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La métallurgie

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ISBN: 9782759805389 Year: Language: French
Publisher: EDP SCIENCES
Subject: Chemical Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2014-07-31 10:43:57
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Si la tendance au regroupement des industries métallurgiques en pôles de taille mondiale paraît inéluctable, il faut tout faire pour que cette évolution n'entraîne pas un affaissement de la France dans ce domaine clé. En effet, si les grands acteurs mondiaux de la Métallurgie ne peuvent plus s'appuyer,comme encore récemment, sur une recherche et un enseignement publics français forts, l'ensemble de notre système s'asséchera et migrera ailleurs. Qui plus est, la perte de substance ira bien au-delà de la R&D, frappant en particulier le tissu de nos PMI/PME. L'Académie des technologies et l'Académie des sciences présentent ici une analyse de la Métallurgie française, établie par un groupe d'experts animé par André Pineau, de l'Académie des technologies, et Yves Quéré, de l'Académie des sciences. Cet ouvrage synthétique, complété par des annexes numérisées, décrit en premier lieu la Métallurgie comme science, en tant que telle, en lien fort avec l'ingénierie, ou génie métallurgique. Il établit ensuite un diagnostic de la situation pour les divers grands secteurs industriels ainsi que pour la recherche et l'enseignement. L'ambition est ici de montrer que la Métallurgie constitue une discipline scientifique à part entière, présente dans des champs innombrables de l'industrie, où elle est source de progrès et réservoir d'emplois ; et de rappeler qu'il faut du temps pour construire des compétences indispensables, tant scientifi ques que techniques, qu'un rien suffi t à détruire. Le rapport montre également que la Métallurgie a perdu, en France, une grande part de sa substance, en raison à la fois de multiples réorganisations industrielles récentes et d'un désengagement du monde académique, largement dû aux effets de mode. C'est pourquoi des mesures urgentes, dans l'enseignement, la recherche universitaire et industrielle, l'information du public, la sensibilisation des décideurs et des acteurs… doivent être impérativement prises. Devant la gravité des évolutions recensées, qui rejaillissent notamment sur les emplois, les compétences, la R&D…, les deux académies proposent aux décideurs, publics et privés, une stratégie déclinée en une série de recommandations : dans chaque domaine est décrit l'état actuel et sont proposées des pistes de développement scientifi que et appliqué. Perdre une position de pôle dans ces domaines est dangereux ; en prendre une de leader est un défi à relever. Nous sommes actuellement à ce tournant et, en cela, nous sommes sans doute condamnés à l'excellence.

Keywords

Metallurgy

L'accident majeur de Fukushima

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9782759807369 Year: Language: French
Publisher: EDP SCIENCES
Subject: Chemical Technology --- Nuclear Physics
Added to DOAB on : 2014-07-31 10:33:08
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« Le 11 mars 2011, le district Nord-Est du Japon a été frappé par un tremblement de terre massif suivi d’un tsunami majeur et d’une série d’accidents à la centrale nucléaire de Fukushima avec fuites d’éléments radioactifs ». Tel est le message que le professeur Kanazawa, président du Science Council of Japan (SCJ) adressa quelques jours après la catastrophe aux présidents des académies des sciences étrangère …

Acrylic Polymers in Healthcare

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ISBN: 9789535135937 9789535135944 Year: Pages: 208 DOI: 10.5772/66610 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Organic Chemistry --- Chemical Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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This book on Acrylic Polymers for Healthcare presents eight chapters organised into three parts by providing new ideas in design, synthesis and a detailed study of new acrylate materials in healthcare applications. Part I represents Chapters 1, 2, 3 and 4 focussing on toning up of technologies for making dental dentures with better properties. Part II comprises Chapters 5 and 6 dealing with synthetic polymer-based nanoparticles as intelligent drug delivery systems and bismuth nanoparticles for improved green light emission. Part III represents Chapters 7 and 8 describing the aspects of mitigation of acrylamide in foods in the context of an African perspective and the importance of acrylic-based polymeric adsorbents so that the reader can get an idea about the various types and forms of polymeric materials used for the removal of heavy metals from water.

Adhesives - Applications and Properties

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ISBN: 9789535127833 9789535127840 9789535141488 Year: Pages: 398 DOI: 10.5772/62603 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Organic Chemistry --- Chemical Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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This book presents some information regarding adhesives which have applications in industry, medicine and dentistry. The book is divided into two parts: ""Adhesives Applications in Medicine and Dentistry"" and ""Properties of Adhesive."" The aim of such a presentation is to present the usage in very different aspects of application of the adhesives and present specific properties of adhesives. Adhesives' advantageous properties and relatively uncomplicated processing methods contribute to their increasing application and their growing popularity in the industry, medicine and other branches. Some adhesives represent properties superior to those of most adhesive materials, due to their excellent adhesion and chemical resistance. A wide variety of adhesives' considerable flexibility in modification of properties of adhesives allows adjusting the composition to particular applications.

Advanced Elastomers - Technology, Properties and Applications

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ISBN: 9789535107392 9789535142805 Year: Pages: 414 DOI: 10.5772/2784 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Organic Chemistry --- Chemical Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 09:47:09

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This book provides an extensive overview of current trends in the area of elastomers and their composites from the chapters contributed by internationally recognized specialists. The book deals with novel synthesis, modelling and experimental methods in elastomers. Contents include: new approach to crosslinking, liquid crystal elastomers, nanocomposites, smart elastomers, elastomers in microelectronics and microfluidics, elastomers in cement concrete and mortar, experimental testing and modelling. Each section demonstrates how enhancements in materials, processes and characterization techniques can improve performance in the field of engineering. The book provides a unique opportunity to discover the latest research on elastomer advances from laboratories around the world. This book addresses to industrial and academic researchers in the fields of physical, chemical, biological sciences and engineering.

