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Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Eastern Africa

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ISBN: 9781786394385; 9781786392145 Year: Pages: 601 DOI: 10.1079/9781786392145.0000 Language: English
Publisher: CABI
Subject: Ecology --- Botany --- Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-10-16 15:15:27
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Both in Ethiopia and in the countries of East Africa, the continuing proliferation and spread of invasive alien species (IAS) is now recognized as a serious problem, which needs to be addressed. While this situation has improved dramatically over the past 10 years, further progress has been hampered by the absence, hitherto, of a comprehensive IAS database for the region. Countries in the region have repeatedly expressed the need for such a database, as a tool to assist in the identification of naturalized and invasive alien plant species, and in understanding their impacts, both existing and potential, while also providing pointers on what can be done to manage such species. This information is seen as essential, not only in enabling countries to develop effective IAS management strategies, but also in helping them to meet their obligations under various international agreements and treaties, including Article 8 (h) of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and Target 9 of the 2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets. In providing such a database, this Guide is intended to give the countries of eastern Africa the information they require, in order to be able to develop effective strategies for combating the growing menace posed by invasive alien plants. It is further hoped that this Guide will foster increased regional collaboration, in responding to the challenges of managing shared invasive plant species. The Guide is based on the findings of extensive roadside surveys, carried out throughout the region, and on a review of the literature pertaining to naturalization and/or invasiveness among alien plants in eastern Africa. By this means, scores of exotic plant species were found to have escaped from cultivation, and to have established populations in the 'wild', to the detriment of natural resources and the millions of people in the region who depend on these resources. Included in the Guide are descriptions of roughly 200 exotic plant species which are either invasive already or which are deemed to have the potential to become invasive in the region. The profiled species include aquatic invasive plants or waterweeds (seven species); vines, creepers or climbers (20 species); terrestrial herbs, shrubs, and succulents (more than 30 species of each), and trees (more than 60 species). Also profiled in this Guide are many exotic plant species which, although their current distribution in the region may still be relatively localized, nevertheless have the potential to become considerably more widespread and problematic. The wide range of habitats and climatic conditions found within Ethiopia and across East Africa make the region as a whole particularly prone to invasions by a host of introduced plant species. Such invasions are being facilitated by increased land degradation, especially through overgrazing and deforestation, and also by climate change.

Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia

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ISBN: 9781786392107; 9781786394361 Year: Pages: 207 DOI: 10.1079/9781786392107.0000 Language: English
Publisher: CABI
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2020-10-16 15:29:48
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Despite the significant impacts of alien plant species (IAS), there has not been a concerted effort to tackle the problem across the region. This can mainly be ascribed to a lack of policy, little awareness and limited capacity at a national and regional level. The UN Environment-Global Environment Facility project, 'Removing Barriers to Invasive Species Management in Production and Protection Forests in SE Asia', which was active in Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam, identified these barriers and produced this Guide which will go a long way to creating awareness about invasive plants, their impacts and how best to manage them. This Guide will serve as an invaluable aid in the identification, mapping, monitoring, and management of IAS that are already present in ASEAN member states, or which may become problematic in the future, due to increased trade and travel, economic development and climate change. It is hoped that this Guide would trigger similar efforts in other countries in Southeast Asia as the region moves toward socio-economic integration.

Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Laikipia

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ISBN: 9781786394378; 9781786392152 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.1079/9781786392152.0000 Language: English
Publisher: CABI
Subject: Botany --- Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-10-16 15:23:32
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The impetus for the development of this Field Guide came about as a result of pleas from the community around the village of Doldol, Laikipia County, to initiate a control programme for Australian prickly pear [Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw.; Fabaceae], an invasive plant which was having a dramatic impact on livelihoods. However, a number of other exotic plants, which were less widespread, but had the potential of becoming invasive, were not seen as a potential problem. In order to avoid a similar situation from arising in the future, the community expressed a need for a Field Guide, which would include descriptions of naturalized and invasive species already present in, and those that were most likely to invade Laikipia County and, information on how best to manage them. An additional impetus was to contribute to the four main objectives of the National Strategy and Action Plan for the Management of Invasive Species in Kenya's Protected Areas. The Field Guide contributes in some or other way to all of these objectives which are to (i) Enhance awareness of invasive species to relevant actors; (ii) Prevent new invasions, manage established invasions and rehabilitate degraded habitats; (iii) Enhance research, monitoring and information management on invasive species; and (iv) Enhance capacity, resource mobilization and coordination. Extensive surveys revealed the presence of a number of introduced plant species which had escaped cultivation and established populations in the 'wild' to the detriment of natural resources and the people that depend on them. Introduced succulents, especially those in the genus Opuntia (Cactaceae), were found to be the most widespread and abundant invasive species in the semi-arid regions in the north and east of Laikipia County. Other succulents, those in the genus Bryophyllum (Crassulaceae), were also found to have escaped cultivation and were locally abundant. In the higher rainfall areas to the west and southwest, introduced trees such as black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.; Fabaceae) and Australian blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon R. Br.; Fabaceae) and the shrubs/climbers, Mauritius thorn [Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston; Fabaceae] and yellow cestrum (Cestrum aurantiacum Lindl.; Solanaceae), were invasive. Introduced plants, which have the potential to become problematic in Laikipia, unless eradicated or controlled, have also been included in the Guide. This includes species such as famine weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.; Asteraceae) and 'mathenge' [Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.; Fabaceae], which are already abundant in areas adjoining the County.

