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Dairy Products

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ISBN: 9783038973683 9783038973690 Year: Pages: 212 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-369-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-12-06 11:10:19
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ca. 200 words; this text will present the book in all promotional forms (e.g. flyers). Please describe the book in straightforward and consumer-friendly terms.[Emerging evidence indicates that dairy foods and ingredients can influence human health. There is increasing interest around the specific role that particular components within dairy foods, such as fat, protein, and other bioactives, play in health. Dairy fat, although a source of saturated fat, may have neutral or beneficial effects on cardiometabolic and gut health. Further, specific types of fat within dairy fat have been linked with improved metabolic health and immune function, while the amount of milk fat globule membrane enclosing the fat may be important in cardiac and muscular outcomes. Dairy proteins may assist in maintaining skeletal muscle mass, particularly post-exercise. While research into individual dairy components is ongoing, the overall dairy food matrix may offer unique benefits to human health as well. For example, the fermentation process involved in cheese and yoghurt production may enhance the nutritional and functional abilities of these foods. This collection of research articles explores the effects of dairy components on health.]

Keywords

Dairy --- Milk --- Whey protein --- [Casein --- Metabolic health --- Immunity

Degradation of whey in an anaerobic fixed bed (AnFB) reactor

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Book Series: Karlsruher Berichte zur Ingenieurbiologie ISSN: 01728709 ISBN: 3937300120 Year: Volume: 41 Pages: XIII, 135 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1592004 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Astronomy (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:02

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An Anaerobic Fixed Bed (AnFB) reactor was run as an upflow anaerobic reactor with an arrangement of supporting material for growth of a biofilm. The supporting material was made from Liapor-clay-polyethylene sinter lamellas (Herding Co., Amberg).The AnFB reactor was used for treating high concentrations of whey-containing wastewater. Optimal operating conditions for whey treatment at a concentration of COD in the influent of around 50 g whey·l-1 were found for a hydraulic retention time (HRT) in the range of 4-8 days or an organic loading rate (OLR) less than 10 kg COD·m-3·d-1. This is a higher load than normally applied in praxis reactors.Accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) happened when the AnFB was supplied with surplus whey solution at a high OLR or when it was oxygenated. VFAs were accumulated faster when the HRT was changed from 12 days to 6 days compared to a change of HRT from 6 days to 4 days. However, at a HRT of 6 days, the accumulated VFAs were completely degraded after an adaptation period of about 5 days, whereas the accumulated VFAs at a HRT of 4 days remained constant upon time and could not be degraded during further incubation.The conversion process (acetogenesis and methanogenesis) of VFAs was influenced by the pH in the reactor. Acetate and n-Butyrate were converted faster at neutral or slightly alkaline pH, while propionate was degraded faster at slightly acidic pH-value. The population in the AnFB contained hydrogen-utilizing methanogenic bacteria, formate-utilizing methanogenic bacteria, methanol-utilizing methanogenic bacteria, acetoclastic methanogenic bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria as the final-stage organism of whey degradation. Acetogenic and methanogenic bacteria grew slower and were present at much lower numbers than acidogenic bacteria. This made the acid degradation rate less than the acid production rate. The minimal HRT in the whey reactor was thus dependent on acid degradation rates. Acetate-utilizing methanogens seemed to be unable to grow as single cells. They preferred to grow in a particulate or attached manner on a support material. The biofilm on the support materials provided a lower redox potential and an anaerobic environment that was obligately needed by these bacteria. The addition of a reducing agent was necessary to keep the few culturing acetoclastic methanogens in suspended cultures active.H2/CO2 was the best methanogenic substrate for the bacteria in the effluent suspension of whey reactor, followed by formate and methanol. The least degradable substrate in suspension cultures was acetate. The optimal H2 gas concentration for methanogens was provided at 2.25 bar.Ferric ions addition or the addition of a mix of minerals improved acetate degradation and methane production rates more than two-folds. The redox potential + reducing agent was low enough for methanogenesis. An AnFB-reactor would be a suitable means for stabilizing wastewater from dairy processing. Liapor-clay-polyethylene sinter lamellas in a regularly arrangement could be the substratum for biofilm formation. A minimum HRT of 4-6 days should be planned or a maximum OLR rate 10 kg COD·m-3·d-1 not exceeded.

Beverage Sensory Modification

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ISBN: 9783039213931 / 9783039213948 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-394-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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This Special Issue on “Beverage Sensory Modification” presents a series of articles that feature the broad sense of sensory modification with regards to beverages, either by improving their flavor, taste, and mouthfeel properties, or through prevention of spoilage. The scope goes further than the usual technological measures that modulate sensory properties and includes psychological and cross-modal influences, where the sensory modification occurs in the subject’s brain rather than as a result of modified physical–chemical properties of objects.

