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Afforestation and Reforestation: Drivers, Dynamics, and Impacts

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783039214471 9783039214488 Year: Pages: 194 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-448-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Afforestation/reforestation (or forestation) has been implemented worldwide as an effective measure towards sustainable ecosystem services and addresses global environmental problems such as climate change. The conversion of grasslands, croplands, shrublands, or bare lands to forests can dramatically alter forest water, energy, and carbon cycles and, thus, ecosystem services (e.g., carbon sequestration, soil erosion control, and water quality improvement). Large-scale afforestation/reforestation is typically driven by policies and, in turn, can also have substantial socioeconomic impacts. To enable success, forestation endeavors require novel approaches that involve a series of complex processes and interdisciplinary sciences. For example, exotic or fast-growing tree species are often used to improve soil conditions of degraded lands or maximize productivity, and it often takes a long time to understand and quantify the consequences of such practices at watershed or regional scales. Maintaining the sustainability of man-made forests is becoming increasingly challenging under a changing environment and disturbance regime changes such as wildland fires, urbanization, drought, air pollution, climate change, and socioeconomic change. Therefore, this Special Issue focuses on case studies of the drivers, dynamics, and impacts of afforestation/reforestation at regional, national, or global scales. These new studies provide an update on the scientific advances related to forestation. This information is urgently needed by land managers and policy makers to better manage forest resources in today’s rapidly changing environments.

Agricultural Implications of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident (III)

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9789811332180 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.1007/978-981-13-3218-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Zoology --- Environmental Sciences --- Environmental Technology --- Agriculture (General) --- Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-04 11:21:24
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This open access book presents the findings from on-site research into radioactive cesium contamination in various agricultural systems affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. This third volume in the series reports on studies undertaken at contaminated sites such as farmland, forests, and marine and freshwater environments, with a particular focus on livestock, wild plants and mushrooms, crops, and marine products in those environments. It also provides additional data collected in the subsequent years to show how the radioactivity levels in agricultural products and their growing environments have changed with time and the route by which radioactive materials entered agricultural products as well as their movement between different components (e.g., soil, water, and trees) within an environmental system (e.g., forests). The book covers various topics, including radioactivity testing of food products; decontamination trials for rice and livestock production; the state of contamination in, trees, mushrooms, and timber; the dynamics of radioactivity distribution in paddy fields and upland forests; damage incurred by the forestry and fishery industries; and the change in consumers’ attitudes. Chapter 19 introduces a real-time radioisotope imaging system, a pioneering technique to visualize the movement of cesium in soil and in plants. This is the only book to provide systematic data on the actual change of radioactivity, and as such is of great value to all researchers who wish to understand the effect of radioactive fallout on agriculture. In addition, it helps the general public to better understand the issues of radio-contamination in the environment. The project is ongoing; the research groups from the Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences of The University of Tokyo continue their work in the field to further evaluate the long-term effects of the Fukushima accident.

Biodiversity and Conservation in Forests

Authors:
ISBN: 9783038975748 9783038975755 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-575-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-18 12:03:56
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Global forest communities cover only about 30% of land areas, but they provide important ecosystem services, such as watershed protection, carbon sequestration, and oxygen production, as well as renewable forest products for human subsistence and markets. Forests also support the majority of the world’s terrestrial biodiversity. Although land conversion for agriculture and pastureland has historically resulted in fragmentation and declining forested areas, forests worldwide are now experiencing change at an unprecedented rate due to various anthropogenic activities and growing human populations. Global warming trends are altering snowpack and hydrology, fostering outbreaks of native forest pests, and accelerating the loss of older tree age classes. Modeling suggests that future fire regimes in temperate regions will have shorter return intervals, with more severe wildfires. In addition, a by-product of trade and travel globalization has been the accelerated transport of plants and animals, and plant and animal diseases, around the world. Exotic species have altered community composition, especially where foundation tree species are affected. Every forest community worldwide is challenged by some of these problems. In this Special Issue of the journal Forests we explore the unique biodiversity supported by forest communities, how forest communities are rapidly changing, and conservation approaches to preserving forest biodiversity.

Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycling in Forest Soils

Authors:
ISBN: 9783038976820 9783038976837 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-683-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The majority of carbon stored in the soils of the world is stored in forests. The refractory nature of some portions of forest soil organic matter also provides the slow, gradual release of organic nitrogen and phosphorus to sustain long term forest productivity. Contemporary and future disturbances, such as climatic warming, deforestation, short rotation sylviculture, the invasion of exotic species, and fire, all place strains on the integrity of this homeostatic system of C, N, and P cycling. On the other hand, the CO2 fertilization effect may partially offset losses of soil organic matter, but many have questioned the ability of N and P stocks to sustain the CO2 fertilization effect.

Keywords

carbon distribution index --- moisture gradient --- soil organic matter fraction --- soil degradation --- soil available nitrogen --- soil available phosphorus --- temperature --- stand density --- charcoal --- forest soil --- carbon mineralization --- microbial activity --- nitrification --- polyphenols --- temperature --- soil microbial communities --- PLFA --- seasons --- nitrogen dynamics --- gross nitrogen transformations --- Daxing’an Mountains --- climatic factors --- soil nutrients --- forest types --- principal component analyses --- soil structure --- soil pH --- Oxisol --- variable-charge soils --- aluminum accumulator --- seasonal trends --- beech forests --- soil enzymes --- organic matter --- multilevel models --- near natural forest management --- Pinus massoniana plantation --- Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation --- soil greenhouse gas flux --- biolability --- tree-DOM --- dissolved organic matter (DOM) --- carbon --- dissolved organic carbon (DOC) --- stemflow --- throughfall --- alpine forest --- ammonia-oxidizing bacteria --- ammonia-oxidizing archaea --- ammonium --- nitrate --- revegetation --- microbial biomass --- chloroform fumigation extraction --- enzyme activities --- stoichiometric homeostasis --- the Three Gorges Reservoir --- Eucalyptus sp. --- wood volume --- second production cycle --- annual increment average --- soil fertility --- nutrient cycling --- Chamaecyparis forest --- humic substances --- 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P NMR) --- P species --- topography --- net primary productivity --- climate zone --- climate --- soil N --- litter N --- climate change --- manuring --- manure pelleting --- northern temperate --- pyrolysis --- information review --- leaf N:P ratio --- P resorption efficiency --- soil P fractions --- P stock --- stand age

Conifers

Authors:
ISBN: 9781789848007 9781789848014 Year: Pages: 136 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73422 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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The conifer tree can lead to a wide variety of products and services. Overall, the evaluation, management and planning of the multiplicity of these forest systems requires effective and specific methods and tools in a sustainable frame of the systems and of their products and services. This book reflects the current research on conifer stands and forests. The authors, specialists in different areas, addressed several issues in forest science, focusing on the species' characteristics, silviculture and climate change; growth analysis; reconstruction of stand dynamics of mixed stands; establishment, regeneration and succession; litter-fall, nutrient cycle and silviculture; distribution and zonation; and ecosystem services provided by monocultures and mixed stands.

Conquering the Highlands

Authors:
ISBN: 9781922144782 Year: DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_459902 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2014-03-03 22:50:53
License: ANU Press

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Ecology; Deforestation; Scotland

Keywords

ecology --- scotland --- deforestation

Diseases of Edible Oilseed Crops

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9781466595651 Year: Pages: 485 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Biology --- Botany --- Forestry --- Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-07-24 23:57:46
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Diseases of Edible Oilseed Crops presents an unprecedentedly thorough collection of information on the diseases of cultivated annual oilseed crops, including peanut, rapeseed-mustard, sesame, soybean, sunflower, and safflower. Written by internationally recognized researchers, this book covers and integrates worldwide literature in the field up to 2014, setting it apart from other books that are only of regional importance. The book focuses on major diseases of economic importance to each crop. Each chapter is devoted to a type of crop and a profile of affecting diseases according to geographical occurrence, epidemiology, symptoms, causal pathogens, host-pathogen interactions, biotechnological aspects, and the latest approaches to understanding host-pathogen interactions. It also includes discussions on developments on controversial subjects in research in order to stimulate thinking and further conversation with an eye toward improvements and resolutions. Research on oilseed crop diseases has expanded tremendously in the past 30 years, primarily as an effort to reduce losses to various stresses, including crop diseases. In the war against hunger and malnutrition, it is necessary to enhance and update knowledge about crop diseases and managing them. By compiling decades of information from previously scattered research into a single globally minded volume, Diseases of Edible Oilseed Crops provides these much-needed updates and enhancements.

