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Left Versus Right Asymmetries of Brain and Behaviour

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ISBN: 9783039216925 9783039216932 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-693-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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This book is a collection of papers written by leaders in the field of lateralized brain function and behaviour in non-human animals. The papers cover the asymmetry of brain mechanisms and behaviour in a wide range of both vertebrate and invertebrate species. Each paper focuses on one of the following topics: the link between population-level lateralization and social behaviour; the processes in the avian brain that permit one brain hemisphere to take control of behaviour; lateralized attention to predators and the common pattern of lateralization in vertebrate species; visual and auditory lateralization; influences that alter the development of lateralization—specifically, the effect of temperature on the development of lateralization in sharks; and the importance of understanding lateralization when considering both the training and welfare of dogs. Collectively, these studies address questions of why different species have asymmetry of brain and behaviour, how it develops, and how this is dealt with by these different species. The papers report on the lateralization of different types of behaviour, each going beyond merely reporting the presence of asymmetry and shedding light on its function and on the mechanisms involved in its expression.

Repetitive DNA Sequences

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ISBN: 9783039283668 9783039283675 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-367-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Repetitive DNA is ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes, and, in many species, comprises the bulk of the genome. Repeats include transposable elements that can self-mobilize and disperse around the genome, and tandemly-repeated satellite DNAs that increase in copy number due to replication slippage and unequal crossing over. Despite their abundance, repetitive DNA is often ignored in genomic studies due to technical challenges in their identification, assembly, and quantification. New technologies and methods are now providing the unprecedented power to analyze repetitive DNAs across diverse taxa. Repetitive DNA is of particular interest because it can represent distinct modes of genome evolution. Some repetitive DNA forms essential genome structures, such as telomeres and centromeres, which are required for proper chromosome maintenance and segregation, whereas others form piRNA clusters that regulate transposable elements; thus, these elements are expected to evolve under purifying selection. In contrast, other repeats evolve selfishly and produce genetic conflicts with their host species that drive adaptive evolution of host defense systems. However, the majority of repeats likely accumulate in eukaryotes in the absence of selection due to mechanisms of transposition and unequal crossing over. Even these neutral repeats may indirectly influence genome evolution as they reach high abundance. In this Special Issue, the contributing authors explore these questions from a range of perspectives.

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2020 (1)

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