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Advances in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Model Systems, Microenvironmental Influences, Therapy, and Origins

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197699 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-769-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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This eBook provides a compendium of the current state-of-the-art in research tools for, and understanding of, the critical research areas in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with a strong emphasis on (HG-SOC). Research areas covered include therapy response and development, microenvironmental influences and the etiology and progression of EOC. Ten articles detail established and novel in vivo and in vitro model systems. These include primary and immortalized cell culture in 2D and 3D as well as genetically engineered, transgenic, spontaneous, syngeneic, classical xenograft and patient derived xenograft mouse models. The generation of genetically engineered mouse models of HG-SOC has been a major dilemma as models with the oncogenic aberrations common in the human malignancy do not accurately recapitulate HG-SOC. Conversely, commonly used HG-SOC cell lines have been found to not harbor the expected genetic changes. These issues as well as the rapid acceptance of patient derived xenograft models are reviewed. Five articles discuss different aspects of the tumor microenvironment including its role in therapy resistance, disease progression and metastasis. Mutation of BRCA1/2 continues to be the best defined risk factor for HG-SOC. Three articles discuss BRCA-loss in the context of disease development, targeted therapies and changes in preventative measures proposed for mutation carriers in light of the recent advances in knowledge regarding the origins of this malignancy. An image of HG-SOC with patchy BRCA1 expression is featured on the cover (image by VM Howell). A major clinical issue for patients with HG-SOC is the development of therapy resistance. Five articles focus on therapy resistance and different ways to overcome resistance. Overall, this eBook is an outstanding resource to aid researchers design their programs of research and determine the most appropriate and up-to-date EOC model systems to address their research questions.

Adverse Effects of Cancer Chemotherapy: Anything New to Improve Tolerance and Reduce Sequelae?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454822 Year: Pages: 245 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-482-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Therapeutics --- Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Advances in anti-cancer chemotherapy over recent years have led to improved efficacy in curing or controlling many cancers. Some chemotherapy-related side-effects are well recognized and include: nausea, vomiting, bone marrow suppression, peripheral neuropathy, cardiac and skeletal muscle dysfunction and renal impairment. However, it is becoming clearer that some chemotherapy-related adverse effects may persist even in long term cancer survivors. Problems such as cognitive, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal dysfunction, and neuropathy may lead to substantial long term morbidity. Despite improvements in treatments to counteract acute chemotherapy-induced adverse effects, they are often incompletely effective. Furthermore, counter-measures for some acute side-effects and many potential longer term sequelae of anti-cancer chemotherapy have not been developed. Thus, new insights into prevalence and mechanisms of cancer chemotherapy-related side effects are needed and new approaches to improving tolerance and reduce sequelae of cancer chemotherapy are urgently needed. The present Research Topic focuses on adverse effects and sequelae of chemotherapy and strategies to counteract them.

The Biology and Treatment of Myeloid Leukaemias

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ISBN: 9783038427957 9783038427964 Year: Pages: VI, 190 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-17 13:45:41
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There has been an observed decrease in the global mortality from cancer, mostly atributable to improved, particularly early, detection and prevention. For many carcinomas and leukaemias in adults, once the disease has reached a certain stage there are no therapies that are able to erradicate the cancer cells and cure patients. There has been progress in the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and remissions are achievable; however, the presence of chemoresistent blast cells leads to most patients relapsing, and relapse is difficult to treat and thus patients die due to their disease. Targeting these resistent cells and the leukaemia stem cells, which sustain the leukaemia, is crucial for an effective therapy for AML. Moreover, an increasing number of diverse mutations have been described in AML cells that disrupt the ability of these cells to undergo differentiation. The use of pro-differentiating agents to drive the blast cells to mature, and subsequently undergo apoptosis, provides another approach to therapy. Differentiation therapy, using all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), an inducer of granulocyte differentiation, has been highly successful in the case of acute promyeloicytic leukaemia, a sub-type of AML, turning this disease into a curable malignancy.