Keywords

Crops --- Diseases --- Edible --- Oilseed

Disturbance Effects on Soil Carbon and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Forest Ecosystems

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039286669 / 9783039286676 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-667-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Forest ecosystems are often disturbed by agents such as harvesting, fire, wind, insects and diseases, and acid deposition, with differing intensities and frequencies. Such disturbances can markedly affect the amount, form, and stability of soil organic carbon in, and the emission of greenhouse gases, including CO2, CH4, and N2O from, forest ecosystems. It is vitally important that we improve our understanding of the impact of different disturbance regimes on forest soil carbon dynamics and greenhouse gas emissions to guide our future research, forest management practices, and policy development. This Special Issue provides an important update on the disturbance effects on soil carbon and greenhouse gas emissions in forest ecosystems in different climate regions.

Keywords

carbon stock changes --- forest --- greenhouse gas inventory --- IPCC --- South Korea --- greenhouse gas emission --- soil respiration --- coastal wetlands --- anthropogenic effect --- CO2 production and diffusion --- soil properties --- CO2 emission --- surface soil layer --- forest soils --- autotrophic respiration --- heterotrophic respiration --- CO2 effluxes --- decomposition --- forest disturbance --- tree mortality --- storm damage --- insect outbreak --- land use types --- soil organic carbon --- soil total nitrogen --- N addition --- soil respiration --- microbe --- subtropical forest --- soil organic carbon --- soil microbial residue --- forest conversion --- natural forest --- assisted natural regeneration --- plantation --- CO2 --- CH4 --- N2O --- soil --- biochar --- sensitivity --- temperature --- stoichiometric ratios --- landform --- rocky desertification --- karst graben basin --- warming --- nitrogen --- greenhouse gas --- soil characteristics --- microbial properties --- soil quality --- successive planting --- generation --- stand age --- clear-cutting --- Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr --- biochar --- Camellia oleifera --- DCD --- nitrification inhibitor --- nitrous oxide --- calcareous soil --- plum plantation ages --- organic carbon mineralization --- fitting parameters --- organic carbon accumulation --- karst graben basin --- land use pattern --- bacterial community --- next-generation sequencing --- subtropical forest --- calcareous soils --- red soils --- soil CO2 --- carbon source–sink --- CH4 emissions --- CO2 emissions --- climate change mitigation --- global change --- land-use change --- N2O emissions --- soil carbon sequestration

Ecological Management of Pine Forests

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038974253 9783038974260 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-426-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Forestry --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-25 11:16:47
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Natural pine forests characterize many landscapes preserved over time, either as a result of a specific forest management practice or a disturbance. In the event of a lack of management over a long period of time, these formations could evolve with increasingly chaotic structures towards other formations. This process can lead to landscape change, the spread of insects and pathogens, and the risk of fires and watercourse obstruction. Pine forest plantations should be considered as transient tree populations, destined to evolve into more complex and stable formations. However, sometimes they should be preserved for their cultural value. Careful management of these forests also takes into account the close relationship between forest and human settlements. As a first step, ecological management assumes the definition of these two macro types. These approaches include the application of integrated methods for determining the reference conditions of the main functional and structural ecosystem components of forests. The reference conditions are the historical (or natural) variability range of ecological structures and processes, reflecting the recent evolution and dynamic interaction of biotic and abiotic conditions and patterns of disturbance. These conditions form the basis for comparison with contemporary ecosystem processes and structures and are a frame of reference for designing ecological restoration treatments and conservation plans. The productive aspects must not be overlooked; rather, they have to be considered, planned, and managed with a perspective of sustainability and ecosystem functionality. This should be considered for a common approach to forest management, for a forest rehabilitation, and for forest restoration activities.

Erfolgsfaktoren für die Beteiligung forstlicher Akteure an der integrierten ländlichen Entwicklung - Das Beispiel LEADER+ Programm der EU-Strukturpolitik

Authors:
ISBN: 10178752008266 9783940344328 Year: Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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The European Union underlines the growing importance of integrated rural development (ILE). Maximilian Ortner shows how forestry can successfully participate in this development. Forest model projects for drinking water, wood mobilization, increase in sales of wood, energy out of wood, forest preservation or airport environmental education are analyzed as examples of acts of the forestry practice in the context of integrated rural development. The examples are based on the state forests, local forest, private forest owners and the Chamber of Agriculture. About the identified success factors inform a "checklist" with the chance of success of specific projects can be assessed quickly.

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