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Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus as a Case Study: Using a Precautionary Risk Management Approach for Emerging Blood-Borne Pathogens in Canada (Book chapter)

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9809533075827 Year: DOI: 10.5772/38572 Language: English
Publisher: Intech Grant: FP7 Ideas: European Research Council - 228064
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:47:58
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In October 2009 it was reported that 68 of 101 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in the United States, when tested, were infected with a novel gamma retrovirus, xenotropic&#xD;&#xD;murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) (Lombardi et al., 2009). XMRV is a recently&#xD;&#xD;discovered human gammaretrovirus first described in prostate cancers that shares&#xD;&#xD;significant homology with murine leukemia virus (MLV) (Ursiman et al., 2006). It is known&#xD;&#xD;that XMRV can cause leukemias and sarcomas in several rodent, feline, and primate species&#xD;&#xD;but has not been shown to cause disease in humans. XMRV was detectable in the peripheral&#xD;&#xD;blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma of individuals diagnosed with CFS&#xD;&#xD;(Lombardi et al., 2009). After this report was published there was a great deal of uncertainty&#xD;&#xD;surrounding this emergent virus and its involvement in the etiology of CFS. The uncertainty&#xD;&#xD;was, in part, due to CFS being a complex, poorly understood multi-system disorder with&#xD;&#xD;different disease criteria used for its diagnosis. CFS, also known as Myalgic&#xD;&#xD;Encephalomyelitis (ME), is a debilitating disease of unknown origin that is estimated to&#xD;&#xD;affect 17 million people worldwide. The initial report connecting XMRV to prostate cancers&#xD;&#xD;and CFS garnered significant media and scientific interest since it provided a potential&#xD;&#xD;&#xD;&#xD;Susie ElSaadany2**, Tamer Oraby1&#xD;&#xD;*&#xD;&#xD;Daniel Krewski1, 4 and Peter R. Ganz5&#xD;&#xD;1McLaughlin Centre for Population Health Risk Assessment, Institute of Population Health, University of&#xD;&#xD;Ottawa, Ontario, Canada&#xD;&#xD;2Blood Safety Surveillance and Health Care Acquired Infections Division, Centre for Communicable Diseases and&#xD;&#xD;Infection Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada&#xD;&#xD;3Aspinall and Associates, Cleveland House, High Street, and Earth Sciences, Bristol University, Bristol, United&#xD;&#xD;Kingdom&#xD;&#xD;4Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa,&#xD;&#xD;Ontario, Canada&#xD;&#xD;5Health Canada, Director’s Office, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada&#xD;&#xD;** Corresponding Author&#xD;&#xD;, Marian Laderoute2&#xD;&#xD;, Jun Wu2&#xD;&#xD;, Willy Aspinall3&#xD;&#xD;,&#xD;&#xD;www.intechopen.com&#xD;&#xD;32 The Continuum of Health Risk Assessments&#xD;&#xD;explanation for the disease but also an avenue for possible therapeutic treatments since&#xD;&#xD;XMRV is known to be susceptible to some anti-retroviral drugs (Cohen, 2011).

Keywords

case study --- virus

Advances in Flavivirus Research

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ISBN: 9783038424864 9783038424871 Year: Pages: VI, 192 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-487-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-25 13:14:10
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The flaviviruses are composed almost entirely of arthropod-borne viruses, a subset of which are responsible for millions of cases of human disease each year. Among these viruses are dengue virus—a scourge throughout the tropical regions of Asia and the Americas; yellow fever virus—the “original” hemorrhagic fever virus; and the recently emerged Zika virus. While the flaviviruses are related genetically, in their structure and in their replication processes, the dissimilarity of diseases caused by the flaviviruses is remarkable. In this Special Issue, primary research articles and reviews discuss topics ranging from broadly applicable questions of nuclear translocation of viral proteins to virus-specific envelope protein epitopes that may be associated with virus attenuation. Also included in this issue are articles discussing findings with less well known flaviviruses including pegivirus and Duck Tembusu virus. The latter provides a reminder that the flaviviruses not only impact humans, but other species as well.

Pathophysiology and epidemiology of virus-induced asthma

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194100 Year: Pages: 99 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-410-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Virus-caused asthma, we now call a phenotype of asthma. Regardless of the significance and popularity of this disease, the etiology of the virus-induced asthma have not well understood. In addition, a few effective vaccines have been applied to prevent respiratory virus infection. To solve the issues, it is essential to clarify and delineate both aspects of the virus and host defense systems including acute/chronic inflammation and airway tissue remodeling. To deeply review and discuss pathophysiology and epidemiology of virus-induced asthma, this topics includes new findings of the host immunity, pathology, epidemiology, and virology of asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We believe that these works are well summarized and informative to glimpse the field of virus- associated asthma and COPD, and may help understanding the basic and clinical aspects of the diseases.