Recent Advances in Water and Wastewater Treatment with Emphasis in Membrane Treatment Operations

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ISBN: 9783038976240 Year: Pages: 230 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-625-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Engineering --- General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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The present Special Issue brings together recent research findings from renowned scientists in the field of water treatment and assembled contributions on advanced technologies applied to the treatment of wastewater and drinking water, with emphasis on novel membrane treatment technologies. 12 research contributions have highlighted various processes and technologies, which can achieve effective treatment and purification of wastewater and of drinking water, aiming (occasionally) for water reuse. The main topics which are analyzed are the use of novel type membranes in bioreactors, the use of modified membranes, for example using vacuum membrane distillation, the fouling of membranes, the problem of arsenic, antimony and chromium contamination in groundwaters and its removal and the use of novel technologies for more efficient ozonation.

Mass Spectrometric Proteomics

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ISBN: 9783038978268 9783038978275 Year: Pages: 192 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-827-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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As suggested by the title of this Special Issue, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry plays a pivotal role in the field of proteomics. Indeed, the research and review articles  published in the Issue clearly evidence how the data produced by this sophisticated methodology may promote impressive advancements in this area. From among the topics discussed in the Issue, a few point to the development of  new procedures for the  optimization of the experimental conditions that should be applied  for the identification of proteins present in complex mixtures.  Other applications  described in these articles show  the huge potential of  these strategies in the protein profiling of organs and  range from  to the study of post-translational tissue modifications to the investigation of the molecular mechanisms behind human disorders and the identification of potential biomarkers of these diseases.

The Impact of Beverages on Ingestive Behavior

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ISBN: 9783038978121 9783038978138 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-813-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-13 09:19:27
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Nutrients is planning a Special Issue focusing on beverages and ingestive behavior. This Special Issue will focus on research related to all aspects of beverage consumption and post-ingestive consequences. There continues to be much controversy surrounding the influence of beverage choice on health outcomes. Research investigating the impact of beverage choice has on human health and post-ingestive consequences continue to grow. We know from the growing body of literature that beverage choice has a substantial impact on metabolism, food reinforcement and eating behaviors.

Polymer Clay Nano-composites

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ISBN: 9783039216529 / 9783039216536 Year: Pages: 246 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-653-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This Special Issue focuses on the current state-of-the-art of “Polymer Clay Nano-Composites” for biomedical, anticorrosion, antibacterial, and other applications. Clay–polymer composite nanomaterials represent an emerging area of research. Loading polymers with clay particles essentially enhances the composite strength features. Of particular interest are different nano-assembly methods, such as silane mono and multilayers, polyelectrolyte layer-by-layer assembly, and others. An important development was reached for tubular and fibrous clay nanoparticles, such as halloysite, sepiolite, and imogolite. Polymer clay nanoparticles can be prepared as sheets with 1-nm thickness and width of a few hundred nm (e.g., kaolin and montmorillonite). Fibrous clays significantly reinforce the nano-composites in the assembly with biopolymers and other green polymers, leading to functional hybrid bio nano-composites. The scope of this Special Issue comprehensively includes the synthesis and characterization of polymer clay nano-composites used for several applications, including nano-clay polymer composites and hybrid nano-assemblies.

Keywords

polyimide --- graphene oxide --- composite --- mechanical properties --- indentation recovery --- AFM --- carbon fibers --- surface grafting --- halloysite nanotubes --- polymer composites --- interface --- fish gelatin --- halloysite nanotubes --- glycerol --- mechanical properties --- water resistance --- LAP --- hyaluronic acid --- doxorubicin --- CD44 receptor targeted --- sacrificial bond --- ionic network --- organic montmorillonite --- 1,2-polybutadiene --- in-situ intercalation --- clay–polymer nanocomposites --- atrazine --- radical polymerization --- hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide --- phenyltrimethylammonium chloride --- FTIR --- TGA --- adsorption --- dental resins --- nanocomposite materials --- organically modified clays --- montmorillonite --- intercalation --- nanotechnology --- ammonium persulfate --- fuzzy optimization --- N,N?-methylenebisacrylamide --- Pareto set --- polyacrylic acid --- swelling capacity --- variable cost --- polyethylene oxide --- montmorillonite clays --- Pd catalysis --- catalytic composite --- positron annihilation --- doubly functionalized montmorillonite --- polystyrene --- soap-free emulsion polymerization --- thermal stability --- tribological property --- organo-clays --- polyamines --- clay-amine interaction mechanisms --- structure effects --- la uptake and release --- layered silicate --- sericite --- CTAB --- intercalation stability --- nanocomposites --- gelation kinetics --- sol–gel transition --- water shutoff --- silica sol --- cellulose nanofibrils --- halloysite nanotubes --- supercritical CO2 --- polystyrene foam --- blowing agent --- in situ polymerization --- attapulgite/polypyrrole nanocomposite --- halloysite nanotubes --- polysaccharide --- interfacial interactions --- reinforcing --- adsorption --- dispersion --- coatings --- whey protein isolate --- nanocomposites --- nanoclay, barrier --- morphology --- n/a

