of the fundamental properties of RNA and DNA nanoassemblies suitable for biomedical applications.

Towards Mechanism-based Treatments for Fragile X Syndrome

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ISBN: 9783039215058 / 9783039215065 Year: Pages: 250 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-506-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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It has been more than 25 years since the identification of the FMR1 gene and the demonstration of the causative role of CGG-repeat expansion in the disease pathology of fragile X syndrome (FXS), but the underlying mechanisms involved in the expansion mutation and the resulting gene silencing still remain elusive. Our understanding of the pathways impacted by the loss of FMRP function has grown tremendously, and has opened new avenues for targeted treatments for FXS. However, the failure of recent clinical trials that were based on successful preclinical studies using the Fmr1 knockout mouse model has forced the scientific community to revisit clinical trial design and identify objective outcome measures. There has also been a renewed interest in restoring FMR1 gene expression as a possible treatment approach for FXS. This special issue of Brain Sciences highlights the progress that has been made towards understanding the disease mechanisms and how this has informed the development of treatment strategies that are being explored for FXS.

Keywords

fragile X syndrome --- clinical trials --- targeted treatments --- drug development --- fragile X syndrome --- clinical trials --- treatment development --- best practices --- fragile X syndrome --- newborn screening --- early identification --- fragile X syndrome --- X chromosome --- females --- FMR1 --- anxiety --- avoidance --- cognition --- behavior --- brain --- Fragile X --- FMRP --- Fxr2 --- Fmr1 --- fragile X syndrome --- executive function --- working memory --- set-shifting --- cognitive flexibility --- inhibitory control --- attention --- planning --- processing speed --- Fragile X syndrome 1 --- Fragile X-associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome 2 --- CRISPR 3 --- Trinucleotide Repeat 4 --- Gene editing --- fragile X syndrome --- FMR1 gene --- voice of the person --- voice of the patient --- characteristics that have the greatest impact --- developmental disorders --- fragile X syndrome --- language development --- automated vocal analysis --- adeno-associated virus --- autism spectrum disorders --- cerebral spinal fluid --- fragile X mental retardation protein --- neurodevelopmental disorders --- viral vector --- fragile X syndrome --- gene reactivation --- RNA:DNA hybrid --- FMRP --- histone methylation --- DNA methylation --- FMR1 --- PRC2 --- fragile X syndrome --- unstable repeat diseases --- epigenetic gene silencing --- DNA methylation --- repeat instability --- pluripotent stem cells --- CGG Repeat Expansion Disease --- DNA instability --- expansion --- contraction --- mismatch repair (MMR) --- base excision repair (BER) --- transcription coupled repair (TCR) --- double-strand break repair (DSBR) --- Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) --- mosaicism --- protein synthesis --- Fragile X Syndrome --- biomarker --- iPSC --- fibroblast --- lymphoblast --- fragile X syndrome --- molecular biomarkers --- FMR1 --- FMRP --- intellectual disability --- Fmr1 KO mouse --- ASD --- n/a

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