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Biodiversity and Conservation in Forests

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ISBN: 9783038975748 / 9783038975755 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-575-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-18 12:03:56
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Global forest communities cover only about 30% of land areas, but they provide important ecosystem services, such as watershed protection, carbon sequestration, and oxygen production, as well as renewable forest products for human subsistence and markets. Forests also support the majority of the world’s terrestrial biodiversity. Although land conversion for agriculture and pastureland has historically resulted in fragmentation and declining forested areas, forests worldwide are now experiencing change at an unprecedented rate due to various anthropogenic activities and growing human populations. Global warming trends are altering snowpack and hydrology, fostering outbreaks of native forest pests, and accelerating the loss of older tree age classes. Modeling suggests that future fire regimes in temperate regions will have shorter return intervals, with more severe wildfires. In addition, a by-product of trade and travel globalization has been the accelerated transport of plants and animals, and plant and animal diseases, around the world. Exotic species have altered community composition, especially where foundation tree species are affected. Every forest community worldwide is challenged by some of these problems. In this Special Issue of the journal Forests we explore the unique biodiversity supported by forest communities, how forest communities are rapidly changing, and conservation approaches to preserving forest biodiversity.

Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycling in Forest Soils

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ISBN: 9783038976820 / 9783038976837 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-683-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The majority of carbon stored in the soils of the world is stored in forests. The refractory nature of some portions of forest soil organic matter also provides the slow, gradual release of organic nitrogen and phosphorus to sustain long term forest productivity. Contemporary and future disturbances, such as climatic warming, deforestation, short rotation sylviculture, the invasion of exotic species, and fire, all place strains on the integrity of this homeostatic system of C, N, and P cycling. On the other hand, the CO2 fertilization effect may partially offset losses of soil organic matter, but many have questioned the ability of N and P stocks to sustain the CO2 fertilization effect.

Keywords

carbon distribution index --- moisture gradient --- soil organic matter fraction --- soil degradation --- soil available nitrogen --- soil available phosphorus --- temperature --- stand density --- charcoal --- forest soil --- carbon mineralization --- microbial activity --- nitrification --- polyphenols --- temperature --- soil microbial communities --- PLFA --- seasons --- nitrogen dynamics --- gross nitrogen transformations --- Daxing’an Mountains --- climatic factors --- soil nutrients --- forest types --- principal component analyses --- soil structure --- soil pH --- Oxisol --- variable-charge soils --- aluminum accumulator --- seasonal trends --- beech forests --- soil enzymes --- organic matter --- multilevel models --- near natural forest management --- Pinus massoniana plantation --- Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation --- soil greenhouse gas flux --- biolability --- tree-DOM --- dissolved organic matter (DOM) --- carbon --- dissolved organic carbon (DOC) --- stemflow --- throughfall --- alpine forest --- ammonia-oxidizing bacteria --- ammonia-oxidizing archaea --- ammonium --- nitrate --- revegetation --- microbial biomass --- chloroform fumigation extraction --- enzyme activities --- stoichiometric homeostasis --- the Three Gorges Reservoir --- Eucalyptus sp. --- wood volume --- second production cycle --- annual increment average --- soil fertility --- nutrient cycling --- Chamaecyparis forest --- humic substances --- 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P NMR) --- P species --- topography --- net primary productivity --- climate zone --- climate --- soil N --- litter N --- climate change --- manuring --- manure pelleting --- northern temperate --- pyrolysis --- information review --- leaf N:P ratio --- P resorption efficiency --- soil P fractions --- P stock --- stand age

Conifers

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ISBN: 9781789848007 9781789848014 Year: Pages: 136 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73422 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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The conifer tree can lead to a wide variety of products and services. Overall, the evaluation, management and planning of the multiplicity of these forest systems requires effective and specific methods and tools in a sustainable frame of the systems and of their products and services. This book reflects the current research on conifer stands and forests. The authors, specialists in different areas, addressed several issues in forest science, focusing on the species' characteristics, silviculture and climate change; growth analysis; reconstruction of stand dynamics of mixed stands; establishment, regeneration and succession; litter-fall, nutrient cycle and silviculture; distribution and zonation; and ecosystem services provided by monocultures and mixed stands.

Conquering the Highlands

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ISBN: 9781922144782 Year: DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_459902 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2014-03-03 22:50:53
License: ANU Press

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Ecology; Deforestation; Scotland

Keywords

ecology --- scotland --- deforestation

Ecological Management of Pine Forests

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ISBN: 9783038974253 / 9783038974260 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-426-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Forestry --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-25 11:16:47
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Natural pine forests characterize many landscapes preserved over time, either as a result of a specific forest management practice or a disturbance. In the event of a lack of management over a long period of time, these formations could evolve with increasingly chaotic structures towards other formations. This process can lead to landscape change, the spread of insects and pathogens, and the risk of fires and watercourse obstruction. Pine forest plantations should be considered as transient tree populations, destined to evolve into more complex and stable formations. However, sometimes they should be preserved for their cultural value. Careful management of these forests also takes into account the close relationship between forest and human settlements. As a first step, ecological management assumes the definition of these two macro types. These approaches include the application of integrated methods for determining the reference conditions of the main functional and structural ecosystem components of forests. The reference conditions are the historical (or natural) variability range of ecological structures and processes, reflecting the recent evolution and dynamic interaction of biotic and abiotic conditions and patterns of disturbance. These conditions form the basis for comparison with contemporary ecosystem processes and structures and are a frame of reference for designing ecological restoration treatments and conservation plans. The productive aspects must not be overlooked; rather, they have to be considered, planned, and managed with a perspective of sustainability and ecosystem functionality. This should be considered for a common approach to forest management, for a forest rehabilitation, and for forest restoration activities.

