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L'accesso al farmaco

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Book Series: Memorie del Dipartimento di Giurisprudenza - Università di Torino ISBN: 9788867056187 Year: Pages: 179 Language: Italian
Publisher: Ledizioni - LediPublishing
Subject: Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-26 15:19:19
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“Il farmaco è un bene di rilevanza giuridica sia in quanto strumentale alla tutela della salute sia in quanto possibile oggetto di rapporti economici. Si comprende pertanto come la disciplina del farmaco si collochi al crocevia di differenti interessi e come il rapporto tra questo bene e il suo diritto possa declinarsi attraverso molteplici prospettive”. (Dal testo)

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Acupuncture – Basic Research and Clinical Application

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ISBN: 9783038972341 9783038972358 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-235-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-09 11:13:34
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This book focuses on the investigation, development, and modernization of acupuncture in basic research settings as well as in clinical applications. The book contains 13 chapters reporting the latest evidence-based results of acupuncture research and exploring acupuncture in general. Altogether, 44 authors from all over the world contributed to this book.

Advances in Marine Chitin and Chitosan

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038421306 9783038421290 Year: Pages: XIV, 470 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-129-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-20 15:15:59
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Recently, biomass-based polymers from renewable resources have received increasing focus owing to the depletion of petroleum resources. Natural polysaccharides such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and starch are among the candidates from natural resources for biomass polysaccharide products including bioplastics. Although several kinds of neutral or anionic polysaccharides such as chitin, alginic acid, hyaluronic acid, heparin, and chondroitin sulfate exist in nature, natural cationic polysaccharides are quite limited. Chitin is second only to cellulose as the most natural abundant polysaccharide in the world. Chitosan, the product from the N-deacetylatation of chitin, appears to be the only natural cationic polysaccharide. Therefore, chitin and chitosan due to their unique properties are expected to continue to offer a vast number of possible applications for not only chemical or industrial use, but also biomedicine. The research history on chitins, one of the most major and abundant natural polysaccharides on earth, started around 1970. Since the 1980s, chitin and chitosan research (including D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and their oligomers) has progressed significantly over several stages in both fundamental research and industrial fields.

Advances in Micro-Bioreactor Design for Organ Cell Studies

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ISBN: 9783038972334 9783038972327 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-232-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-12-06 11:44:20
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Micro-bioreactors offer unique opportunities to study biological systems under fluidic conditions. The concept of micro-bioreactors suggests that biological reaction conditions on a large scale can be scaled down to micro-volumes while maintaining performance and functionality. Models and operation principles can be simulated at a smaller scale, either by scaling down organs in the human body, or using bioreactors for the production of biologics. This book highlights these issues with a strong focus on new engineering design. The initial chapters cover the conceptual design of microbioreactors and organ-on-chips, and the role of microbioreactors in tissue engineering for clinical and therapeutic targets. Two chapters are dedicated to microbioreactors for implementing tumor models. Other chapters discuss three-dimensional models for hepatic and cardiac cells for toxicity testing and drug evaluation. Finally, the design of organ chips for cartilage scaffolds and the integration of sensors are covered in separate chapters. We believe the book will have substantial value for researchers active in bioreactor engineering, drug development and cell physiology, as well as readers interested in these topics.

Adverse Effects of Cancer Chemotherapy: Anything New to Improve Tolerance and Reduce Sequelae?

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454822 Year: Pages: 245 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-482-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Therapeutics --- Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Advances in anti-cancer chemotherapy over recent years have led to improved efficacy in curing or controlling many cancers. Some chemotherapy-related side-effects are well recognized and include: nausea, vomiting, bone marrow suppression, peripheral neuropathy, cardiac and skeletal muscle dysfunction and renal impairment. However, it is becoming clearer that some chemotherapy-related adverse effects may persist even in long term cancer survivors. Problems such as cognitive, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal dysfunction, and neuropathy may lead to substantial long term morbidity. Despite improvements in treatments to counteract acute chemotherapy-induced adverse effects, they are often incompletely effective. Furthermore, counter-measures for some acute side-effects and many potential longer term sequelae of anti-cancer chemotherapy have not been developed. Thus, new insights into prevalence and mechanisms of cancer chemotherapy-related side effects are needed and new approaches to improving tolerance and reduce sequelae of cancer chemotherapy are urgently needed. The present Research Topic focuses on adverse effects and sequelae of chemotherapy and strategies to counteract them.

