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Modelling the plastic deformation of iron

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Angewandte Materialien, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 21929963 ISBN: 9783866449688 Year: Volume: 15 Pages: XII, 146 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000032216 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:57
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The 1/2<111> screw dislocations in bcc iron are studied by atomistic simulations. An analytical yield criterion captures correctly the non-Schmid plastic behavior. A model Peierls potential develops a link between the atomistic modeling at 0 K and the thermally activated dislocation motion. All predicted features agree well with experimental observations. This work establishes a consistent bottom-up model that provides an insight into the microscopic origins of the plastic behavior of bcc iron.

Abiotic Stresses in Agroecology: A Challenge for Whole Plant Physiology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452040 Year: Pages: 177 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-204-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Understanding plant responses to abiotic stresses is central to our ability to predict the impact of global change and environmental pollution on the production of food, feed and forestry. Besides increasing carbon dioxide concentration and rising global temperature, increasingly frequent and severe climatic events (e.g. extended droughts, heat waves, flooding) are expected in the coming decades. Additionally, pollution (e.g. heavy metals, gaseous pollutants such as ozone or sulfur dioxide) is an important factor in many regions, decreasing plant productivity and product quality. This Research topic focuses on stress responses at the level of whole plants, addressing biomass-related processes (development of the root system, root respiration/fermentation, leaf expansion, stomatal regulation, photosynthetic capacity, leaf senescence, yield) and interactions between organs (transport via xylem and phloem, long-distance signaling and secondary metabolites). Comparisons between species and between varieties of the same species are helpful to evaluate the potential for species selection and genetic improvement. This research topic is focused on the following abiotic stresses and interactions between them:- Increased carbon dioxide concentration in ambient air is an important parameter influenced by global change and affects photosynthesis, stomatal regulation, plant growth and finally yield.- Elevated temperature: both the steady rise in average temperature and extreme events of shorter duration (heat waves) must be considered in the context of alterations in carbon balance through increased photorespiration, decreased Rubisco activation and carboxylation efficiency, damage to photosynthetic apparatus, as well as loss of water via transpiration and stomatal sensitivity. - Low temperatures (late frosts, prolonged cold phases, freezing temperature) can decrease overwintering survival rates, productivity of crop plants and species composition in meadows.- Water availability: More frequent, severe and extended drought periods have been predicted by climate change models. The timing and duration of a drought period is crucial to determining plant responses, particularly if the drought event coincides with an increase in temperature. Drought causes stomatal closure, decreasing the cooling potential of transpiration and potentially leading to thermal stress as leaf temperature rises. Waterlogging may become also more relevant during the next decades and is especially important for seedlings and young plants. It is not the presence of water itself that causes the stress, but the exclusion of oxygen from the soil which causes a decrease in respiration and an increase in fermentation rates followed by a period of potential oxidative stress as water recedes.- Salinity: high salt concentration in soil influences soil water potential, the water status of the plant and hence affects productivity. Salt tolerance will become an important trait driven by increased competition for land and the need to exploit marginal lands.

Genomic Approaches for Improvement of Understudied Grasses

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452422 Year: Pages: 165 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-242-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Grasses are diverse, spanning native prairies to high-yielding grain cropping systems. They are valued for their beauty and useful for soil stabilization, pollution mitigation, biofuel production, nutritional value, and forage quality; grasses encompass the most important grain crops in the world. There are thousands of distinct grass species and many have promiscuous hybridization patterns, blurring species boundaries. Resources for advancing the science and knowledgebase of individual grass species or their unique characteristics varies, often proportional to their perceived value to society. For many grasses, limited genetic information hinders research progress. Presented in this research topic is a brief snapshot of creative efforts to apply modern genomics research methodologies to the study of several minor grass species.

Environmental and Management Factor Contributions to Maize Yield

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ISBN: 9783038976127 9783038976134 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-613-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-12 11:50:48
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Agricultural production must increase substantially to meet the increasing per capita demand for food, feed, fuel, and fiber of a rising human census. The amount of arable land is limited due to soil type, weather, and ecosystem considerations; therefore, it is necessary to increase yields on current fields. To obtain the greatest maize (Zea mays L.) yield, a farmer needs to nurture the crop as much as possible. Weather and nitrogen availability are well- known as two factors that normally have the greatest influence on maize yields and grain quality. Some management factors a producer may need to consider while growing a maize crop are mineral fertilization, genotype, plant population, and protection from insects and diseases. Additionally, there are numerous biological and chemical compounds that can stimulate plant growth, such as in-furrow mixes and foliar fungicides. Field management also plays a role in final grain yield, including crop rotation, tillage, soil pH and nutrient levels, weed control, and drainage.This Special Issue Book focuses on weather, soil, and other maize crop management factors and their relative independent and/or interactive influence on maize growth and yield.]

Genetics and Breeding for Productivity Traits in Forage and Bioenergy Grasses

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ISBN: 9783038425427 9783038425434 Year: Pages: VIII, 204 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-27 12:46:48
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The Special Issue to provide a forum for contemporary studies of the genetics, genomics and phenomics of productivity traits in forage and bioenergy grasses, along with the application of such data to breeding practices and cultivar development.

Precision Agriculture Technology for Crop Farming

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ISBN: 9781482251081 Year: Pages: 374 DOI: 10.1201/b19336 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Botany --- Biology --- Agriculture (General) --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-23 00:05:04
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This book provides a review of precision agriculture technology development, followed by a presentation of the state-of-the-art and future requirements of precision agriculture technology. It presents different styles of precision agriculture technologies suitable for large scale mechanized farming; highly automated community-based mechanized production; and fully mechanized farming practices commonly seen in emerging economic regions. The book emphasizes the introduction of core technical features of sensing, data processing and interpretation technologies, crop modeling and production control theory, intelligent machinery and field robots for precision agriculture production.