Hardwood Reforestation and Restoration

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ISBN: 9783038977308 9783038977315 Year: Pages: 192 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-731-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:28
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Hardwood-dominated temperate forests (mostly in Eastern North America, Europe, North East Asia) provide valuable renewable timber and numerous ecosystem services. Many of these forests have been subjected to harvesting or conversion to agriculture, sometimes over centuries, that have greatly reduced their former extent and diversity. Natural regeneration following harvesting or during post-agricultural succession has often failed to restore these forests adequately. Past harvesting practices and the valuable timber of some species have led to a reduction in their abundance. The loss of apex predators has caused herbivore populations to increase and exert intense browsing pressure on hardwood regeneration, often preventing it. Particularly important are fruit, nut and acorn bearing species, because of their vital role in forest food webs and biodiversity. Restoring hardwood species to natural forests in which they were formerly more abundant will require a number of forest management actions (e.g., resistant hybrids, deer exclosures/protectors, enrichment planting, underplanting, etc.). Similarly, reforesting areas that were once natural forests will also require new silvicultural knowledge. Global warming trends will intensify the need for interventions to maintain the diversity and function of temperate hardwood forests, as well as for increase hardwood reforestation.

Pesticidal Plants: From Smallholder Use to Commercialisation

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ISBN: 9783039287888 / 9783039287895 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-789-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Plant Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The global biodiversity and climate emergencies demand transformative changes to human activities. For example, food production relies on synthetic, industrial and non-sustainable products for managing pests, weeds and diseases of crops. Sustainable farming requires approaches to managing these agricultural constraints that are more environmentally benign and work with rather than against nature. Increasing pressure on synthetic products has reinvigorated efforts to identify alternative pest management options, including plant-based solutions that are environmentally benign and can be tailored to different farmers’ needs, from commercial to small holder and subsistence farming. Botanical insecticides and pesticidal plants can offer a novel, effective and more sustainable alternative to synthetic products for controlling pests, diseases and weeds. This Special Issue reviews and reports the latest developments in plant-based pesticides from identification of bioactive plant chemicals, mechanisms of activity and validation of their use in horticulture and disease vector control. Other work reports applications in rice weeds, combination biopesticides and how chemistry varies spatially and influences the effectiveness of botanicals in different locations. Three reviews assess wider questions around the potential of plant-based pest management to address the global challenges of new, invasive and established crop pests and as-yet underexploited pesticidal plants.

Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods

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ISBN: 9781786394118; 9781786394118 Year: Pages: 332 DOI: 10.1079/9781786394118.0000 Language: English
Publisher: CABI
Subject: Biology --- Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-10-16 16:13:23
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This proceedings contains papers dealing with issues affecting biological control, particularly pertaining to the use of parasitoids and predators as biological control agents. This includes all approaches to biological control: conservation, augmentation, and importation of natural enemy species for the control of arthropod targets, as well as other transversal issues related to its implementation. It has 14 sessions addressing the most relevant and current topics in the field of biological control of arthropods: (i) Accidental introductions of biocontrol agens: positive and negative aspects; (ii) The importance of pre and post release genetics in biological control; (iii) How well do we understand non-target impacts in arthropod biological control; (iv) Regulation and access and benefit sharing policies relevant for classical biological control approaches; (v) The role of native and alien natural enemy diversity in biological control; (vi) Frontiers in forest insect control; (vii) Biocontrol marketplace I; (viii) Weed and arthropod biological control: mutual benefits and challenges; (ix) Maximizing opportunities for biological control in Asia's rapidly changing agro-environments; (x) Biological control based integrated pest management: does it work?; (xi) Exploring the compatibility of arthropod biological control and pesticides: models and data; (xii) Successes and uptake of arthropod biological control in developing countries; (xiii) Socio-economic impacts of biological control; (xiv) Biocontrol marketplace II.