Erfolgsfaktoren für die Beteiligung forstlicher Akteure an der integrierten ländlichen Entwicklung - Das Beispiel LEADER+ Programm der EU-Strukturpolitik

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ISBN: 10178752008266 9783940344328 Year: Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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The European Union underlines the growing importance of integrated rural development (ILE). Maximilian Ortner shows how forestry can successfully participate in this development. Forest model projects for drinking water, wood mobilization, increase in sales of wood, energy out of wood, forest preservation or airport environmental education are analyzed as examples of acts of the forestry practice in the context of integrated rural development. The examples are based on the state forests, local forest, private forest owners and the Chamber of Agriculture. About the identified success factors inform a "checklist" with the chance of success of specific projects can be assessed quickly.

Forest Biomass and Carbon

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781789843613 9781789843620 Year: Pages: 112 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69011 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Forests grow and their biomass increases; they absorb carbon from the atmosphere and store it in plant tissue. Understanding the biomass of forest vegetation is essential for determining the storage of carbon in the dominant tree component and computing carbon cycling at a regional as well as global level. This book consisting of five chapters will give a comprehensive understanding of biomass production vis-

Forest Fire

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ISBN: 9781789230727 9781789230734 Year: Pages: 162 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69417 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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This book concerns the different aspects of forest fires, the impact of fire on both forest resources (e.g. forest cover) and communities that use different forest functions. Therefore, forest fires have their environmental, economic and social consequences, and none of them is less important. Forest fires can be caused by both natural forces and anthropogenic factors, and in the latter case, it is extremely interesting to profile the potential arsonist. Forest fires may also cause conflicts, stronger or weaker, in local communities that have been using forests for years. These conflicts can be solved both by gradually changing the law itself and through education at the local level. Not less important is the ability to detect fires early, which can be helped by the development of modern technologies. In limiting the effects of forest fires, it may also be helpful to develop mathematical models that indicate various factors affecting the possibility of a fire or affecting the rate of its spread. Not less important is the attempt to assess the direction of forest regeneration after the fire has ceased, in understanding what the help of modern technology is. These aspects of forest fire are the subject of this book. I realize, however, that the contents in it can only be an incentive for the reader to learn more, in an interesting aspect. I assume that this book will be valuable to researchers as well as students who are interested in different aspects connected to forest fires, not only from the ecological point of view but also from the social one. Both are extremely important in future forest protection and sustainable use of forest by local communities.

Forest Operations, Engineering and Management

Authors:
ISBN: 9783038971849 9783038971856 Year: Pages: 416 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-185-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-19 10:20:31
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ca. 200 words; this text will present the book in all promotional forms (e.g. flyers). Please describe the book in straightforward and consumer-friendly terms. The book gathers 28 quality papers containing new and important knowledge on forest operations, engineering and management. Active forest management is indeed applied through forest engineering, and careful forest tending is conditional to the implementation of sound operational methods, which may guarantee cost-effective management while protecting environmental functionality and worker health. Efficiently managed forest operations offer the highest benefit and the lowest cost, in all fields: financial, social and environmental. While maintaining a cross-disciplinary character, forest engineering represents a special sector of interest within the field of forestry and aims at increasing the overall efficiency of forest operations. Forest engineering often deals with practical issues that have a strong economic impact, and for this reason the industry has always had a strong interest in forest engineering, which explains the close connection between scientists and economic operators. The central role of forest engineering in modern forestry is demonstrated by the many sessions gathered under this general label at the IUFRO 125th Anniversary Congress, which offered a great opportunity for catching up with the latest results of sector research. Over the years, much progress has been done in the field of forest engineering, which has been supported by the dramatic technology advances of the most recent times. The 28 papers contained in this book come from many different countries and cover a large variety of subjects, from pure productivity, to resource availability, operation planning, environmental impacts and operator safety and health. Energy biomass is also represented, as a witness to the growing role of forestry in the quest for renewable energy sources.

Forest Soil Respiration under Climate Changing

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038971788 9783038971795 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-179-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Forestry --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-09 11:32:21
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The respiration of forest soils and the major factors controlling its rate are fairly well understood. The process is of utmost significance because its balance with the fixation of CO2 in the biomass defines whether a particular site is a source or sink of atmospheric CO2. Currently, the measurement of soil respiration in the field requires rather expensive experimental installations. Nevertheless, there are still some caveats in our understanding, such as the separation of autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration, the relevance of different groups of soil organisms, the effect of ecosystem disturbances in different types of forests on soil respiration with respect to magnitude and duration, the adaptation of soil respiration to changing site conditions, and the regional prediction of soil respiration, based on proxy data. Technical progress and additional contributions on process understanding will put us in the position of better predictions of the forest soil respiration. We encourage studies from all fields, including experimental studies, monitoring approaches and models, to contribute to this Special Issue in order to promote knowledge and adaptation strategies for the preservation, management, and future development of forest ecosystems.

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