Biology-Driven Targeted Therapy of Pediatric Soft-Tissue and Bone Tumors: Current Opportunities and Future Challenges

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198191 Year: Pages: 147 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-819-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Recent advances in the understanding of the biological basis of pediatric soft-tissue and bone tumors, especially owing to the advent of “omics” technologies, have led to an exponential increase in the current knowledge on the genetic and cellular patho-mechanisms that drive these diseases. This offers the unprecedented opportunity to develop and implement targeted therapies such as monoclonal antibodies, small molecules, oncolytic viruses, and immunotherapies in standard and/or personalized treatment regimens. However, to date only a few examples document a successful translation of discoveries from the bench to the bedside. Recent international expert congresses such as the “Pediatric Cancer Translational Genomics” conference (Phoenix, Arizona, 2012), the ESF-EMBO workshop on “Molecular Biology and Innovative Therapies in Sarcomas” (Pultusk, Poland, 2012), and the AACR special meeting on “Pediatric Cancer at the Crossroads – Translating Discovery into Improved Outcomes” (San Diego, California, 2013) further emphasize the urgent need for a more rapid and especially more successful translational process. Hence, we strongly believe that a Frontiers Research Topic aiming at this aspect would fit just in time and that it would have great potential to receive numerous contributions of outstanding experts of the field. The proposed Frontiers Research Topic shall provide a platform for active and interdisciplinary discussion, summarize current state-of-the-art knowledge on all basic research and translational aspects in pediatric soft-tissue and bone tumors, and offer new perspectives of how to further promote and accelerate the translational process. We welcome high-quality original research articles, brief reports, as well as opinion, hypothesis, and review articles, and especially encourage submissions from early-career scientists.

Cancer Care Delivery and Women's Health

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453092 Year: Pages: 153 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-309-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Cancer care delivery refers to the multiple layers of the health care system that interact to affect outcomes for patients with cancer and the quality of that care. The factors included in the care delivery system that potentially alter outcomes include social dynamics, financing systems, organizational structures and processes, health technologies, provider and individual behaviors. Because women’s health care has its own unique challenges, the intersection between cancer care delivery and women’s health is to be examined in this Frontiers in Oncology issue. The unique opportunities and challenges of improving the health care system for women with breast and gynecologic cancers are to be explored in depth. We will visit many topics of cancer care delivery with the unique perspective geared towards the care of women’s malignancies.

Cancer Immunotherapy & Immuno-monitoring: Mechanism, Treatment, Diagnosis, and Emerging Tools

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193806 Year: Pages: 97 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-380-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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In the past decade, significant progresses have taken place in the field of cancer immunotherapy. Tumor-targeting immunotherapies are being developed for most human cancers, including melanoma, prostate cancer, glioblastoma, sarcoma, lung carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. The FDA has approved multiple molecular immunotherapeutics, such as Ipilimumab; cellular immunotherapies (e.g. adoptive cell transfer) are being tested in phase II/III clinical trials. Immunotherapetics has evolved into a sophisticated field: Multimodal therapeutic regimens are administrated to induce focused responses, curtail side- effects and improve therapeutic efficacy. The lack of effective clinical assessment tools remains a major challenge. Because of the intricacy of antitumor response, it is essential to scrutinize individual tumor-targeting immune cells and their functions at the finest details - molecules. In this regard, flow cytometry analysis modernized hematology and allows characterization of surface molecular signature on individual cells. More recently, microchip technologies and new variations of cytometry have enormously expanded the spectrum, throughout and multiplexity of single cell analysis. Nowadays, tens of millions of readouts can be generated through the course of a cancer immunotherapy to monitor the abundance, phenotype and a myriad of effector functions of single immune cells. At the same time, big data analytics and data mining methodologies have been adapted to achieve sensible diagnostic interpretations. Such a marriage of technology and analytics opens the door for informative point-of-care assessment of therapeutic efficacy and ensures timely therapeutic decisions. The new generation of personalized clinical diagnostics will revolutionize healthcare in the years to come.