Control of Pestivirus Infections in the Management of Wildlife Populations

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450220 Year: Pages: 87 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-022-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Infections with recognized and putative species of the genus pestivirus are not host-specific and are documented in many wildlife species. The study of pestivirus infections in wildlife species is important both to eradication programs and programs for maintaining the health and well-being of wildlife populations. Free-ranging wildlife species may act as reservoirs for pestiviruses that infect domestic species. For this reason, eradication efforts for classical swine fever virus include control of the virus in wild boar populations. The contribution of free-ranging species to the circulation of BVDV1, BVDV2, and BDV is less well understood. While substantial damage due to pestivirus infections has been demonstrated in a few specific wildlife populations, the impact of pestiviral infections on the well-being of most captive and free-ranging wildlife populations is largely unknown. The research topics summarizes our current understanding of pestiviral infections in wildlife and discusses the challenges in understanding and mediating their impact on captive and free ranging wildlife species.

Plant immunity against viruses

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452699 Year: Pages: 163 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-269-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Plant viruses impose a serious threat on agriculture, which motivates extensive breeding efforts for viral resistant crops and inspires lasting interests on basic research to understand the mechanisms underlying plant immunity against viruses. Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites. Their genomes are usually small and only encode a few products that are essential to hijack host machinery for their nucleotide and protein biosynthesis, and that are necessary to suppress host immunity. Plants evolved multilayers of defense mechanisms to defeat viral infection. In this research topic, we gathered 13 papers covering recent advances in different aspects of plant immunity against viruses, including reviews on RNA silencing and R gene based immunity and their application, translational initiation factor mediated recessive resistance, genome editing based viral immunity, role of chloroplast in plant-virus interaction, and research articles providing new mechanistic insights on plant-virus interactions. We hope that this Research Topic helps readers to have a better understanding of the progresses that have been made recently in plant immunity against viruses. A deeper understanding of plant antiviral immunity will facilitate the development of innovative approaches for crop protections and improvements.

Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus

ISBN: 9783038420774 9783038420767 Year: Pages: 356 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 09:09:45
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The discovery of KSHV in 1994 was a historical landmark in tumor virology and human cancer research. Its subsequent identification as a cause of Kaposi sarcoma and in association with primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman disease soon attracted up to hundreds of research laboratories and thousands of virologists and oncologists to switch their research directions. To date, PubMed has collected nearly 5000 papers on KSHV from numerous journal publications in the world. These studies reiterate that the global fight against human cancers will continue to receive great support from our tremendous efforts in searching for new tumor-causing viruses and in understanding the basic biology of tumor viruses. To celebrate the 20th years of KSHV discovery, I am very proud to be an invited Guest Editor for a special issue on KSHV in the journal "Viruses" and happy to assemble all published articles from the special issue into this book, Kaposi Sarcoma Associated Herpesvirus. The collected articles cover almost all aspects of KSHV, including updated reviews and research articles on KSHV epidemiology and transmission, KSHV interaction with host cell receptors and cell entry, KSHV latency and latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA), molecular biology of KSHV lytic reactivation and lytic switch control by KSHV ORF50 and other factors, KSHV post-transcriptional regulator ORF57, molecular biology of KSHV polyadenylated nuclear RNA (PAN RNA) and PAN as a lncRNA in epigenetic gene regulation of KSHV, viral mimics of cellular genes in KSHV infection and disease, KSHV targeted therapy, KSHV miRNAs and vGPCR, etc. In particular, I am greatly honored to have Yuan Chang and Patrick Moore to mark the first 20 years of KSHV research by recounting the historical stories leading to their astonish discovery and Science publication of KSHV that has led us where we are today. The book is also intended to assist Medical students and residents, dermatologists, hematologist, oncologists, and other related specialties to understand what we have known about KSHV and its infections and pathogenesis.