AML in the Molecular Age: From Biology to Clinical Management

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ISBN: 9783038972808 9783038972815 Year: Pages: 208 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-281-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-12 12:12:38
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We appreciate your willingness to contribute an article to the upcoming Special Issue of the Journal of Clinical Medicine, which will focus on “AML in the Molecular Age: From Biology to Clinical Management”. In this Special Issue, we aim to discuss important scientific and clinical ongoing activities in AML. Scientific subjects will include articles concerning the molecular abnormalities, epigenetic mechanisms of disease/therapy as well as the role of the immune system in AML. Very interesting and uncommon subjects will include discussions of extramedullary disease and evaluations of the central nervous system by various imaging techniques. Experts will describe the role of hypomethylating agents in the management of AML and currently emerging and promising investigational therapies. Specifics of treament of pediatric and younger patients with AML. Clinical success relies greatly on supportive therapy, and we will discuss supportive therapy, including infection prophylaxis. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation remains the most effective measure for curing aggressive AML, and a variety of topics will be considered: donor selection, age of recipient, which has been increasing seemingly without limit; therefore, recipient/donor assessments are more important than ever in the aging population. Alternative donor use (e.g., cord blood and haploidentical individuals) has been increasing dramatically; when and who should be considered, what is being investigated? With significant changes occurring with respect to both donors and recipients, the pros and cons of using of anti-thymocyte globulin use in conditioning regimens will be also described.

Biological Efficacy of Natural and Chemically Modified Products against Oral Inflammatory Lesions

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ISBN: 9783038979920 / 9783038979937 Year: Pages: 212 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-993-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Oral health is general health. If the oral cavity is kept healthy, the whole body is always healthy. Bacteria in the oral cavity do not stay in the oral cavity, but rather they travel throughout the body and can induce various diseases. Periodontal pathogens are involved in tooth loss. The number of remaining teeth decreases with age. People with more residual teeth can bite food well and live longer with lower incidence of dementia. There are many viruses in the oral cavity that also cause various diseases. Bacteria and viruses induce and aggravate inflammation, and therefore should be removed from the oral cavity. In the natural world, there are are many as yet undiscovered antiviral, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory substances. These natural substances, as well as chemically modified derivatives, help our oral health and lead us to more fulfilling, high quality lives. This Special Issue, entitled “Biological Efficacy of Natural and Chemically Modified Products against Oral Inflammatory Lesions”, was written by specialists from a diverse variety of fields. It serves to provide readers with up-to-date information on incidence rates in each age group, etiology and treatment of stomatitis, and to investigate the application of such treatments as oral care and cosmetic materials.

Keywords

metabolomics --- oral cell --- benzaldehyde --- eugenol --- inflammation --- cytotoxicity --- stomatitis --- recurrent aphthous stomatitis --- oral lichen planus --- CCN2 --- glucocorticoids --- alkaloids --- anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) --- antiviral --- natural product --- human virus --- inflammatory disease --- stomatitis --- periodontitis --- anti-osteoclast activity --- cepharanthin --- herbal medicine --- natural product --- arachidonic acid cascade --- allergic rhinitis --- mice --- quercetin --- thioredoxin --- nasal epithelial cell --- production --- increase --- in vitro --- in vivo --- nutritionally variant streptococci --- antimicrobial susceptibilities --- oral microbiota --- infective endocarditis --- kampo formula --- traditional Japanese herbal medicine --- stomatitis --- mucositis --- Hangeshashinto --- polyphenol --- chromone --- lignin-carbohydrate complex --- alkaline extract --- Kampo medicine --- glucosyltransferase --- angiotensin II blocker --- QSAR analysis --- oral diseases --- dental application --- Chinese herbal remedies --- stomatitis --- periodontitis --- Kampo --- traditional medicine --- Jixueteng --- Juzentaihoto --- technical terms --- gargle --- tongue diagnosis --- mastic --- pathogenic factors --- quantitative structure-activity relationship --- machine learning --- random forest --- natural products --- tumour-specificity --- Kampo medicine --- constituent plant extract --- stomatitis --- oral inflammation --- quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis --- metabolomics

