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Arsenic - Analytical and Toxicological Studies

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ISBN: 9781789235166 9781789235173 Year: Pages: 90 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.72058 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Inorganic Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Arsenic - Analytical and Toxicological Studies is a collection of original works focused on arsenic occurrence and chemistry, methods for arsenic determination and removal and arsenic toxicity and health risks. The most commonly used techniques for arsenic quantification and speciation, such as atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and inductively coupled plasma-emission spectrometry, among others, and the various procedures applied for arsenic separation and removal are exhaustively described. The mechanism of arsenic-induced toxicology, involving arsenic interaction with critical thiols in proteins and the health risks associated with exposure to arsenic, is also discussed.

Carbon Dioxide Chemistry, Capture and Oil Recovery

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ISBN: 9781789235746 9781789235753 Year: Pages: 266 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68466 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Inorganic Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Fossil fuels still need to meet the growing demand of global economic development, yet they are often considered as one of the main sources of the CO2 release in the atmosphere. CO2, which is the primary greenhouse gas (GHG), is periodically exchanged among the land surface, ocean, and atmosphere where various creatures absorb and produce it daily. However, the balanced processes of producing and consuming the CO2 by nature are unfortunately faced by the anthropogenic release of CO2. Decreasing the emissions of these greenhouse gases is becoming more urgent. Therefore, carbon sequestration and storage (CSS) of CO2, its utilization in oil recovery, as well as its conversion into fuels and chemicals emerge as active options and potential strategies to mitigate CO2 emissions and climate change, energy crises, and challenges in the storage of energy.

Chalcogen Chemistry

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ISBN: 9781789850192 9781789850208 Year: Pages: 120 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73066 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Inorganic Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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This is a handy textbook comprised of chapters introducing the fundamentals of chalcogen chemistry with a focus on chalcogens and selected derived compounds and/or materials with illustrative practical applications. These low-valent chemistry elements of Group 16 or group VI- in the modern periodic table include oxygen (O), sulfur (S), selenium (Se), tellurium (Te), and polonium (Po), and they exhibit extremely interesting properties. They are endowed with supramolecular and structure bonding reactivities that allow them to form a variety of new compounds with sophisticated characteristics, thus making their way into a new era of materials development. It is hoped that readers of this textbook with a general background knowledge in chemistry, biogeochemistry, biochemistry, biology, food, agriculture, and also medicine, as well as pharmacy, will find the chapters enriching in new knowledge. An introductory chapter orients readership in this particular field of chemistry with a summative focus on the multidisciplinary approach employed in the compilation of the chapters. As such, the text is suitable for scientists, technologists, students, as well as those whose major interest is chalcogen chemistry, with particular interests in the chalcogen compounds and materials.

Compounds with Polar Metallic Bonding

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ISBN: 9783039210701 / 9783039210718 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-071-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General) --- Inorganic Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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The Special Edition 'Compounds with Polar Metallic Bonding' is a collection of eight original research reports presenting a broad variety of chemical systems, analytical methods, preparative pathways and theoretical descriptions of bonding situations, with the common aim of understanding the complex interplay of conduction electrons in intermetallic compounds that possess different types of dipoles. Coulombic dipoles introduced by electronegativity differences, electric or magnetic dipoles, polarity induced by symmetry reduction—all the possible facets of the term 'polarity'—can be observed in polar intermetallic phases and have their own and, in most cases, unique consequences on the physical and chemical behaviour. Elucidation of the structure–property relationships in compounds with polar metallic bonding is a modern and growing scientific field which combines solid state physics, preparative chemistry, metallurgy, modern analytic methods, crystallography, theoretical calculations of the electronic state and many more disciplines.

Coordination Chemistry of Silicon

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ISBN: 9783038976387 Year: Pages: 225 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-639-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General) --- Inorganic Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-08 11:42:05
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The chemistry of silicon has always been a field of major concern due to its proximity to carbon on the periodic table. From the molecular chemist's viewpoint, one of the most interesting differences between carbon and silicon is their divergent coordination behavior. In fact, silicon is prone to form hyper-coordinate organosilicon complexes, and, as conveyed by reports in the literature, highly sophisticated ligand systems are required to furnish low-coordinate organosilicon complexes. Tremendous progress in experimental, as well as computational, techniques has granted synthetic access to a broad range of coordination numbers for silicon, and the scientific endeavor, which was ongoing for decades, was rewarded with landmark discoveries in the field of organosilicon chemistry. Molecular congeners of silicon(0), as well as silicon oxides, were unveiled, and the prominent group 14 metalloid proved its applicability in homogenous catalysis as a supportive ligand or even as a center of catalytic activity. This book focuses on the most recent advances in the coordination chemistry of silicon with transition metals as well as main group elements, including the stabilization of low-valent silicon species through the coordination of electron donor ligands. Therefore, this book is associated with the development of novel synthetic methodologies, structural elucidations, bonding analysis, and also possible applications in catalysis or chemical transformations using related organosilicon compounds.