Perspectives for the Next Generation of Virus Research: Spearheading the Use of Innovative Technologies and Methodologies

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452156 Year: Pages: 191 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-215-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Infectious diseases are associated with approximately 20% of global mortality, with viral diseases causing about one third of these deaths. Besides newly emerging and re-emerging viral infections will continue to pose a threat to human survival globally. In this case scientific advances have greatly been increased to defend against those pathogens. For example, rapid genomic sequencing, proteomics, epigenomics, nanotechnology, and other advanced tools are being applied to detect viruses at the point of care and to track their spread within human populations as well as to understand virus-host interaction and virus induced pathogenesis. From rapid identification of new viruses to prevention with vaccination and treatment with effective therapeutics, biomedical research has continuously provided tools to meet the constant threat of emerging viral pathogens. Despite these advances, each new disease brings unique challenges to scientists every year. So we must stay at the cutting edge of scientific discovery, working energetically to develop new tools to combat the ever-changing threats they pose. Our research topic highlights such advanced and new technology based virus research which definitely bolsters the researcher's ability to tackle emerging, re-emerging and stable viral pathogens. We are credulous that the papers including in the e-books will be beneficial to the experts in the field to understand the molecular, immunological, ecological and clinical aspects of the next generation researches for the prevention and control of infectious diseases caused by viruses.

Influenza Virus Vaccines and Immunotherapies

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198115 Year: Pages: 185 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-811-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Influenza virus infections lead to thousands of deaths worldwide annually and billions of dollars economic burden. Despite continuing advances in our understanding of the immune evasion mechanism, the disease remains one of the foremost threat for human being. Traditional vaccines (attenuated and inactivated) mainly provide protection by inducing virus neutralizing antibodies, targeting ever changing surface antigens: Haemagultinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA). Due to genetic shift and immune selection pressure, prevalence of circulating influenza virus subtypes changes every year. Therefore, mismatch between circulating strain and vaccine strain can critically affect the success rate of these conventional flu vaccines, and requires continuous monitoring of circulating influenza virus subtypes and change in the vaccine formulations accordingly. The collective limitations of existing flu vaccines urgently call for the development of a novel universal vaccines that might provide the required protective immunity to a range of influenza virus subtypes. New approaches are being investigated mainly targeting conserved regions of flu proteins. Some of these approaches include universally conserved epitopes of HA, nucleoprotein (NP), capsid protein (M1) and ion channel protein (M2) that induced strong immune responses in animal models. Some attention and progress appears to be focused on vaccines based on the M2 ectodomain (M2e) employing a variety of constructs, adjuvants and delivery systems, including M2e-hepatitis B core antigen, flagellin constructs, and virus-like particles (VLP). Animal studies with these M2e candidate vaccines demonstrated that these vaccine candidates can prevent severe illness and death but not infection, which may pose difficulties in both the evaluation of clinical efficacy and approval by the regulatory authorities. VLP vaccines appear to be promising, but still are mostly limited to animal studies. The discovery and development of new and improved vaccines have been greatly facilitated by the application of new technologies. The use of nucleic acid-based vaccines, to combine the benefits of in-situ expression of antigens with the safety of inactivated and subunit vaccines, has been a key advancement. Upon their discovery more than 20 years ago, nucleic acid vaccines promised to be a safe and effective mean to mimic immunization with a live organism vaccine, particularly for induction of T cell immunity. In addition, the manufacturing of nucleic acid-based vaccines offered the potential to be relatively simple, inexpensive and generic. Reverse Vaccinology and in-silico designing of vaccines are very innovative approaches and being considered as future of vaccines. Furthermore, various immuno-therapeutic agents also being developed to treat and minimize immuno-pathological damage in patients suffering from life threatening complications. For the treatment of such pathological conditions, various novel approaches such as administration of immune suppressive cytokines, blocking co-stimulatory signals or activating co-inhibitory signal of T cell activation, are being tested both in lab and clinics. The Research Topic on influenza virus vaccine and therapeutics will give an insight in to the current status and future scope of these new innovative approaches and technologies. Moreover, these new methods will also serve as a reference tool for the development of future vaccines against several other pathogens.

New Advances on Zika Virus Research

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038977643 Year: Pages: 552 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-765-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne member of the Flaviviridae family that historically has been associated with mild febrile illness. However, the recent outbreaks in Brazil in 2015 and its rapid spread throughout South and Central America and the Caribbean, together with its association with severe neurological disorders—including fetal microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults—have changed the historic perspective of ZIKV. Currently, ZIKV is considered an important public health concern that has the potential to affect millions of people worldwide. The significance of ZIKV in human health and the lack of approved vaccines and/or antiviral drugs to combat ZIKV infection have triggered a global effort to develop effective countermeasures to prevent and/or treat ZIKV infection. In this Special Issue of Viruses, we have assembled a collection of 32 research and review articles that cover the more recent advances on ZIKV molecular biology, replication and transmission, virus–host interactions, pathogenesis, epidemiology, vaccine development, antivirals, and viral diagnosis.