Sensors in Agriculture

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ISBN: 9783038974123 9783038974130 Year: Pages: 346 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-413-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Agriculture requires technical solutions for increasing production while lessening environmental impact by reducing the application of agro-chemicals and increasing the use of environmentally friendly management practices. A benefit of this is the reduction of production costs. Sensor technologies produce tools to achieve the abovementioned goals. The explosive technological advances and developments in recent years have enormously facilitated the attainment of these objectives, removing many barriers for their implementation, including the reservations expressed by farmers. Precision agriculture and ‘smart farming’ are emerging areas where sensor-based technologies play an important role. Farmers, researchers, and technical manufacturers are joining their efforts to find efficient solutions, improvements in production, and reductions in costs. This book brings together recent research and developments concerning novel sensors and their applications in agriculture. Sensors in agriculture are based on the requirements of farmers, according to the farming operations that need to be addressed.

Keywords

wireless sensor network (WSN) --- Wi-SUN --- vine --- mandarin orange --- thermal image --- fluorescent measurement --- X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy --- visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy --- heavy metal contamination --- spectral pre-processing --- feature selection --- machine-learning --- LiDAR --- light-beam --- plant localization --- Kinect --- leaf area index --- radiative transfer model --- neural networks --- GF-1 satellite --- wide field view --- big data --- geo-information --- plant phenotyping --- grapevine breeding --- Vitis vinifera --- ambient intelligence --- wireless sensor --- fuzzy logic --- smart irrigation --- virtual organizations of agents --- CIE-Lab --- precision plant protection --- optical sensor --- weed control --- classification --- NIR hyperspectral imaging --- chemometrics analysis --- weeds --- UAS --- RPAS --- one-class --- machine learning --- remote sensing --- geoinformatics --- plant disease --- pest --- deep convolutional neural networks --- real-time processing --- detection --- hyperspectral imaging --- soil type classification --- total nitrogen --- texture features --- data fusion --- Fusarium --- near-infrared --- spectroscopy --- hulled barely --- partial least squares-discriminant analysis --- remote sensing --- precision agriculture --- crop monitoring --- data fusion --- speckle --- diffusion --- scattering --- biological sensing --- apparent soil electrical conductivity --- ECa-directed soil sampling --- electromagnetic induction --- proximal sensor --- response surface sampling --- salt tolerance --- boron tolerance --- soil mapping --- soil salinity --- spatial variability --- irrigation --- energy balance --- water management --- semi-arid regions --- on-line vis-NIR measurement --- total nitrogen --- total carbon --- spiking --- gradient boosted machines --- artificial neural networks --- random forests --- rice --- striped stem-borer --- hyperspectral imaging --- texture feature --- data fusion --- greenhouse --- wireless sensor network --- data fusion --- dynamic weight --- dataset --- agriculture --- obstacle detection --- computer vision --- cameras --- stereo imaging --- thermal imaging --- LiDAR --- radar --- object tracking --- crop area --- remote sensing image classification --- area frame sampling --- stratification --- regression estimator --- agriculture --- meat spoilage --- vegetable oil --- quality assessment --- electronic nose --- electrochemical sensors --- spectral analysis --- feature selection --- genetic algorithms --- classification --- vegetation indices --- vineyard --- diseases --- spatial data --- sensor --- data fusion --- change of support --- geostatistics --- precision agriculture --- management zones --- event detection --- back propagation model --- multivariate water quality parameters --- time-series data --- spatial-temporal model --- connected dominating set --- water supply network --- SS-OCT --- Capsicum annuum --- germination --- salt concentration --- deep learning --- clover-grass --- precision agriculture --- dry matter composition --- proximity sensing --- 3D reconstruction --- RGB-D sensor --- crop inspection platform --- water depth sensors --- soil moisture sensors --- temperature sensors --- rice field monitoring --- irrigation --- silage --- packing density --- moisture content --- compound sensor --- simultaneous measurement --- birth sensor --- bovine embedded hardware --- ambient intelligence --- virtual organizations of agents --- Fusarium --- near infrared --- discrimination --- hulled barely --- naked barley --- wheat --- dielectric probe --- apple shelf-life --- dielectric dispersion --- electronic nose --- pest scouting --- pest management --- gas sensor --- noninvasive detection --- nitrogen --- near infrared sensors --- drying temperature --- SPA-MLR --- PLS --- CARS --- hyperspectral camera --- handheld --- sensor evaluation --- case studies --- soil --- moisture --- sensor --- landslide --- rice leaves --- chromium content --- laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy --- laser wavelength --- preprocessing methods --- agricultural land --- field crops --- land cover --- photograph-grid method --- remote sensing --- data validation and calibration --- mobile app --- wireless sensor networks (WSN) --- energy efficiency --- distributed systems --- processing of sensed data --- WSN distribution algorithms --- recognition patterns --- agriculture

Sensors in Agriculture

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ISBN: 9783038977445 9783038977452 Year: Pages: 354 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-745-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Abstract