Keywords

silanetriols --- disiloxane tetrols --- silsesquioxanes --- condensation --- molecular cage --- platinum --- primary silane --- hydrido complex --- oxidative addition --- ligand-exchange reaction --- X-ray crystallography --- Si–Cl activation --- germylene --- digermene --- digermacyclobutadiene --- palladium --- cluster --- cyclic organopolysilane --- template --- bridging silylene ligand --- isocyanide --- hydrogen bonds --- silicon --- 2-silylpyrrolidines --- stereochemistry --- X-ray crystallography --- Baird’s rule --- computational chemistry --- excited state aromaticity --- Photostability --- dye-sensitized solar cell --- disilanylene polymer --- photoreaction --- surface modification --- TiO2 --- silylene --- germylene --- N-heterocyclic carbene --- oxidative addition --- siloxanes --- host-guest chemistry --- supramolecular chemistry --- main group coordination chemistry --- hydrogen bonding --- adsorption --- bond activation --- bonding analysis --- density functional theory --- distorted coordination --- molecular orbital analysis --- silicon surfaces --- disilene --- functionalization --- ?-electron systems --- silicon --- N-heterocyclic carbenes --- bromosilylenes --- silyliumylidenes --- dehydrobromination --- silicon cluster --- siliconoid --- nanoparticle --- computation --- silicon --- N-heterocyclic carbenes --- silyliumylidenes --- small molecule activation --- mechanistic insights --- organosilicon --- reductant --- N-Heterocyclic tetrylene --- salt-free --- germanium --- germanethione --- germathioacid chloride --- N-heterocyclic carbines --- ?-chloro-?-hydrooligosilane --- titanium --- ruthenium --- dehydrogenative alkoxylation --- cluster --- isomerization --- silicon --- siliconoid --- subvalent compounds --- AIM --- DFT --- intermetallic bond --- 29Si NMR spectroscopy --- X-ray diffraction

Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry Researches of Metal Compounds

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ISBN: 9789535133971 9789535133988 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.5772/65855 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Inorganic Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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Metal ions play an important role in analytical chemistry, organometallic chemistry, bioinorganic chemistry, and materials chemistry. This book, Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry Researches of Metal Compounds, collects research articles, review articles, and tutorial description about metal compounds. To perspective contemporary researches of inorganic chemistry widely, the kinds of metal elements (typical and transition metals including rare earth; p, d, f-blocks) and compounds (molecular coordination compounds, ionic solid materials, or natural metalloenzyme) or simple substance (bulk, clusters, or alloys) to be focused are not limited. In this way, review chapters of current researches are collected in this book.

Electrochemical Surface Science: Basics and Applications

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039216420 / 9783039216437 Year: Pages: 398 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-643-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General) --- Inorganic Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Electrochemical surface science (EC-SS) is the natural advancement of traditional surface science (where gas–vacuum/solid interfaces are studied) to liquid (solution)/electrified solid interfaces. Such a merging between two different disciplines—i.e., surface science (SS) and electrochemistry—officially advanced ca. three decades ago. The main characteristic of EC-SS versus electrochemistry is the reductionist approach undertaken, inherited from SS and aiming to understand the microscopic processes occurring at electrodes on the atomic level. A few of the exemplary keystone tools of EC-SS include EC-scanning probe microscopies, operando and in situ spectroscopies and electron microscopies, and differential EC mass spectrometry (DEMS). EC-SS indirectly (and often unconsciously) receives a great boost from the requirement for rational design of energy conversion and storage devices for the next generation of energetic landscapes. As a matter of fact, the number of material science groups deeply involved in such a challenging field has tremendously expanded and, within such a panorama, EC and SS investigations are intimately combined in a huge number of papers. The aim of this Special Issue is to offer an open access forum where researchers in the field of electrochemistry, surface science, and materials science could outline the great advances that can be reached by exploiting EC-SS approaches. Papers addressing both the basic science and more applied issues in the field of EC-SS and energy conversion and storage materials have been published in this Special Issue.

