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Subjects Earth and Environmental Sciences Oceanography

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Acoustical Impact of Ships and Harbours: Airborne and Underwater N&V Pollution

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457106 Year: Pages: 57 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-710-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Oceanography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Noise and vibrations generated by ships affect a wide range of receivers: crew and passengers inside the vessel, inhabitants of the coastal areas and marine fauna outside it. Recent studies suggest that a large percentage of people living in urban areas close to harbors and a number of marine species, at different evolutionary levels (in particular mammals and cephalopods), suffer from ship N&V emissions in air and in water. The present degree of knowledge of the phenomena involved in the noise emissions inside and outside ships is quite different, as a result also of the time elapsed since the negative effects were realized and therefore studied. The development of the normative framework in the various areas reflects these differences, but there are expectations for improvements on all fronts that need to be supported by the scientific community presenting the latest research results in this particular field of acoustics.

Beyond the Iron Age: The ecological relevance of bioactive trace metals other than Fe and organic growth factors in aquatic systems

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195466 Year: Pages: 109 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-546-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General) --- Oceanography
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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In the last three decades, research has extensively focused on the role of Fe and other mineral nutrients in regulating biological processes, ranging from the surface to the deep ocean. This has produced major breakthroughs in our understanding of the fundamental role of those bioactive elements on the carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycles and ecosystem function. However, biological processes cannot be entirely sustained by that small set of chemical elements, and new scientific evidence suggests that trace metals other than Fe (e.g., Co, Mo and Ni) as well as essential organic growth factors (e.g., vitamins) may also be crucial in most aquatic systems.

Bridging the Gap Between Policy and Science in Assessing the Health Status of Marine Ecosystems, 2nd Edition

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451265 Year: Pages: 546 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-126-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oceanography --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Marine management requires approaches which bring together the best research from the natural and social sciences. It requires stakeholders to be well-informed by science and to work across administrative and geographical boundaries, a feature especially important in the inter-connected marine environment. Marine management must ensure that the natural structure and functioning of ecosystems is maintained to provide ecosystem services. Once those marine ecosystem services have been created, they deliver societal goods as long as society inputs its skills, time, money and energy to gather those benefits. However, if societal goods and benefits are to be limitless, society requires appropriate administrative, legal and management mechanisms to ensure that the use of such benefits do not impact on environmental quality, but instead support its sustainable use.

Challenges and Opportunities for the EU Common Fisheries Policy Application in the Mediterranean and Black Sea

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456840 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-684-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oceanography --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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The application of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) in the Mediterranean and Black Sea faces several challenges also because of large ecological, economic, political and institutional differences across the basin. The challenge of CFP application is exacerbated by the legal/administrative situation, with large areas outside national/EU jurisdictions, by the different development of fisheries that result in fleet capacities highly different on opposite shores of some sub-basins, as well as by uneven monitoring and data availability across the basins that result in situations that hamper sustainable management. This book collates analyses related to the application of the principles included in the CFP in Mediterranean and Black Sea, including assessments of current status, scenario analyses, visions of best solutions, evaluation of critical hot spots and effects of regionalization of fisheries management. The eBook tackles from local to transboundary issues and solutions and provides a broad vision of problems together with important practical solutions for CFP application in the Mediterranean and Black Sea.

Coastal Environment, Disaster, and Infrastructure - A Case Study of China's Coastline

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781789843934 9781789843941 Year: Pages: 296 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.79950 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Oceanography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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The coastal environment is deteriorating at an alarming rate and is currently a great societal concern. This book provides a selected collection of papers on coastal environmental change, coastal disasters, and coastal infrastructure due to global warming, with a focus on the coasts of the rapidly developing country China. What makes the book distinctly different from others is its diversity, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of coastal problems. With contributions from over 30 authors, the book is a comprehensive account of diverse topics, such as coastal upwelling, estuarine processes, coastal pollution, sea level rise, meteorological and atmospheric problems, urbanization and the heat island effect, and coastal infrastructure, to name just a few, from theoretical study and phenomenological description, to methodological development. This book is expected to serve as a relatively comprehensive reference for coastal researchers, graduate students, as well as policymakers and coastal resource managers.

The Economics of Protected Marine Species: Concepts in Research and Management

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199907 Year: Pages: 133 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-990-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Oceanography
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Protected marine species have populations that are depleted, decreasing, or are at-risk of extinction or local extirpation. As of 2015 The International Union for the Conservation of Nature, a global environmental organization, lists approximately 737 marine species worldwide that are considered at risk of extinction. Many are provided legal protection through national laws requiring research and management measures aimed at recovering and maintaining the species at a sustainable population level. Integral to the policy decision process involving the management and recovery of marine species is the consideration of trade-offs between the economic and ecological costs and benefits of protection. This suggests that economics, at its core the study of trade-offs, has a significant role.