Cancer Metabolism: Molecular Targeting and Implications for Therapy

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453221 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-322-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Development of an effective anticancer therapeutic necessitates the selection of cancer-related or cancer-specific pathways or molecules that are sensitive to intervention. Several such critical yet sensitive molecular targets have been recognized, and their specific antagonists or inhibitors validated as potential therapeutics in preclinical models. Yet, majority of anticancer principles or therapeutics show limited success in the clinical translation. Thus, the need for the development of an effective therapeutic strategy persists. “Altered energy metabolism” in cancer is one of the earliest known biochemical phenotypes which dates back to the early 20th century. The German scientist, Otto Warburg and his team (Warburg, Wind, Negelein 1926; Warburg, Wind, Negelein 1927) provided the first evidence that the glucose metabolism of cancer cells diverge from normal cells. This phenomenal discovery on deregulated glucose metabolism or cellular bioenergetics is frequently witnessed in majority of solid malignancies. Currently, the altered glucose metabolism is used in the clinical diagnosis of cancer through positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Thus, the “deregulated bioenergetics” is a clinically relevant metabolic signature of cancer cells, hence recognized as one of the hallmarks of cancer (Hanahan and Weinberg 2011). Accumulating data unequivocally demonstrate that, besides cellular bioenergetics, cancer metabolism facilitates several cancer-related processes including metastasis, therapeutic resistance and so on. Recent reports also demonstrate the oncogenic regulation of glucose metabolism (e.g. glycolysis) indicating a functional link between neoplastic growth and cancer metabolism. Thus, cancer metabolism, which is already exploited in cancer diagnosis, remains an attractive target for therapeutic intervention as well. The Frontiers in Oncology Research Topic “Cancer Metabolism: Molecular Targeting and Implications for Therapy” emphases on recent advances in our understanding of metabolic reprogramming in cancer, and the recognition of key molecules for therapeutic targeting. Besides, the topic also deliberates the implications of metabolic targeting beyond the energy metabolism of cancer. The research topic integrates a series of reviews, mini-reviews and original research articles to share current perspectives on cancer metabolism, and to stimulate an open forum to discuss potential challenges and future directions of research necessary to develop effective anticancer strategies.

Cardiovascular Toxicities of Breast Cancer Treatment: Emerging Issues in Cardio-Oncology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195695 Year: Pages: 83 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-569-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-03 17:04:57
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Cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are the two most common causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The incidence of both cancer and cardiovascular disease increases with age. With increased life expectancy, the burden of both these diseases will increase substantially in coming years. Patients with CVD share multiple common risk factors and lifestyle behaviors in addition to frequently suffering from multiple comorbid conditions. Tobacco use, hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes, physical inactivity, and poor nutrition are all established risk factors of heart disease. Patients with diseases such as breast cancer may develop CVD from treatment, such as use of chemotherapy and RT. Effects on the heart are a potentially significant and serious clinical problem in radiation therapy treatment of breast cancer. Over the course of the past 50 years, there have been great advances in the delivery of RT due to the development of new techniques, beam energy, improvement in imaging modalities, and development of image registration strategies. It is hypothesized that cardiac damage from RT is correlated to the dose absorbed by the heart and differs between left- and right-breast radiotherapy. The damage to cardiac micro- and macro-vasculature is the pathophysiological cause of RT-related heart disease. Given the growing clinical relevance of cardio-oncology, this Frontiers in Oncology Research Topic provides a venue for disseminating focused reviews and cutting edge research in this quickly growing field. We encourage submission of original papers and reviews dealing with cardiac toxicity after breast cancer treatment, motion management to reduce cardiac exposure, imaging to evaluate potential cardiac toxicities and primary prevention of cardiac disease in the breast cancer patient.

Cell Lineage Choice During Haematopoiesis: A Commemorative Issue in Honor of Professor Antonius Rolink

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ISBN: 9783038972747 9783038972754 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-275-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Oncology --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-13 11:29:45
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ca. 200 words; this text will present the book in all promotional forms (e.g. flyers). Please describe the book in straightforward and consumer-friendly terms. This special issue of the International Journal of Molecular Sciences contains a collection of articles by colleagues of Antonius (Ton) Gerardus Rolink (19/04/1953-06/08/2017) and honors Ton’s life and profound knowledge of and huge contribution to science. Ton participated in an FP7 Marie Curie Initial Training Network called DECIDE, and partners have submitted articles for this Special Issue. Scientists outside this network have also submitted articles. The articles examine various aspects of how the hematopoietic stem-cell gives rise to the different types of blood and immune cells. These include decision-making by the hematopoietic stem cell and the importance of controlling events within cells and the niches the cell resides in. New insights into these processes at the basic scientific level have given rise to an emerging new model for the development of blood cells. In turn, changes to our understanding of this process have led to new and exciting propositions regarding what goes wrong during the early stages of the development of leukemia.

Cell Stress, Metabolic Reprogramming, and Cancer

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455652 Year: Pages: 68 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-565-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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The present eBook presents one review, five mini-reviews, and an opinion article on the achievements and perspectives of studies on important aspects of cancer cell metabolic reprogramming whose mechanisms and regulation are still largely elusive. It also sheds light on certain novel functional components, which rewires cell metabolism in tumor transformation.

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