Keywords

electrosynthesis --- switchable surfaces --- alkoxyamine surfaces --- redox monolayers --- porphyrins --- self-assembly --- surface nanostructures --- in situ EC-STM --- metal-electrolyte interface --- potential-dependent structures --- combined non-covalent control --- ECALE --- CdS --- silver single crystals --- alkanthiols --- SAMs --- EQCM --- AES --- polypyrrole --- diazonium salts --- flexible ITO --- adhesion --- redox properties --- X-ray absorption spectroscopy --- energy dispersive --- quick-XAS --- FEXRAV --- free electron laser --- electrochemistry --- photoelectrochemistry --- photochemistry --- pump & --- probe --- oxygen evolution reaction --- water splitting --- iridium --- thin-films --- spin-coating --- model systems --- electrocatalysts --- oxygen evolution reaction --- iridium --- nickel --- electrodeposition --- model catalyst --- water oxidation --- CO oxidation --- DFT --- hydrogen adsorption --- Pt–Ru catalysts --- ordered mesoporous carbons --- graphitization --- CO oxidation --- methanol oxidation --- direct methanol fuel cells --- electrocatalysis --- catalysts --- methanol oxidation reaction --- graphene --- DMFC --- Pt --- SOFC --- cathode --- XAFS --- in situ --- cobalt oxide --- water oxidation --- photo-electrochemistry --- hydroxyl radical --- electro-oxidation --- Lead OPD --- surface alloy --- XPS --- UPS --- EF-PEEM --- ORR --- Platinum --- PVDF --- PEMFC --- in situ ambient pressure XPS --- hard X rays --- photoelectron simulations --- solid/liquid interface --- TiO2 --- APTES --- Cu(111) --- electrochemical interface --- in-situ X-ray diffraction --- carbon nanofiber --- porous fiber --- electrospinning --- mesopore --- micropore --- porogen --- ammonia activation --- surface area --- methanol oxidation --- platinum single crystals --- pH and concentration effects --- adsorbed OH --- reduced graphene oxide --- electrophoretic deposition --- surface chemistry --- click chemistry --- gold --- palladium --- bimetallic alloy --- carbon nanofibers (CNFs) --- cyclic voltammetry (CV) --- Surface Modification --- Blackening of Steel --- Magnetite --- Corrosion Protection --- Auger-Electron Spectroscopy --- Ordered mesoporous carbon --- nitrogen doping --- cobalt-based electrocatalyst --- bifunctional oxygen electrode --- solvothermal method --- underpotential deposition (upd) --- Au --- Pt --- Pd --- nanoparticles --- cyclic voltammetry --- electrocatalysis --- operando --- near ambient pressure XPS --- scanning photoelectron microscopy --- solid oxide fuel cells --- surface science --- electrodeposited alloys --- CO electro-oxidation --- Pt single-crystal electrodes --- potential cycling --- potential stepping --- surface reconstruction --- electrocatalysis --- oxygen reduction --- ORR --- gas diffusion electrode --- platinum --- fuel cells --- thin-films --- benchmarking --- mass transport --- formic acid oxidation --- Au nanocrystals --- Pd thin films --- electrocatalysis --- d-band theory --- polymer --- silicon nanoparticles --- EPR spectroscopy --- photoconversion --- n/a

Enzyme-Mediated Stereoselective Synthesis

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ISBN: 9783039219360 / 9783039219377 Year: Pages: 116 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-937-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General) --- Inorganic Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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This book is a collection of studies focused on the exploitation of enzyme stereoselectivity for the synthesis of relevant chemicals, such as innovative materials, chiral building blocks, natural products, and flavor and fragrance compounds. Different catalytic approaches are reported. The first study describes a resolution-based process for the stereoselective synthesis of the enantiomeric forms of the flavor compound linaloyl oxide, whereas other enantiomeric enriched aroma compounds were obtained through a novel microbial approach based on solid-state fermentation. Two relevant works exploit the potential of the biocatalyzed reduction reactions. The first of these contributions describes the enantioselective synthesis of ?-nitroalcohols by enzyme-mediated reduction of ?-nitroketones, whereas a second contribution reports the preparation of chiral 1,4-diaryl-1,4-diols through ADH-catalyzed bioreduction of the corresponding diketones. Concerning enantioenriched alcohol derivatives, natural hydroxy fatty acids are prepared by means of the biocatalytic hydration reaction of natural fatty acids using the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus as a whole-cell biocatalyst. Further studies describe the use of modified pullulan polysaccharide for lipase immobilization and the recent advances in synthetic applications of ?-transaminases for the production of chiral amines.

Hydroxyapatite - Advances in Composite Nanomaterials, Biomedical Applications and Its Technological Facets

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ISBN: 9789535138044 9789535138051 9789535140719 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68820 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Inorganic Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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The goal of this book is to provide readers with a broad appraisal of topics in global advancements in theoretical and experimental facts, and practical applications of nano-HAp materials based on their synthesis, properties, prospects, and potential biomedical treatments. The perspective of this book involves the preparation of crystalline nano-HAP materials including preferential orientation, various properties and new prospects in biomimetics, bone tissue infections, biomedical implants, regenerative medicinal treatments and a wide range of technological applications. This book is categorized into two main sections: Hydroxyapatite: synthesis, properties, perspectives, and prospects; and the application of hydroxyapatite: a synergistic outlook. Individual chapters provide a base for a wide range of readers from diversified fields, including students and researchers, who will find in this book simply explained basics as well as advanced techniques of specific subjects related to these phenomena. The book is made up of nine contributions, compiled by experts from wide-ranging fields involved in biomaterials/materials in science and technology from over 15 research institutes across the globe.

Inorganic Fullerene-like Nanoparticles and Inorganic Nanotubes

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ISBN: 9783038421504 9783038421498 Year: Pages: 212 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Inorganic Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-20 15:09:08
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The subjects of the presented papers cover a wide range of challenges in the area of inorganic fullerene-like nanoparticles and nanotubes. However, it can include only a few comprehensive experimental and theoretical efforts, stepwise evaluating the rationalization of the synthesis, and elucidation of the stability, mechanical, electronic and adhesive properties of these nanostructures. We believe that this thematic issue can be helpful, not only for an advanced researcher to grasp the latest developments in this field, but also to permit a beginner to gain a deeper insight into the field of inorganic fullerene-like nanoparticles and nanotubes.

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