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"One rotten apple spoils the whole barrel": The plant hormone ethylene, the small molecule and its complexity

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196234 Year: Pages: 132 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-623-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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The gaseous molecule ethylene (C2H4), which is small in size and simple in structure, is a plant hormone most often associated with fruit ripening yet has a diversity of effects throughout the plant life cycle. While its agricultural effects were known even in ancient Egypt, the complexity of its mode of action and the broad spectrum of its effects and potential uses in plant physiology remain important scientific challenges today. In the last few decades, the biochemical pathway of ethylene production has been uncovered, ethylene perception and signaling have been molecularly dissected, ethylene-responsive transcription factors have been identified and numerous effects of ethylene have been described, ranging from water stress, development, senescence, reproduction plant-pathogen interactions, and of course, ripening. Thus ethylene is involved in plant development, in biotic and abiotic stress, and in reproduction. There is no stage in plant life that is not affected by ethylene, modulated by a complex and fascinating molecular machinery.

Abiotic Stress Response in Plants - Physiological, Biochemical and Genetic Perspectives

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ISBN: 9789533076720 Year: Pages: 360 DOI: 10.5772/1762 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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Plants, unlike animals, are sessile. This demands that adverse changes in their environment are quickly recognized, distinguished and responded to with suitable reactions. Drought, heat, cold and salinity are among the major abiotic stresses that adversely affect plant growth and productivity. In general, abiotic stress often causes a series of morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular changes that unfavorably affect plant growth, development and productivity. Drought, salinity, extreme temperatures (cold and heat) and oxidative stress are often interrelated; these conditions singularly or in combination induce cellular damage. To cope with abiotic stresses, of paramount significance is to understand plant responses to abiotic stresses that disturb the homeostatic equilibrium at cellular and molecular level in order to identify a common mechanism for multiple stress tolerance. This multi authored edited compilation attempts to put forth an all-inclusive biochemical and molecular picture in a systems approach wherein mechanism and adaptation aspects of abiotic stress are dealt with. The chief objective of the book hence is to deliver state of the art information for comprehending the effects of abiotic stress in plants at the cellular level.

Abiotic Stress Signaling in Plants: Functional Genomic Intervention

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198917 Year: Pages: 636 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-891-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Abiotic stresses such as high temperature, low-temperature, drought and salinity limit crop productivity worldwide. Understanding plant responses to these stresses is essential for rational engineering of crop plants. In Arabidopsis, the signal transduction pathways for abiotic stresses, light, several phytohormones and pathogenesis have been elucidated. A significant portion of plant genomes (Arabidopsis and rice were mostly studied) encodes for proteins involves in signaling such as receptor, sensors, kinases, phosphatases, transcription factors and transporters/channels. Despite decades of physiological and molecular effort, knowledge pertaining to how plants sense and transduce low and high temperature, low-water availability (drought), water-submergence, microgravity and salinity signals is still a major question for plant biologist. One major constraint hampering our understanding of these signal transduction processes in plants has been the lack or slow pace of application of molecular genomic and genetics knowledge in the form of gene function. In the post-genomic era, one of the major challenges is investigation and understanding of multiple genes and gene families regulating a particular physiological and developmental aspect of plant life cycle. One of the important physiological processes is regulation of stress response, which leads to adaptation or adjustment in response to adverse stimuli. With the holistic understanding of the signaling pathways involving not only one gene family but multiple genes or gene families, plant biologist can lay a foundation for designing and generating future crops, which can withstand the higher degree of environmental stresses (especially abiotic stresses, which are the major cause of crop loss throughout the world) without losing crop yield and productivity. Therefore, in this e-Book, we intend to incorporate the contribution from leading plant biologists to elucidate several aspects of stress signaling by functional genomics approaches.

Abiotic Stress: Molecular Genetics and Genomics

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193592 Year: Pages: 101 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-359-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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Abiotic stresses are the major cause that limits productivity of crop plants worldwide. Plants have developed intricate machinery to respond and adapt over these adverse environmental conditions both at physiological and molecular levels. Due to increasing problems of abiotic stresses, plant biotechnologists and breeders need to employ new approaches to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Although current research has divulged several key genes, gene regulatory networks and quantitative trait loci that mediate plant responses to various abiotic stresses, the comprehensive understanding of this complex trait is still not available. This e-book is focused on molecular genetics and genomics approaches to understand the plant response/adaptation to various abiotic stresses. It includes different types of articles (original research, method, opinion and review) that provide current insights into different aspects of plant responses and adaptation to abiotic stresses.