Recent Advances in Remote Sensing for Crop Growth Monitoring

ISBN: 9783038422266 9783038422273 Year: Pages: XX, 386 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-19 08:32:15
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This special issue book gathers sixteen papers focusing on the application of remote sensing techniques to crop growth monitoring. The studies feature multi-scale and multi-source remotely sensed data, a combination of empirical and physical approaches, and a range of topics on crop growth parameters estimation and crop mapping. It is recommended to graduate students, professors, scientists and engineers who have broad interests in the agricultural applications of remote sensing.

Quantitative Techniques in Participatory Forest Management

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9781466569256 Year: Pages: 608 DOI: 10.1201/b15366 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Forestry --- Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-23 00:05:31
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Forest management has evolved from a mercantilist view to a multi-functional one that integrates economic, social, and ecological aspects. However, the issue of sustainability is not yet resolved. Quantitative Techniques in Participatory Forest Management brings together global research in three areas of application: inventory of the forest variables that determine the main environmental indices, description and design of new environmental indices, and the application of sustainability indices for regional implementations. All these quantitative techniques create the basis for the development of scientific methodologies of participatory sustainable forest management.

Vegetable Grafting: Principles and Practices

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ISBN: 9781780648972 ; 9781780648989; 9781780648996 Year: Pages: 278 DOI: 10.1079/9781780648972.0000 Language: English
Publisher: CABI
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Plant Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-10-16 16:53:02
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Although the benefits of using grafted transplants are now fully recognized worldwide, the need to enlighten the scientific basis of rootstock-scion interactions under variable environmental pressures remains vital for extracting grafting-mediated crop improvement. This has prompted the COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action FA1204 entitled 'Vegetable grafting to improve yield and fruit quality under biotic and abiotic stress conditions' aimed at systematizing research findings. The COST action allowed the development of a multidisciplinary network of partners targeting the root system and employing rootstock breeding to unravel the mechanisms behind rootstock-mediated crop improvement: the enhancement of productivity and fruit quality, and the sustainability of vegetable crops under multiple and combined stresses. The current book is the major output of the COST Action and contains nine chapters drawing on the 2012-16 activities of four Working Groups (WGs) dealing with 'Genetic resources and rootstock breeding' (WG1), 'Rootstock-scion interactions and graft compatibility' (WG2), 'Rootstock-mediated resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses' (WG3) and 'Rootstock-mediated improvement of fruit quality' (WG4). While recent advances of scientific knowledge constitute the core of this COST book, valuable practical information is also provided on rootstock-scion combinations, on applicable grafting methods, on the establishment of grafted transplants and on recommendations for the use of grafted plants as an effective tool for sustainable vegetable production. This book is compiled as a collection of scientific information and as a practical tool aimed at both the people involved in the commercial production and cultivation of grafted plants, as well as researchers interested in an understanding of the science and technology behind a grafted plant.

Remote Sensing Applications for Agriculture and Crop Modelling

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ISBN: 9783039282265 9783039282272 Year: Pages: 308 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-227-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Crop models and remote sensing techniques have been combined and applied in agriculture and crop estimation on local and regional scales, or worldwide, based on the simultaneous development of crop models and remote sensing. The literature shows that many new remote sensing sensors and valuable methods have been developed for the retrieval of canopy state variables and soil properties from remote sensing data for assimilating the retrieved variables into crop models. At the same time, remote sensing has been used in a staggering number of applications for agriculture. This book sets the context for remote sensing and modelling for agricultural systems as a mean to minimize the environmental impact, while increasing production and productivity. The eighteen papers published in this Special Issue, although not representative of all the work carried out in the field of Remote Sensing for agriculture and crop modeling,

Keywords

crop residue management --- remote sensing --- satellite images --- hyperspectral sensor --- vegetation index --- yield monitoring --- remote sensing --- proximal sensing --- crop modeling --- soil --- plant --- management zone --- spatial variability --- temporal variability --- precision agriculture --- Á Trous algorithm --- conservation agriculture --- crop inventory --- remote sensing --- spectral-weight variations in fused images --- soil stoichiometry --- land use change --- soil organic carbon --- nitrogen --- Tarim Basin --- SPAD --- leaf nitrogen concentration --- nitrogen nutrition index --- grain yield --- dynamic model --- wheat --- disease --- yield --- septoria tritici blotch --- leaf area index --- crop modelling --- decision support system for agrotechnology transfer (DSSAT) --- Cropsim-CERES Wheat --- sorghum biomass --- prediction modeling --- machine learning --- fAPAR --- Sentinel-2 satellite imagery --- big data technology --- remote sensing --- UAV --- vegetation indices --- relative frequencies --- yield --- precision agriculture --- cultivars --- crop growth model --- data assimilation --- Leaf Area Index --- Sentinel-2 --- EPIC model --- yield estimation --- NDVI --- remote sensing --- GIS --- precision farming --- variable rate technology --- yield mapping --- protein content --- wheat --- canopy temperature depression --- NDVI --- RGB images --- grain yield --- ?13C --- UAV chemical application --- droplet drift --- flat-fan atomizer --- simulation analysis --- control variables --- agricultural land-cover --- multi-spectral --- generalized model --- machine learning --- crop type mapping --- Integrated Administration and Control System --- remote sensing --- hydroponic --- vegetable monitoring --- crop production --- spectral simulation --- hyperspectral data --- n/a --- fractional cover --- irrigation --- satellite --- crop simulation model --- AquaCrop --- yield mapping --- remote sensing --- durum wheat --- precision agriculture --- large cardamom --- remote sensing --- species modelling --- habitat assessment --- climate change

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