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Emerging Zoonoses: Eco-Epidemiology, Involved Mechanisms and Public Health Implications

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196180 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-618-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-02 10:49:06
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Zoonoses are currently considered as one of the most important threats for public health worldwide. Zoonoses can be defined as any disease or infection that is naturally transmissible from vertebrate or invertebrate animals to humans and vice-versa. Approximately 75% of recently emerging infectious diseases affecting humans are diseases of animal origin; approximately 60% of all human pathogens are zoonotic. All types of potential pathogenic agents, including viruses, parasites, bacteria and fungi, can cause these zoonotic infections. From the wide range of potential vectors of zoonoses, insects are probably those of major significance due to their abundance, high plasticity and adaptability to different kinds of pathogens, high degrees of synanthropism in several groups and difficulties to apply effective programs of population control. Although ticks, flies, cockroaches, bugs and fleas are excellent insects capable to transmit viruses, parasites and bacteria, undoubtedly mosquitoes are the most important disease vectors. Mosquito borne diseases like malaria, dengue, equine encephalitis, West Nile, Mayaro or Chikungunya are zoonoses with increasing incidence in last years in tropical and temperate countries. Vertebrates can also transmit serious zoonoses, highlighting the role of some carnivorous animals in rabies dissemination or the spread of rodent borne diseases in several rural and urban areas. Moreover, the significance of other food borne zoonoses such as taeniasis, trichinellosis or toxoplasmosis may not been underestimated. According to WHO, FAO and OIE guidelines an emerging zoonotic disease can be defined as a zoonosis that is newly recognized or newly evolved, or that has occurred previously but shows an increase of incidence or expansion in geographical, host or vector range. There are many factors that can provoke or accelerate the emergence of zoonoses, such as environmental changes, habitat modifications, variations of human and animal demography, pathogens and vectors anomalous mobilization related with human practices and globalization, deterioration of the strategies of vector control or changes in pathogen genetics. To reduce public health risks from zoonoses is absolutely necessary to acquire an integrative perspective that includes the study of the complexity of interactions among humans, animals and environment in order to be able to fight against these issues of primary interest for human health. In any case, although zoonoses represent significant public health threats, many of them still remain as neglected diseases and consequently are not prioritized by some health international organisms.

One Health and Zoonoses

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ISBN: 9783039212958 9783039212965 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-296-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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The One Health concept recognizes that the health of humans, animals, and their ecosystems are interconnected, and that a coordinated, collaborative, multidisciplinary, and cross-sectoral approach is necessary to fully understand and respond to potential or existing risks that originate at the animal–human–ecosystems interfaces. Thus, the One Health concept represents a holistic vision for addressing some of the complex challenges that threaten human and animal health, food safety, and the environments in which diseases flourish. There are many examples showing how the health of humans is related to the health of animals and the environment. Diseases shared between humans and animals are zoonoses. Some zoonoses have been known for many years, whereas others have emerged suddenly and unexpectedly. Over 70% of all new emerging diseases over the past few decades have been zoonoses that have emerged from wildlife, most often from bats, rodents, or birds. Examples of zoonoses are many and varied, ranging from rabies to bovine tuberculosis, and from Japanese encephalitis to SARS. Clearly, a One Health approach is essential for understanding their ecology, and for outbreak response and the development of control strategies. However, the One Health concept and approach is much broader than zoonoses; it extends to including antimicrobial resistance, food safety, and environmental health and, consequently, impacts on global health security, economic wellbeing, and international trade. It is this breadth of One Health that connects the papers in this Special Issue.

Zoonotic Diseases and One Health

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ISBN: 9783039280100 / 9783039280117 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-011-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Humans are part of an ecosystem, and understanding our relationship with the environment and with other organisms is a prerequisite to living together sustainably. Zoonotic diseases, which are spread between animals and humans, are an important issue as they reflect our relationship with other animals in a common environment. Zoonoses are still presented with high occurrence rates, especially in rural communities, with direct and indirect consequences for people. In several cases, zoonosis could cause severe clinical manifestations and is difficult to control and treat. Moreover, the persistent use of drugs for infection control enhances the potential of drug resistance and impacts on ecosystem balance and food production. This book demonstrates the importance of understanding zoonosis in terms of how it allows ecosystems to transform, adapt, and evolve. Ecohealth/One Health approaches recognize the interconnections among people, other organisms, and their shared developing environment. Moreover, these holistic approaches encourage stakeholders of various disciplines to collaborate in order to solve problems related to zoonosis. The reality of climate change necessitates considering new variables in studying diseases, particularly to predict how these changes in the ecosystems can affect human health and how to recognize the boundaries between medicine, veterinary care, and environmental and social changes towards healthy and sustainable development.

Neglected and Emerging Tropical Diseases in South and Southeast Asia and Northern Australia

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ISBN: 9783038970897 9783038970903 Year: Pages: VIII, 154 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-15 11:15:00
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This Special Issue focuses on recent research on the important emerging and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in South and South East Asia and Northern Australia. This region stretches from Afghanistan in the west to Papua New Guinea in the east, and includes the Indian subcontinent, mainland South-East Asia (Indo China), maritime South East Asia, and the tropical regions of Australia. Many of these areas are highly endemic for important NTDs and emerging infectious diseases including lymphatic filariasis, leprosy, soil-transmitted helminthiases (hookworm, Trichuris, Ascaris, and Strongyloides), food-borne trematodiases, schistosomiasis, dengue/chikungunya/zika, leptospirosis, meloidosis, scabies, trachoma, and yaws. Several of these diseases are targeted for elimination or enhanced control by the World Health Organization in the next 5 to 10 years, although some have chronic lasting sequelae needing lifelong management. Control methods used include preventive chemotherapy, enhanced screening and treatment, intensified disease management, vector control, interruption of human to animal transmission, environmental/sanitation improvements and disability prevention/mitigation.

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