Abiotic Stresses in Agroecology: A Challenge for Whole Plant Physiology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452040 Year: Pages: 177 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-204-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Understanding plant responses to abiotic stresses is central to our ability to predict the impact of global change and environmental pollution on the production of food, feed and forestry. Besides increasing carbon dioxide concentration and rising global temperature, increasingly frequent and severe climatic events (e.g. extended droughts, heat waves, flooding) are expected in the coming decades. Additionally, pollution (e.g. heavy metals, gaseous pollutants such as ozone or sulfur dioxide) is an important factor in many regions, decreasing plant productivity and product quality. This Research topic focuses on stress responses at the level of whole plants, addressing biomass-related processes (development of the root system, root respiration/fermentation, leaf expansion, stomatal regulation, photosynthetic capacity, leaf senescence, yield) and interactions between organs (transport via xylem and phloem, long-distance signaling and secondary metabolites). Comparisons between species and between varieties of the same species are helpful to evaluate the potential for species selection and genetic improvement. This research topic is focused on the following abiotic stresses and interactions between them: - Increased carbon dioxide concentration in ambient air is an important parameter influenced by global change and affects photosynthesis, stomatal regulation, plant growth and finally yield. - Elevated temperature: both the steady rise in average temperature and extreme events of shorter duration (heat waves) must be considered in the context of alterations in carbon balance through increased photorespiration, decreased Rubisco activation and carboxylation efficiency, damage to photosynthetic apparatus, as well as loss of water via transpiration and stomatal sensitivity. - Low temperatures (late frosts, prolonged cold phases, freezing temperature) can decrease overwintering survival rates, productivity of crop plants and species composition in meadows. - Water availability: More frequent, severe and extended drought periods have been predicted by climate change models. The timing and duration of a drought period is crucial to determining plant responses, particularly if the drought event coincides with an increase in temperature. Drought causes stomatal closure, decreasing the cooling potential of transpiration and potentially leading to thermal stress as leaf temperature rises. Waterlogging may become also more relevant during the next decades and is especially important for seedlings and young plants. It is not the presence of water itself that causes the stress, but the exclusion of oxygen from the soil which causes a decrease in respiration and an increase in fermentation rates followed by a period of potential oxidative stress as water recedes. - Salinity: high salt concentration in soil influences soil water potential, the water status of the plant and hence affects productivity. Salt tolerance will become an important trait driven by increased competition for land and the need to exploit marginal lands.

Active Ingredients from Aromatic and Medicinal Plants

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ISBN: 9789535129752 9789535129769 Year: Pages: 282 DOI: 10.5772/67161 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Recently, new compounds from medicinal plants were discovered, and they were used as anti-severe diseases. Therefore, this book covers interested research topics dealing with isolation, purification, and identification of active ingredients from wild and medicinal plants. This discovery will lead to an increase in the global pharmaceutical market as well as open such new gate for medicinal plant research. This book will add significant information to medical researchers and can be used for postgraduate students.

Advances and Trends in Development of Plant Factories

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451395 Year: Pages: 203 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-139-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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The plant factory is a facility that aids the steady production of high-quality vegetables all year round by artificially controlling the cultivation environment (e.g., light, temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide concentration, and culture solution), allowing growers to plan production. By controlling theinternal environment,plant factories can produce vegetables about two to four times faster than by typical outdoor cultivation. In addition, as multiple cultivation shelves (a multi-shelf system) are used, the mass production of vegetables in a small space is facilitated. This research topic presents some new trends on intelligent measuring systems; environment controlled and optimization; favonoids; phenylpropanoids, transcriptomes, and bacteria.

Advances in Agrophysical Research

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ISBN: 9789535111849 Year: Pages: 410 DOI: 10.5772/3341 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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The idea of this book was born due to the rapid increase of the interest in excellence of agricultural production in the aspect of both – the quality of raw material for food production as well as in the aspect of environment protection. Agrophysics is a field of science that focuses on the quality of agriculture as a whole i.e. the interaction between human and environment, especially the interaction between soil, plant, atmosphere and machine. Physics with its laws, principles and rules is a good tool for description of the interactions, as well as of the results of these interactions. Some aspects of chemistry, biology and other fields of science are also taken under consideration. This interdisciplinary approach can result in holistic description of processes which should lead to improvement of the efficiency of obtaining the raw materials to ensure a sufficient amount of food, safe for human health. This book could be regarded as the contribution to this description. The reader can find some basic as well, as more particular aspects of the contemporary agriculture, starting with the soil characteristics and treatment, plant growth and agricultural products’ properties and processing.

Advances in Biology and Ecology of Nitrogen Fixation

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ISBN: 9789535112167 9789535142386 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.5772/56990 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Biological nitrogen fixation has essential role in N cycle in global ecosystem. Several types of nitrogen fixing bacteria are recognized: the free-living bacteria in soil or water; symbiotic bacteria making root nodules in legumes or non-legumes; associative nitrogen fixing bacteria that resides outside the plant roots and provides fixed nitrogen to the plants; endophytic nitrogen fixing bacteria living in the roots, stems and leaves of plants. In this book there are 11 chapters related to biological nitrogen fixation, regulation of legume-rhizobium symbiosis, and agriculture and ecology of biological nitrogen fixation, including new models for autoregulation of nodulation in legumes, endophytic nitrogen fixation in sugarcane or forest trees, etc. Hopefully, this book will contribute to biological, ecological, and agricultural sciences.

Advances in Legume Research

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456321 Year: Pages: 609 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-632-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Legumes crops have an extraordinary importance for the agriculture and the environment. In a world urgently requiring more sustainable agriculture, food security and healthier diets the demand for legume crops is on the rise. The International Legume Society (http://ils.nsseme.com) organizes a triannual series of conferences with the goal to serve as a forum to discuss interdisciplinary progress on legume research. The Second International Legume Society Conference (ILS2) hosted in October 2016 at Troia, Portugal was the starting point for the Research Topic “Advances in Legume Research” in FiPS, that was also open to spontaneous submissions.

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