Advancements in Gel Science—A Special Issue in Memory of Toyoichi Tanaka

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ISBN: 9783039213436 9783039213443 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-344-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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A gel is a state of matter that consists of a three-dimensional cross-linked polymer network and a large amount of solvent. Because of their structural characteristics, gels play important roles in science and technology. The science of gels has attracted much attention since the discovery of the volume phase transition by Professor Toyoichi Tanala at MIT in 1978. MDPI planned to publish a Special Issue in Gels to celebrate the 40th anniversary of this discovery, which received submissions of 13 original papers and one review from various areas of science. We believe that readers will find this Special Issue informative as to the recent advancements of gel research and the broad background of gel science.

Keywords

gel --- thermoresponsive property --- monomer sequence --- co-crosslinking --- copolymerization --- acrylamide derivative --- swelling --- volume phase transition --- agarose gel --- compression --- solvent transport --- sucrose --- xylitol --- volume phase transition --- effects of electric charge --- swelling of thermosensitive gels --- sol-gel transition --- site-bond correlated-percolation model for polymer gelation --- gelation temperature --- cloud point temperature --- spinodal temperature --- spinodal decomposition --- janus particle --- anisotropic shape --- phase separation --- wetting --- micrometric confinement --- micropipette aspiration --- PVA gel --- gamma ray sterilization --- artificial hydrogel cartilage --- frictional property --- wear --- xerogel --- Brunauer-Emmett-Teller theory --- Barrett-Joyner-Halenda analysis --- temperature --- solids content --- drying --- solvent exchange --- microgel --- electrophoresis --- light scattering --- paint coating --- wrinkle --- swelling --- buckling --- Sephadex® (crosslinked dextran) --- crosslink density (density of crosslinks) --- ice grain --- ice crystallization during rewarming --- glassy water --- X-ray CT --- XRD --- poly(vinyl alcohol) --- chemical gel --- microcrystallite --- hydrogen bond --- swelling behavior --- hysteresis --- hydrogel --- friction --- fatigue --- wear --- fracture --- crack --- adhesion --- delamination --- poly (acryl amide) gel --- time domain reflectometry (TDR) of dielectric spectroscopy --- pulse field gradient spin echo method of nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR) --- scaling analysis --- fractal analysis --- heterogeneous gelation dynamics --- moving boundary picture --- phase transition dynamics --- kinetic coefficient --- blood coagulation --- n/a

Advances in Natural Gas Emerging Technologies

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9789535134336 9789535134343 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.5772/61380 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Chemical Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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Natural gas has become the world's primary supply of energy in the last decades. It is naturally occurring from the decomposition of organic materials, over the past 150 million years ago, into hydrocarbons. It is considered one of the most useful energy sources and the fastest growing energy source in the world. This book presents state-of-the-art advances in natural gas emerging technologies. It contains ten chapters divided into three sections that cover natural gas technology, utilization, and alternative.

Advances in Silage Production and Utilization

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ISBN: 9789535127772 9789535127789 9789535141518 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.5772/61574 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Chemical Technology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Ensiling is a technique that is used to store food, mainly vegetable crops, to feed the herd when the forage supply from the pastures is not enough to maintain the productive performance of the ruminant animals. However, silage can also be used as substrate for biogas production and other different purposes. In the past years, we have seen many advances in the knowledge about silage production utilization, and this book is a compilation and discussion of the outstanding scientific research activities concerning actually the most recent advances and technologies that have been studied about silage and future demands. It is directed to a broad public of readers - farmers, academics, students, or anyone just curious or interested in the subject.

Application of Molecular Methods and Raman Microscopy

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9781911529538 9781911529521 Year: Pages: 219 DOI: 10.5334/bbj Language: English
Publisher: Ubiquity Press
Subject: Chemical Technology --- Botany --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-15 11:21:03
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"This book has been prepared with the aim to present the application of these two state-of-the art technologies in agricultural sciences and food technology, and to explain the protocols for analyses of different plant, animal, microbiological and food samples as well as for different biotechnology procedures. Selected methods and protocols which are used in plant stress physiology, weed science, fruit breeding research, microbial ecology, plant virus and fungus diagnostics, phytobacteriology, fishery, food biochemistry, food materials and food technology are described. Special adaptation of certain protocols is required for application in each of these sciences, for every type of GMO organism, food technology raw material, and food technology product, as well as for every type of bacteria, virus, fungus or fungus-like organism, for each type of raw material in terms of plant host species, plant organs, year period and conditions in the laboratory. Application of molecular methods, primarily qPCR, and Raman microscopy/ spectroscopy in agricultural and food sciences provides substantial opportunity for increased production efficiency, food safety, better product quality and improvement of plant and animal health. This book is aimed for students, scientists and professionals working in the field of agriculture and food technology."

Applications of Modified Starches

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781789233728 9781789233735 Year: Pages: 78 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68610 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Organic Chemistry --- Chemical Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Starch is the main source of energy to humans, but starch today has other roles in food, packing and pharmaceutical industries like filler, emulsion stabilizer, coating, etc. The native form of starch has application limitations on broad range of temperature, pH and stability, among others, required on several industrial applications. The alternative way is modified starch to improve its properties and uses on several industrial fields. The book explores the use of physical and, chemical modifications and even the unusual modification using ionizing radiation on several sources of starch, the effect of them on the properties and application fields of modified starch.

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