Breastfeeding and Human Lactation

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038979302 / 9783038979319 Year: Pages: 450 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-931-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Human lactation has evolved to produce a milk composition that is uniquely-designed for the human infant. Not only does human milk optimize infant growth and development, it also provides protection from infection and disease. More recently, the importance of human milk and breastfeeding in the programming of infant health has risen to the fore. Anchoring of infant feeding in the developmental origins of health and disease has led to a resurgence of research focused in this area. Milk composition is highly variable both between and within mothers. Indeed the distinct maternal human milk signature, including its own microbiome, is influenced by environmental factors, such as diet, health, body composition and geographic residence. An understanding of these changes will lead to unravelling the adaptation of milk to the environment and its impact on the infant. In terms of the promotion of breastfeeding, health economics and epidemiology is instrumental in shaping public health policy and identifying barriers to breastfeeding. Further, basic research is imperative in order to design evidence-based interventions to improve both breastfeeding duration and women’s breastfeeding experience.

Keywords

human milk --- breastfed infants --- body composition --- anthropometrics --- milk intake --- bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy --- ultrasound skinfolds --- maternal factors --- infant --- feeding --- preterm --- premature --- bottle --- human milk --- breastfeeding --- nipple shield --- infant feeding --- choline --- phosphocholine --- glycerophosphocholine --- lactation --- human milk --- infants --- adequate intake --- dietary recommendations --- Canada --- Cambodia --- breast milk --- galactogogues --- mothers of preterm infants --- breastfeeding --- attitudes --- knowledge --- midwifery --- formula supplementation --- justification of supplementation --- maternal wellbeing --- maternal distress --- post-partum distress --- breastfeeding support --- paternal role --- partner support --- infant --- Ireland --- passive immunity --- antibodies --- lactation --- peptidomics --- prematurity --- proteolysis --- breast milk --- preterm infant --- enteral nutrition --- lipids --- omega-3 fatty acids --- omega-6 fatty acids --- Docosahexaenoic acid --- Arachidonic acid --- long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids --- pregnancy --- breast milk --- lactation --- maternal diet --- n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid --- docosahexaenoic acid --- zinc deficiency --- plasma zinc --- lactating women --- zinc supplementation --- Quito --- Ecuador --- Andean region --- GDM --- lactation --- thyroid --- triiodothyronine --- thyroxine --- thyroid antibodies --- breastfeeding --- knowledge --- practice --- barriers --- social support --- professional support --- raw breast milk --- cytomegalovirus --- milk-acquired infections --- preterm infant --- adipokines --- adiponectin --- leptin --- breastfeeding --- infant --- body composition --- bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy --- ultrasound skinfolds --- human milk --- lactation --- human lactation --- expressing --- milk synthesis --- fat synthesis --- human milk --- milk metabolites --- lactation --- milk metabolomics --- human milk --- breastfeeding --- lactation --- lipids --- lipidomics --- mass spectrometry --- chromatography --- NMR spectroscopy --- human milk --- sex-specificity --- infant growth --- early life nutrition --- postnatal outcomes --- breastfeeding --- breast milk --- human milk --- colostrum --- IgA --- HGF --- TGF-? --- growth factors --- geographical location --- human milk --- potassium --- sodium --- ICP-OES --- ion selective electrode --- lactoferrin --- human milk --- infection --- immunity --- antisecretory factor --- human milk --- breast milk --- breastfeeding --- inflammation --- lactoferrin --- candida --- human milk --- milk cells --- immune cells --- antimicrobial proteins --- human milk --- breastfeeding --- ethnicity --- composition --- diet --- responsive feeding --- breastfeeding --- breastmilk --- babywearing --- co-sleeping --- mother–infant interaction --- feeding cues --- maternal responsiveness --- mother–infant physical contact --- proximal care --- fatty acids --- long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids --- endocannabinoids --- infant health --- breast milk --- casein --- whey --- protein --- breastfeeding --- infant --- body composition --- bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy --- ultrasound skinfolds --- human milk --- calculated daily intakes --- lactation --- human milk --- metabolites --- microbiome --- mode of delivery --- caesarean section --- proton nuclear magnetic resonance --- breastfeeding --- human milk composition --- body composition --- maternal diet --- infant growth --- appetite regulation --- N-acylethanolamines --- OEA --- SEA --- PEA --- breastfeeding --- human milk composition --- obesity --- Breastfeeding --- human lactation --- lactation --- human milk --- breast milk --- milk composition

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