Effects of Climate Change Across Ocean Regions

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455027 Year: Pages: 169 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-502-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Oceanography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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The IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) highlighted that conditions within Earth’s ocean are changing more rapidly than any of the time during the past 65 million years, and as a consequence, major changes are occurring in natural and human systems. While this major report as enhanced our understanding of the complexity of ocean issues, we propose this research topic as an opportunity to expand discussion on past, present and future changes across oceans regions.

Fishing for Human Perceptions in Coastal and Island Marine Resource Use Systems

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454594 Year: Pages: 175 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-459-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Oceanography
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Human perceptions, decision-making and (pro-) environmental behaviour are closely connected. This Research Topic focuses on bringing together perceptions and behaviour for sustainable coastal and island marine resource use systems. Management and governance of (large and small-scale) coastal marine resource use systems function in highly complex social and ecological environments, which are culturally embedded, economically interest-led and politically biased. Management processes therefore have to integrate multiple perspectives as well as perception-driven standpoints on the individual as well as the decision-makers’ levels. Consequently, the analysis of perceptions has developed not only as part of philosophy and psychology but also of environmental science, anthropology and human geography. It encompasses intuitions, values, attitudes, thoughts, mind-sets, place attachments and sense of place. All of these influence human behavior and action, and are collected or are available within the respective marine resource use system, which may support the livelihood of a large part of the local population. Management and governance are not only about mediating between resource use conflicts or establishing marine protected areas, they deal with people and their ideas and perceptions. Understanding the related decision-making processes on multiple scales and levels hence means much more than economically assessing the available marine resources or existing threats to the associated system. Over the past decade, there has been a growing inter- and transdisciplinary international community becoming interested in research which integrates perceptions of coastal and inland residents, local and regional stakeholder groups, as well as resource and environmental managers and decision-makers. By acknowledging the importance of the individual perspective and interest-led personal views, it became obvious how valuable and important these sources of information are for coastal research. An increase of research effort spent on the link between perceptions and behaviour in marine resource use systems is thus both timely and needed. By offering a diversity of inspiring and comprehensive contributions on the link between perceptions and behaviour, this Research Topic aspires to critically enlighten the discourse and applicability of such research for finding sustainable, locally identified, anchored and integrated marine resource use pathways.

The Future of Coral Reefs Subject to Rapid Climate Change: Lessons from Natural Extreme Environments

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457175 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-717-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Oceanography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Examination of corals and reef-associated organisms which endure in extreme coral reef environments is challenging our understanding of the conditions that organisms can survive under. By studying individuals naturally adapted to unfavorable conditions, we begin to better understand the important traits required to survive rapid environmental and climate change. This Research Topic, comprising reviews, and original research articles, demonstrates the current state of knowledge regarding the diversity of extreme coral habitats, the species that have been studied, and the knowledge to-date on the mechanisms, traits and trade-offs that have facilitated survival.

Impact of Aerosols (Saharan Dust and Mixed) on the East Mediterranean Oligotrophic Ecosystem; Results from Experimental Studies

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453191 Year: Pages: 207 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-319-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Oceanography
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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In oligotrophic environments, dust and nutrient inputs via atmospheric routes are considered important sources of macro-nutrients and micro-trace metals fuelling primary and secondary production. Yet, the impact of these dust inputs on the microbial populations is not fully investigated in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS). The response of oligotrophic systems to dust inputs, whether as positive or negative feedbacks to autotrophic and heterotrophic production and thus to biogeochemical cycling, is important to examine further. Experimental studies have explored nutrient additions in various combinations to determine the limiting resource to productivity or N2 fixation. Recent experimental studies have applied dust enrichments to bottle or mesocosm incubations of seawater from different oceanic regions. This research topic presents two Eastern Mediterranean dust addition mesocosm experiments using, for the first time, real aerosol additions, pure Saharan dust and mixed aerosols (a natural mixture of desert dust and polluted European particles), as well as other EMS aerosol experimental studies. The Topic includes manuscripts introducing results on: a) the impact of Saharan dust vs mixed aerosols on the autotrophic and heterotrophic surface microbial populations in the EMS, b) the impact of single vs multi-pulses of Saharan dust introduction into the pelagic environment of the EMS and c) other experimental studies of aerosol impacts on the EMS ecosystem.

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