Agriculture requires technical solutions for increasing production while lessening environmental impact by reducing the application of agro-chemicals and increasing the use of environmentally friendly management practices. A benefit of this is the reduction of production costs. Sensor technologies produce tools to achieve the abovementioned goals. The explosive technological advances and developments in recent years have enormously facilitated the attainment of these objectives, removing many barriers for their implementation, including the reservations expressed by farmers. Precision agriculture and ‘smart farming’ are emerging areas where sensor-based technologies play an important role. Farmers, researchers, and technical manufacturers are joining their efforts to find efficient solutions, improvements in production, and reductions in costs. This book brings together recent research and developments concerning novel sensors and their applications in agriculture. Sensors in agriculture are based on the requirements of farmers, according to the farming operations that need to be addressed.

Keywords

wireless sensor network (WSN) --- Wi-SUN --- vine --- mandarin orange --- thermal image --- fluorescent measurement --- X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy --- visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy --- heavy metal contamination --- spectral pre-processing --- feature selection --- machine-learning --- LiDAR --- light-beam --- plant localization --- Kinect --- leaf area index --- radiative transfer model --- neural networks --- GF-1 satellite --- wide field view --- big data --- geo-information --- plant phenotyping --- grapevine breeding --- Vitis vinifera --- ambient intelligence --- wireless sensor --- fuzzy logic --- smart irrigation --- virtual organizations of agents --- CIE-Lab --- precision plant protection --- optical sensor --- weed control --- classification --- NIR hyperspectral imaging --- chemometrics analysis --- weeds --- UAS --- RPAS --- one-class --- machine learning --- remote sensing --- geoinformatics --- plant disease --- pest --- deep convolutional neural networks --- real-time processing --- detection --- hyperspectral imaging --- soil type classification --- total nitrogen --- texture features --- data fusion --- Fusarium --- near-infrared --- spectroscopy --- hulled barely --- partial least squares-discriminant analysis --- remote sensing --- precision agriculture --- crop monitoring --- data fusion --- speckle --- diffusion --- scattering --- biological sensing --- apparent soil electrical conductivity --- ECa-directed soil sampling --- electromagnetic induction --- proximal sensor --- response surface sampling --- salt tolerance --- boron tolerance --- soil mapping --- soil salinity --- spatial variability --- irrigation --- energy balance --- water management --- semi-arid regions --- on-line vis-NIR measurement --- total nitrogen --- total carbon --- spiking --- gradient boosted machines --- artificial neural networks --- random forests --- rice --- striped stem-borer --- hyperspectral imaging --- texture feature --- data fusion --- greenhouse --- wireless sensor network --- data fusion --- dynamic weight --- dataset --- agriculture --- obstacle detection --- computer vision --- cameras --- stereo imaging --- thermal imaging --- LiDAR --- radar --- object tracking --- crop area --- remote sensing image classification --- area frame sampling --- stratification --- regression estimator --- agriculture --- meat spoilage --- vegetable oil --- quality assessment --- electronic nose --- electrochemical sensors --- spectral analysis --- feature selection --- genetic algorithms --- classification --- vegetation indices --- vineyard --- diseases --- spatial data --- sensor --- data fusion --- change of support --- geostatistics --- precision agriculture --- management zones --- event detection --- back propagation model --- multivariate water quality parameters --- time-series data --- spatial-temporal model --- connected dominating set --- water supply network --- SS-OCT --- Capsicum annuum --- germination --- salt concentration --- deep learning --- clover-grass --- precision agriculture --- dry matter composition --- proximity sensing --- 3D reconstruction --- RGB-D sensor --- crop inspection platform --- water depth sensors --- soil moisture sensors --- temperature sensors --- rice field monitoring --- irrigation --- silage --- packing density --- moisture content --- compound sensor --- simultaneous measurement --- birth sensor --- bovine embedded hardware --- ambient intelligence --- virtual organizations of agents --- Fusarium --- near infrared --- discrimination --- hulled barely --- naked barley --- wheat --- dielectric probe --- apple shelf-life --- dielectric dispersion --- electronic nose --- pest scouting --- pest management --- gas sensor --- noninvasive detection --- nitrogen --- near infrared sensors --- drying temperature --- SPA-MLR --- PLS --- CARS --- hyperspectral camera --- handheld --- sensor evaluation --- case studies --- soil --- moisture --- sensor --- landslide --- rice leaves --- chromium content --- laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy --- laser wavelength --- preprocessing methods --- agricultural land --- field crops --- land cover --- photograph-grid method --- remote sensing --- data validation and calibration --- mobile app --- wireless sensor networks (WSN) --- energy efficiency --- distributed systems --- processing of sensed data --- WSN distribution algorithms --- recognition patterns --- agriculture

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