Keywords

Ziks virus --- silvestrol --- antiviral --- eIF4A --- hepatocytes --- flavivirus --- arbovirus --- Zika --- sexual transmission --- testis --- prostate --- Zika virus --- ZIKV --- rhesus macaques --- Non-human primates --- NHP --- infection --- natural history --- Asian-lineage --- African-lineage --- zika virus --- ZIKV–host interactions --- viral pathogenesis --- cell surface receptors --- antiviral responses --- viral counteraction --- cytopathic effects --- microcephaly --- ZIKV-associated neurologic disorders --- Zika virus --- serology --- flavivirus --- microsphere immunoassay --- validated --- optimised --- dengue virus --- ZIKV --- reporter virus --- cryptic promoter silencing --- full-length molecular clone --- subgenomic replicon --- plasmid toxicity --- Zika virus --- dengue viruses --- flavivirus --- ELISA --- indirect immunofluorescence --- plaque reduction neutralization test --- polymerase chain reaction --- cross-reactions --- Zika virus --- flavivirus --- infectious cDNA --- replication --- gene expression --- neuropathogenesis --- viral genetic variation --- host genetic variation --- flavivirus --- Zika virus --- therapy --- host-directed antivirals --- Aedes aegypti --- RNA-seq --- insecticide resistance --- Zika virus --- detoxification and immune system responses --- Zika virus --- mosquito-borne flavivirus --- emerging arbovirus --- outbreak control --- molecular diagnostics --- laboratory preparedness --- assay standardization --- external quality assessment --- EQA --- QCMD --- flavivirus --- eye --- zika virus --- blood-retinal barrier --- ocular --- innate response --- Zika virus --- pregnancy --- fetal infection --- congenital Zika syndrome --- Asian lineage --- Zika virus --- Full-length cDNA infectious clones --- Bacterial artificial chromosome --- NS2A protein --- Zika virus --- neural progenitor cells --- neurons --- Zika virus --- antivirals --- therapeutics --- research models and tools --- flavivirus --- Zika virus (ZIKV) --- reverse genetics --- infectious clone --- full-length molecular clone --- bacterial artificial chromosome --- replicon --- infectious RNA --- Zika virus --- flavivirus --- arbovirus --- sexual transmission --- host genetic variation --- immune response --- Zika virus --- flaviviruses --- vaccines --- virus like particles --- clinical trials --- ZIKV --- NS1 protein --- Zika virus --- diagnosis --- monoclonal antibodies --- ELISA --- zika virus --- placenta cells --- microglia cells --- siRNA --- TLR7/8 --- Zika --- viral evolution --- genetic variability --- Bayesian analyses --- Zika virus --- reverse genetics --- infectious cDNA --- Tet-inducible --- MR766 --- FSS13025 --- flavivirus --- ZIKV --- NS5 --- type I IFN antagonist --- point-of-care diagnostics --- isothermal nucleic acid amplification --- nucleic acid computation --- nucleic acid strand exchange --- zika virus --- mosquito --- mosquito surveillance --- multiplex nucleic acid detection --- boolean logic-processing nucleic acid probes --- Zika virus --- flavivirus --- astrocytomas --- dsRNA --- viral fitness --- antiviral --- heme-oxygenase 1 --- Zika virus --- viral replication --- Zika virus --- antiviral compounds --- neural cells --- viral replication --- flavivirus --- Zika virus --- viral persistence --- testicular cells --- testes --- Zika virus --- prM-E proteins --- viral pathogenicity --- virus attachment --- viral replication --- viral permissiveness --- viral survival --- apoptosis --- cytopathic effects --- mutagenesis --- chimeric viruses --- human brain glial cells --- Zika virus --- flavivirus --- microRNAs --- neurons --- neuroinflammation --- anti-viral immunity --- Zika virus --- dengue virus --- secondary infections --- cross-reactions --- IgA --- IgG avidity tests

Abiotic Stress: Molecular Genetics and Genomics

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193592 Year: Pages: 101 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-359-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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Abiotic stresses are the major cause that limits productivity of crop plants worldwide. Plants have developed intricate machinery to respond and adapt over these adverse environmental conditions both at physiological and molecular levels. Due to increasing problems of abiotic stresses, plant biotechnologists and breeders need to employ new approaches to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Although current research has divulged several key genes, gene regulatory networks and quantitative trait loci that mediate plant responses to various abiotic stresses, the comprehensive understanding of this complex trait is still not available. This e-book is focused on molecular genetics and genomics approaches to understand the plant response/adaptation to various abiotic stresses. It includes different types of articles (original research, method, opinion and review) that provide current insights into different aspects of plant responses and adaptation to abiotic stresses.

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