Biomarkers in Drug Hypersensitivity

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452262 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-226-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Biomarkers, especially those based on pharmacogenomics testing, have proved to be extremely useful for type A adverse drug reactions. Clinical practice guidelines based on biomarker testing are presently being developed and updated for type A adverse drug reactions. In contrast, little attention has been paid to the potential use of biomarkers in type B adverse reactions, characterized by the occurrence of reactions not directly related to the pharmacological properties of the drug. Drug-induced hypersensitivity belongs to those type B reactions. Drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions involve complex mechanisms that include, among others, the metabolic activation and haptenization of drug metabolites. Hence, factors that influence the pharmacokinetics of drug and metabolites may contribute to the development of some drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions. This implies that processes such as ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) that are typically involved in type A adverse drug reactions, may have a role in hypersensitivity reactions too. In addition to metabolic activation, several signal transduction pathways participate and modulate the development and the clinical presentation of drug hypersensitivity. The diverse mechanisms underlying such drug-hypersensitivity reactions lead to four major groups of reactions according to the Gell and Coombs classification: immediate, cytotoxic, immune complex and delayed. The enormous complexity of drug-hypersensitivity reactions is a consequence of the variety of mechanisms involved, which may be related, among others, to drug metabolism, generation of antigenic signals, stimulation and maturation of dendritic cells, presentation of haptens and mechanisms of cytotoxicity. In addition, a plethora of possible clinical presentations exists, including urticaria, angioedema, anaphylaxis, cytopenias, nephritis, serum sickness, vasculitis, contact dermatitis, drug rash, eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. The rapid progress in the field in recent years indicates that the combination of several disciplines is essential to understand the mechanisms involved in this particular, and not completely understood, type of adverse drug reactions. The objective of this Research Topic is to present insights obtained from both basic and clinical scientists, which may include studies related to the identification, validation, refinement and clinical implementation of biomarkers for drug-induced hypersensitivity. The Topic aims to include recent findings related, but not limited to, potential phenomic, genomic, proteomic, metabolomic and signal transduction biomarkers. These biomarkers could eventually be used in clinical practice and/or these might contribute, as a proof of concept, to our understanding of the complex events leading to drug hypersensitivity reactions. In addition the Topic will cover recent developments and methodological advances in the diagnosis, prevention and therapeutic management of drug-induced hypersensitivity.

CaMKII in Cardiac Health and Disease

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192991 Year: Pages: 165 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-299-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:07
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The calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinases (CaMKs) are a broadly expressed family of calcium-sensitive intracellular kinases, which are responsible for transducing cytosolic calcium signals into phosphorylation-based regulation of proteins and physiological functions. As the multifunctional member of the family, CaMKII has become the most prominent for its roles in the central nervous system and heart, where it controls a diverse range of calcium-dependent processes; from learning and memory at the neuronal synapse, to cellular growth and death in the myocardium. In the heart, CaMKII directly regulates many of the most important ion channels and calcium handling proteins, and controls the expression of an ever-increasing number of transcripts and their downstream products. Functionally, these actions are thought to orchestrate many of the electrophysiologic and contractile adaptations to common cardiac stressors, such as rapid pacing, chronic adrenergic stimulation, and oxidative challenge. In the context of disease, CaMKII has been shown to contribute to a remarkably wide variety of cardiac pathologies, of which heart failure (HF) is the most conspicuous. Hyperactivity of CaMKII is an established contributor to pathological cardiac remodeling, and is widely thought to directly promote arrhythmia and contractile dysfunction during HF. Moreover, several non-failing arrhythmia-susceptible phenotypes, which result from specific genetic channelopathies, functionally mimic constitutive channel phosphorylation by CaMKII. Because CaMKII contributes to both the acute and chronic manifestations of major cardiac diseases, but may be only minimally required for homeostasis in the absence of chronic stress, it has come to be one of the most promising therapeutic drug targets in cardiac biology. Thus, development of more specific and deliverable small molecule antagonists remains a key priority for the field. Here we provide a selection of articles to summarize the state of our knowledge regarding CaMKII in cardiac health and disease, with a particular view to highlighting recent developments in CaMKII activation, and new targets in CaMKII-mediated control of myocyte physiology.

The changing faces of glutathione, a cellular protagonist

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195954 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-595-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Glutathione (GSH) has been described for a long time just as a defensive reagent against the action of toxic xenobiotics (drugs, pollutants, carcinogens), both directly and as a cofactor for GSH transferases. As a prototype antioxidant, it has been involved in cell protection from the noxious effect of excess oxidant stress, both directly and as a cofactor of glutathione peroxidases. In addition, it has long been known that GSH is capable of forming disulfide bonds with cysteine residues of proteins, and the relevance of this mechanism ("S-glutathionylation") in regulation of protein function has been well documented in a number of research fields. Rather paradoxically, it has also been highlighted that GSH—and notably its catabolites, as originated by metabolism by gamma-glutamyltransferase—can promote oxidative processes, by participating in metal ion-mediated reactions eventually leading to formation of reactive oxygen species and free radicals. Also, a fundamental role of GSH has been recognized in the storage and transport of nitric oxide (NO), in the form of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). The significance of GSH as a major factor in regulation of cell life, proliferation, and death, can be regarded as the integrated result of all these roles, as well as of more which are emerging in diverse fields of biology and pathophysiology. Against this background, modulation of GSH levels and GSH-related enzyme activities represents a fertile field for experimental pharmacology in numerous and diverse perspectives of animal, plant and microbiologic research. This research topic includes 14 articles, i.e. 4 Opinion Articles, 6 Reviews, and 4 Original Research Articles. The contributions by several distinguished research groups, each from his own standpoint of competence and expertise, provide a comprehensive and updated view over the diverse roles, the changing faces of GSH and GSH-related enzymes in cell’s health, disease and death.

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